Give an account of the institutional framework for Disaster Management in India. (10 marks)
- Introduce with the importance of Disaster Management in India
- Explain the institutional framework at different levels – NDMA, SDMA, DDMA etc.
- Conclude appropriately
India has been traditionally vulnerable to natural disasters on account of its unique Geo-climatic conditions. About 60% of the landmass is prone to earthquakes of various intensities; over 40 million hectares are prone to floods; about 8% of the total area is prone to cyclones and 68% of the area is susceptible to drought.
Disaster management helps by facilitating timely and effective rescue, relief and rehabilitation at the place of disaster. Thus India has created an elaborate institutional framework for the same.
Institutional Framework for Disaster management in India
- National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA): The Disaster Management Act, 2005 provides for setting up of a National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) with the Prime Minister as Chairperson. NDMA is responsible for laying down policies, plans and guidelines for disaster management for ensuring timely and effective response to disaster.
- State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA): The Act also provides for setting up of Stage Disaster Management Authorities under the Chairpersonship of the Chief Minister. The Committee prepares a State Plan which would include:
- An assessment of vulnerability of different parts of the state to different forms of disasters;
- Measures to be adopted for prevention and mitigation of disasters;
- Capacity building; supervising relief and rescue operations at the time of disaster and in disseminating information about any impending disaster.
- District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA): At district level, DDMA which is headed by the Collector/ District Magistrate with elected representative of the local authority as co-chairperson, acts as the planning, coordinating and implementing body for disaster management. It prepares the District Plan for disaster management in accordance with instructions by NDMA and SDMA.
- National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM): Capacity building is an important aspect of disaster management. This requires developing human resources to handle disaster management work and undertake studies and research on the subject. The Disaster Management Act gives this mandate to the National Institute of Disaster Management.
- National Disaster Response Force (NDRF): NDRF was constituted in 2006. It has 10 battalions drawn from the paramilitary forces. These battalions are positioned at different locations to provide timely response to disaster situations and are available to State Governments at the time of need.
The Disaster Management Act, 2005 and the National Policy, 2009 mark the institutionalization of paradigm shift in disaster management in India, from a relief-centric approach to one of proactive prevention, mitigation and preparedness. While it is not possible to avoid natural hazards, adequate mitigation and disaster risk reduction measures can prevent the hazards becoming major disasters.
Subjects : Disaster Management