The Naga insurgency has been a major threat to India’s security and integrity and can destabilize multiple states in north-eastern India. Elaborate. Also discuss various measures taken by the governments in handling the issue.


Introduce the issue of Naga insurgency.

Explain its impact on security of India as well as that in northeastern states.

Provide measures undertaken by Government especially Naga peace accord.

Conclude appropriately.

Model Answer :

Ever since Indian Independence, the Naga Insurgency has taken many forms, including the demands for secessionism to wanton violence. The Naga Insurgency at present is driven by demand for Independent Nation – Greater Nagaland or Nagalim.

Impact on India’s security:

Violence: Thousands of lives have been lost due to violence in the region.

Secessionism: It also influences other Secessionist movements like Kuki insurgents, Bodo rebels and ULFA (Assam), HNLC (Meghalaya), NLFT (Tripura) etc in many states

Collaboration with hostile nations – There has been international collaboration with hostile countries like China, Pakistan, and Myanmar.

Extortion industry is thriving leading to loss of confidence in law and order situation.

Impact on other NE states:

Those demanding Naga nation seek to assert claims to the Naga inhabited areas of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam and Manipur and even in Myanmar. The violence and secessionist movements influenced similar groups and tactics in other NE states, destabilizing them.

Measures taken by governments at various levels:

1. Security related measures:

oUAPA: Many militant/insurgent groups declared as terrorist organization under UAPA – Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967.

oAFSPA: Most of NE declared as ‘Disturbed Areas’ under the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958.

oCAPF: Deployment of Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs).

Surrender and Rehabilitation Policy: Onetime payment and vocational training.

2. Center’s assistance to States:

Assistance for additional battalions: Sanction of India Reserve (IR) battalions, setting up of Counter Insurgency and Anti Terrorism (CIAT) schools;

Scheme for Modernization of State Police Forces (MPF scheme).

3. Border Management:

Deployment of Assam Rifles along the Myanmar border and strengthening border fencing.

4. Development related measures:

Infrastructure creation- Road, Rail, Telecom, Power and Waterways sectors

Agriculture – Horticulture promotion, Organic Farming etc.

Employment – Capacity building, Tourism, Skills training and industrial development.

Act East Policy- to link ASEAN with our North East.

5. Attempts for political solution:

Tripartite Naga Accord signed in 2015

Greater autonomy and decentralization

Special provisions like VI Schedule, Article 371 C for Manipur, Hill Councils etc.

Naga Accord has given opportunity for peace and stability in region, which can be utilized for development so that people can be weaned away from insurgency and illegal activities. At the same time more clarity can be brought regarding Naga peace accord to allay fears of neighboring states.

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