Mountains are one of the major landforms found on the Earth. Discuss the various types of mountains along with suitable examples.

Mountains are one of the major landforms found on the Earth. Discuss the various types of mountains along with suitable examples.
Approach:
  • Introduce Mountains as a major landform
  • Point out the major types of mountains and give examples for each type.
  • Conclude appropriately.
Model Answer :
The surface of the earth is filled with a varied and diverse range of landforms and the Mountains are one of them. Mountains are elevations on the surface of the earth and cover a significant proportion of the landscape.
Mountains can be divided into following types:
  1. Fold Mountains: These Mountains are caused by large-scale earth movements causing stress in the earth’s crust. Due to stress, the rocks are subject to compressive forces that produce foldings in the rocks. The foldings are in a wave-like form and the up-folded waves are called anticlines and down-folded waves are called synclines. The fold mountains are the most widespread type of mountain. The Himalayas, Rockies and Alps are few examples of fold mountains.
  2. Block Mountains: These are the result of faulting which takes place when the earths crust cracks due to tension or compression. As a result, a section of earth’s crust subsides or rises above the surrounding level. These mountains are characterised by steep slopes and flat summits. The Vosges Mountains in Europe are an example of block mountains.
  3. Volcanic Mountains: These Mountains are made up around a vent from which material like lava, cinders, ashes, dust, liquid mud etc are ejected from fissures in the earth’s crust. These materials accumulate layer by layer over the time and give rise to Volcanic Mountains. Some prominent examples are Mt. Fuji, Mt. Agung, and Mt. Catopaxi.
  4. Residual Mountains: The process of denudation gives rise to these mountains. The general level of land gets lowered by agents of denudation and resistant areas stand tall. The plateaux eroded by rivers also often give rise to residual mountains as seen in Scandinavian countries and Deccan plateau in India.
  5. Dome Mountains: Very large amount magma when pushes the earth’s surface from below without erupting, the overlaying rocks gets pushed upward and when this magma cools over the time the rocks solidify into Dome Mountains.
Even after their formation, the mountains continue to be reshaped by various endogenic and exogenic forces. These various types of mountains can be found throughout the globe influencing life on earth in a major way.

Subjects : Geography

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