Border management is a complex task due to difficult terrain and long and porous borders with some countries. Elucidate the challenges and strategies for effective management of India-Bangladesh border. (15 marks)

Border management is a complex task due to difficult terrain and long and porous borders with some countries. Elucidate the challenges and strategies for effective management of India-Bangladesh border. (15 marks)

Approach

  • Introduce with the India-Bangladesh border
  • Enumerate various issues along the border
  • List steps taken by Government to address them – make sure to highlight the recent CIBMS and BOLD-QIT
  • Conclude appropriately
Model Answer :

The India-Bangladesh border is India’s longest international border measuring 4,096.7 km passing through West Bengal, Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram. The entire border consists of varied geographical features like plains, hills, riverine stretches, and forests with hardly any natural obstacles.

Various issues associated with India-Bangladesh border:

  • Illegal migration of people from Bangladesh into India, especially in Assam, West Bengal and Tripura is a perennial problem. There are around two crore illegal migrants staying in India.
  • The porous nature of the border have also made it easy for Indian Insurgent Groups (IIGs) to cross over into Bangladesh, where they have set up safe houses and training camps.
  • Organized cross-border criminal activities including trafficking of arms, humans and narcotics, counterfeiting Indian currency etc. are also quite rampant.
  • Smuggling: The border also faces the unique problem of smuggling of cattle, readymade garments and food grains.

The Indian Government has taken following measures to address these issues:

  • Security Measures:
    • BSF: Border Security Force is responsible for effective domination and round the clock surveillance of International Border with Bangladesh.
    • CIBMS: The Ministry of Home Affairs is in the process of deploying a Comprehensive Integrated Border Management System (CIBMS) through integration of radars, sensors, cameras, communication networks and command and control solutions. As part of it, BOLD-QIT (Border Electronically Dominated QRT Interception Technique) has been operationalized at the reverine border at Dhubri, Assam between India and Bangladesh.
    • Others: Up-gradation of intelligence network, improved border infrastructure through fencing, floodlighting, patrol roads etc.
  • Diplomatic measures: A three-tier bilateral institutional mechanism was set up between India and Bangladesh in 1994 to resolve security and border management issues. In July, 2011, a Co-ordinated Border Management Plan (CBMP) was signed between the two countries for proper management of International border.
  • Developmental measures: Various developmental works in the border areas have been undertaken by the MHA under the Border Area Development Programme (BADP) as part of a comprehensive approach to the border management.

India is taking security, diplomatic and developmental measures to manage this difficult border. Further, effective border management requires the involvement and cooperation of the local people as well as sustainable cooperation mechanisms with Bangladesh.

Subjects : Security Issues

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