Right to Freedom 

Right to Freedom

Art 19(1) – Democratic rights

  1. Speech and expression 
  • Art 19(1)(a) and Art 21 – inalienable disjunct
  • Express your view, right to listen, any communicable medium
  • Express others view
  • Right to know
  • Press freedom
  • Elect/reject candidate based on informed choices
  • Dissent – criticize govt
  • ITA 2000 – Sec 66A – chilling effect
  • Defamation – criminal and civil offense
    • Restrictions
      1. Security of state,
      2. sovereignty and integrity of India
      3. Relations with a foreign country
      4. Public order
      5. Morality And Decency
      6. Contempt of court
      7. Defamation

 

  1. Assemble
  • Corollary of 19(1)(a)
  • Assemble anywhere without arms – meeting and procession
  1. Association
  • Form association, cooperatives, union
  • Not avail to military, armed forces
  • Strike is illegal, but not hartal
  1. Movement
  • Whenever, wherever , however
  1. Settle/reside
  • Settle anywhere within country
  • Strengthen unity and territorial integrity and promote fraternity
  • ILPS for NE states – Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Nagaland
  1. Property – repealed
  2. Occupation
  • Practice any occupation but with qualification
  • State can take over for public interest
  • Complementary of Art 301 – to anyone – co operative federalism

 

Art 20: Conviction for offense 

  • Ex post facto
    • No retrospective
    • Only for criminal and not for civil and tax
  • Double jeopardy
    • Only to criminal courts and tribunals and not to civil and exe
    • No punishing twice
    • Cri + civil – two diff punishments
  • Self incrimination
    • No compulsion of self evidence to police
    • Voluntary confession ok to judiciary
    • Specimens can be forced – doesn’t make difference
    • No lie detector, violates privacy

Art 21: Life 

  • Fundamental of all FR
  • Live with dignity
  • Principles of natural justice – basic str, eliminate arbitrariness, fairness
  • Procedure established with law
    • Available only against arbitrary action of exe and not legislative
  • Due process of law (American const)
    • Arbitrary action of both exe and legislature
  • Suicide is criminal offense  – decriminalized (mental health care bill)
  • Die with dignity
  • Euthanasia – passive and active – voluntary, involuntary, non voluntary
    • Passive – prolong life
    • Active – end life
    • Aruna Shanbaug case vs UOI 2014
    • Passive legal with court’s authority
    • Active illegal
  • Advance consent to practise euthanasia
  • Santhara

Art 21A : Education 

  • 6 to 14yrs – free and compulsory edu by state

Criticism:

  • Right to schooling but not RTE
  • Centre State uncertain over financial responsibility
  • Perf based evaluation – teachers not trained and skilled
  • Auto promotion to next std

Art 22: Protection against Detention 

  • Punitive
    • Know grounds
    • Official record
    • No suspicion detention
    • Access to legal dept
    • Court within 24 hrs
    • Not detain any more time than sentenced
  • Preventive
    • 3 months max
    • Need permission for further
  • Under trials
    • Fast track courts
    • Mitigation
    • Grant bail if half term over already
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