What were the factors due to which the industrial revolution had first started in England? (10 marks)

What were the factors due to which the industrial revolution had first started in England? (10 marks)


  • Introduce with what industrial revolution is
  • Describe the factors that led to industrial revolution in England like need, innovation, availability of raw material and labour etc.
  • Conclude appropriately
Model Answer :

Model Answer:

The term industrial revolution refers to changes brought about by the replacement of hand tools with machine tools in the production process. These changes were witnessed first in Britain during 1760s and gradually the process of industrial revolution spread to other countries.

Factors which were responsible for the start of industrial revolution in England include:

  • Overseas trade and colonies: Through the overseas trade, England accumulated vast profits which had provided necessary capital for industrialization. In the trade rivalries of European countries, England had emerged as an unrivalled power. Also England had acquired colonies which ensured a regular supply of raw materials.
  • Inventions of Machines: It was one of the most important factors responsible for commencement of industrial revolution in Britain. A number of machines like weaving machine, steam engine, locomotive etc were invented in Britain. These machines were used in the production process.
  • Disappearance of serfdom & availability of labour forces: After the disappearance of serfdom, people were no longer tied to the land and were free to take to any job they could find. Also after the enclosure movement, small peasant who had small holdings in land were ousted and a large army of landless unemployed people was created. Thus, there was no shortage of labour force to work in the factories.
  • Stable government:As a result of the revolution of the 17th century, a stable system of government had been established, which was no longer under the domination of the feudal classes. Commercial classes had acquired more political power and there was no danger of government interference.
  • Availability of Natural Resources: Natural resources such as iron and coal essential for industries were available in England. This saves England from many difficulties that other countries faced.
  • Agricultural Revolution:Among the many factors that were responsible for the development of industrial capitalism in England and the industrial revolution was the agricultural revolution, which grew out of the commercial agriculture of the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.
  • Social Stimulus to Entrepreneurship: The character of British society stimulated the rise of entrepreneurship. The pursuit of wealth in trade and manufacture (or in the professions) led to the accumulation of fortunes which gave individuals rank and status.

No-other country enjoyed all these advantages at this period. Some suffered from a lack of capital or natural resources and some from an unfavourable political system. As a result, England was a natural place for the industrial revolution to begin which put it on the part to emerge as the preeminent power of the period.