Right to equality  

Right to equality  

Art 14 : Law 

  • Equal before law  
    • Negative
    • English const
    • Absence of any privileges
    • Law is supreme authority – govt subjected to law
    • Art 361 (exception for president and governor)
    • Dicey
      • No punishment unless law violated
      • Every one equal before law without discrimination
      • Law is the superior – const is superior in India
    • From Rex Lex to Lex Rex
  • Equal protection of law 
    • Positive
    • American const
    • Equitable treatment
    • reservation to push backward ppl up
    • Treat likes alike, alikes not to be treated like


Art 15: Discrimination 

  • No discrimination on the grounds of RRSCP
  • Equal access to public places
  • Women and children exception – reservation for Women
  • Spc provision for edu and soc backward – SC ST
  • Reservation for BC – edu
  • Transgender rights reserved

Art 16: Employment Opportunity 

  • Equal opportunity in public employment
  • No discrimination on RRSCP + descents + residence
  • Exception for residence and descendants discrimination in some cases
  • Vertical reservation
    • Max reservation to be 50%
    • Additional reservation extended to women, military, sports etc..
  • Horizontal reservation
    • Reservation within reservation
  • Reservation to be state discretion – enabling clause
  • Indra Swahney VS UOI 1992
  • Carry forward policy for SC ST

Art 17: Untouchability 

  • Removed
  • Punishable
  • Renamed to Civil rights Act
  • Read about SC ST atrocities act

Art 18: Titles and rewards 

  • Except awards and edu degrees, nothing to be displayed

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