Jyotiba Phule

  • Born: 11 April, 1827
  • Passed Away: 28 November, 1890
  • Originally Jyotirao’s family belonged to ‘mali’ caste, considered as inferior by the Brahmins.
  • Jyotiba Phule devoted his entire life for the liberation of untouchables from the exploitation of Brahmins.
  • He revolted against the tyranny of the upper castes.


  • Jyotiba Phule was one of the prominent social reformers of the nineteenth century India.
  • He led the movement against the prevailing caste-restrictions in India.
  • He revolted against the domination of the Brahmins and for the rights of peasants and other low-caste fellow.
  • Jyotiba Phule was believed to be the first Hindu to start an orphanage for the unfortunate children.


  • In 1848, Jyotirao was insulted at a wedding as he belonged to inferior caste and then he made up his mind to defy the prevailing caste-system and social restrictions.
  • He then started his campaign of serving the people of lower caste who were deprived of all their rights as human beings.
  • The orthodox Brahmins of the society blamed him for vitiating the norms and regulations of the society.
  • Jyotirao attacked the orthodox Brahmins and other upper castes and termed them as “hypocrites”.
  • He campaigned against the authoritarianism of the upper caste people. He urged the “peasants” and “proletariat” to defy the restrictions imposed upon them.
  • Jyotiba established a girls’ school and asked his wife to teach the girls in the school.
  • Jyotirao, later, opened two more schools for the girls and an indigenous school for the lower castes, especially the Mahars and Mangs.
  • Viewing the pathetic condition of widows and unfortunate children Jyotirao established an orphanage in 1854.

 Satya Shodhak Samaj 

  • Jyotirao blamed the Brahmins for framing the weird and inhuman laws. He concluded that the laws were made to suppress the “shudras” and rule over them.
  • In 1873, Jyotiba Phule formed the Satya Shodhak Samaj (Society of Seekers of Truth).
  • The purpose of the organization was to liberate the people of lower-castes from the suppression of the Brahmins.