India’s rich wildlife heritage is facing several conservation challenges. Examine. In this regard, suggest some measures to address the challenges.
- In the introduction part write about wildlife and conservation
- Then write various conservation challenges
- After that write measures to address the conservation challenges
- At the end write a conclusion
Wildlife consists of flora and fauna, i.e. plants, animals and microorganisms which are not domesticated by humans. On the other hand Conservation is preserving and protecting Wild plants, animals and their habitats. Therefore, we can say that the Conservation of Wildlife is necessary to recognize the importance of nature and other wildlife species.
Wildlife conservation has become an increasingly important practice due to the increasing negative effects of human activity on wildlife, but the conservation also faces various challenges like:
- Human-wildlife conflict:The forests in the wildlife corridors, are also home to indigenous groups who depend heavily on forest resources for their livelihood and other needs. It sometimes leads to man-animal conflict, further leading to retaliation against wildlife and conservation measures.
- Poachingof wild animals for body parts such as skin and bones is the biggest threat to wildlife populations around the world and in India.
- Habitat degradation:The regular and frequent collection of fuelwood and non timber forest produce by the local communities and indigenous tribes in the forest areas leads to degradation of the habitat, as well as disturbs wildlife due to human interferences.
- Threat from invasive species: Non-native species can cause havoc once they move in.
- Forests falling outside the Protected Area network face serious threat of fragmentationdue to developmental projects and encroachment by villagers.
- Natural disasters and uncertainty due to climate changelike floods, forest fires and drought.
Measures to address the challenges:
- There is need for multi-stake engagementfostered by the system and civil society along with local area people participation
- Checking the spread of invasive species
- Development of overpasses and underpassesto facilitate animal crossings & speed and traffic regulations can reduce man- animal conflict
- Primary infrastructuresuch as all-weather approach roads and bridges to the park should be constructed
- Anti-poaching campsshould be reconstructed and stringent punishment for poaching should be awarded.
- The Government should conduct a periodic surveys to gather adequate knowledge about the population of all the species of wild animals and birds, so that they can be helped during the time of floods and famines.
- Checking unauthorized cutting of forest treesfor timber and wood for fuel, as deforestation destroys the natural habitat of wild animals and birds.
Wildlife protection and conservation is very important as wildlife plays a vital role not in balancing the ecology but also balance the environment at large.
Subjects : Ecology and Environment