Internal security is the security of country within its borders.
- Maintenance of peace and law and order.
- Upholding sovereignty of country within its borders.
- Responsibility of Police and state government and Ministry of Home affairs.
External Security is security against aggression by a foreign country.
- Responsibility of armed forces and Ministry of Defense .
Four Kinds of threats to any state as per Kautilya: –
- Internally aided external
- Externally aided internal
Due to fast globalization, modern communications, distinction between security threat is not possible. Now all types of security threats has to be seen through mix prism of above 4 types.
Attributes of Internal Security:-
- Secure territorial integrity and internal sovereignty
- Maintain domestic peace and law and order
- Rule of law and equality before law
- Absence of fear
- Peaceful coexistence and communal harmony
Understanding of Attribute of Internal Security :-
1. Territorial integrity is the principle under international law that nation-states should not attempt to promote secessionist movements or to promote border changes in other nation-states.
2. Sovereignty meaning holding supreme, independent authority over a region or state.
Internal Sovereignty refers to the internal affairs of the state and the location of supreme power within it.
3. law and order :- a situation characterized by respect for and obedience to the rules of a society.
4. Communal Harmony refers to the harmony, acceptance and love among the people of various communities belonging to different castes, races and religion.
5. Communal Harmony is the most important pre-condition for feeling of Unity and National Integration in India
6. Equality Before law:-
- Its Fundamental right.
- It ensure the guarantees to every person the right to equality before law & equal protection of the laws .it is not only right of Indian citizens but also right of citizens .
- Article 14 says “The state shall of India.” article 14 define no one is above the law.
Major challenges to Internal security
- International and domestic terrorism
- J&K militancy and terrorism
- Insurgency in Northeast
- LWE – Left wing Extremism
- Caste and ethnic tension
- Regionalism and Inter-state disputes
- Cyber Crime and Cyber Security
- Border Management
- Coastal Security
Understanding of Definitions:-
- Attempts to construct religious or ethnic identity
- Incite strife between people identified as different communities
- To stimulate communal violence between those groups.
- It derives from history, differences in beliefs, and tensions between the communities.
- Theory or practice of regional rather than central systems of administration or economic, cultural, or political affiliation.
- A linguistic feature peculiar to a particular region and not part of the standard language of a country.
- Cyber security is the body of technologies, processes and practices designed to protect networks, computers, programs and data from attack, damage or unauthorized access.
Factors Responsible for Internal Security
- Pre- Independence Issues :-
- Unfriendly neighbors and porous borders
- Administrative failures :-
- Inequality and Inequitable growth
- Governance deficit
- Partisan Politics :-
- Communal Divide
- Caste awareness and Caste tensions
- Governance Deficit :-
- Politics of language ethnicity sects and son of soil
- Poor Justice system
- Porous borders
- Declared policy of Pakistan’s ISI ‘ to bleed India through a thousand Cuts.
- Central and State government Co-ordination
- Robust Intelligence
- Robust Cyber Security Architecture – Theater of modern Warfare
- Good Governance
- Better Border Management