Minerals of India



Ferrous – Iron, manganese

Non Ferrous – Cu, Bauxite

Non Metallic 

Fuel – Coal, Oil, petroleum

Others – mica, limestone, granite

Iron ore 

  • India has largest reserve in Asia
  • Haematite and magnetite
    • Northern Orissa – Rourkela steel plant (German collaboration)
    • Jharkand – Jamshedpur , Bokaro steel plant (Russian collaboration)
    • Chattisgarh – Bhilai steel plant (Russian collaboration)
    • Western WB – Durgapur steel plant (UK Collaboration)
    •  Goa


  • Iron Vs Steel

    • Iron is an element while steel is an alloy.
    • Steel is a derivative of iron.
    • Steel is actually made by mixing iron with carbon; hence it is a byproduct of iron
    • The iron that contains less than 2% of carbon is called steel whereas which contain more than 2% of carbon is known as pig iron


  • Raw material for smelting of iron and used for manufacturing ferro alloys
    • Orissa
    • Karnataka
    • Maharashtra


  • ore used in the manufacturing of Aluminium
  • Found in tertiary deposits
  • Associated with laterite rocks
    • Orissa – Kalahandi and Sambalpur
    • Jharkhand
    • Chattisgarh
    • MP


  • Making wires, electric motors, generators, transformers
  • Mixed with gold for strength
  • Alloy able, malleable, ductile
    • Jharkhand – Singhbhum
    • MP
    • RJ


  • Used in electrical and electronics industries
    • Jharkhand
    • Andhra – Nellore
    • Rajasthan


  • Generation of thermal power and smelting of iron ore
  • Bituminous type and non coking grade
    • Damodar Valley – Jharkhand Bengal belt
      • Raniganj
      • Jharia
      • Bokaro
    • TN – Brown coal/brown diamond/Lignite


  • Liquid gold
  • Automobiles, railways, aircrafts
  • Byproducts are used in soaps, wax, lubricants, vaseline etc..
    • Assam – Digboi
    • Gujarat
    • Mumbai high
    • KG Basin
    • Kaveri Basin
  • Oil needs to be refined
    • Field Based – Digboi, Assam
    • Market Based – Barauni, Bihar

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