India, Russia sign deal on nuclear submarine

Headline : India, Russia sign deal on nuclear submarine

Details :

In News

  • India and Russia signed an Inter-governmental agreement for leasing of Akula class nuclear-powered submarine Chakra III.
  • The $3-billion deal requires Russia to lease Chakra III to India for at least 10 years starting 2025.


Chakra III:  Akula Class Nuclear-powered submarine


  • Chakra III is an Akula-II class advanced nuclear-powered attack submarine. (SSN)
    • Chakra I and Chakra II were inducted into Indian Navy in 1988 and 2012 respectively.
  • It has an advanced weapon launching system capable of firing tube-launched cruise missiles.
  • The communication systems, onboard electronics and tactical Sonars to be fitted in Chakra III will be indigenously built.


In brief: Nuclear-powered submarines

  • Nuclear submarines can be classified in to 2 categories namely SSN and SSBN
  • SSN: (Submersible Ship Nuclear)
    • SSNs are attack submarines
    • They are propelled by nuclear power.
    • They are capable of launching conventional weapons like torpedoes and cruise missiles
  • SSBN: (Submersible Ship Ballistic Nuclear)
    • SSBNs are also propelled by nuclear power.
    • They are usually equipped with nuclear weapons like ballistic missiles.
    • Therefore, they are usually used as deterrents and not as attack submarines.


Nuclear-powered submarine fleet of India

SSN fleet

  1. Chakra I
    • The first nuclear-powered submarine to be inducted to Indian Navy was Chakra I.
  2. Chakra II
    • It is the second nuclear submarine to be inducted into Indian Navy.
    • It was inducted in 2012 for a 10-year lease period, which is now being extended to another 5 years till 2027.
    • It is an advanced version of Chakra I, capable of operating at higher speed and greater depth, and has a more advanced weapon system.
    • Chakra II is deployed with the Eastern Naval Command.
  • Project 75-I
    • India also plans to develop 6 nuclear powered submarines SSNs as a part of Project 75 I.
    • Project 75 I is an indigenous submarine building plan under which 24 submarines, 6 nuclear-powered and 18 conventional Scorpene class submarines will be built by 2030.


Significance of SSN

  • Since India has 2 operational theatres – one in west and other in east -, we require higher force levels if we are to use conventional submarines.
  • SSNs can cover twice the area of influence of a conventional submarine.
  • This is because of higher operational time due to on-board nuclear reactors.
  • It is more mobile, has higher reach than conventional submarine.
  • They are capable of launching cruise missiles up to 200 km.
  • Thus, SSN fleet is significant in reducing the force levels required for Indian Navy.
  • SSNs can blockade important sea routes for enemy ships.
  • They can successfully defend Carrier Strike Groups with its ability to stay deep in the water for long period and being capable of launching attacks.


SSBN fleet


  • Under the Advanced Technology Vehicle programme, India has indigenously-built Arihant, SSBN.
  • INS Arihant is India’s first nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine.
  • It was inducted in 2016 marking the Nuclear Triad capability of India.
  • INS Arihant is capable of launching K-15 Missile with a range of 750 km and K-4 ICBM with a range of 3,500 km.
  • Being capable of launching nuclear weapons, Arihant provides a truly deterrent second strike capability in accordance with India’s nuclear doctrine of ‘No First Use’.


Section : Defence & Security