Headline : 27 crore Indians move out of poverty in 10 years, yet country still has highest number of poor, says report
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• Recently, The Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)2018 report has been released, which was prepared by The United Nations development Programme (UNDP) and the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI).
About Global MPI
• The global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) is an international measure of acute poverty, covering over 100 developing countries.
• It uses different factors to determine poverty beyond income-based lists.
• The Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) was developed in 2010 by the Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative (OPHI) and the United Nations Development Programme.
• It replaced the previous Human Poverty Index.
• The global MPI is released annually by OPHI and the results published on its website.
Indicators to calculate MPI:
• If someone is deprived in a third or more of 10 weighted indicators, the global index identifies them as “MPI poor”
• Global MPI 2018 covered 105 developing countries.
Global MPI 2018: India Findings
Remarkable progress by India (Between 2005-06 and 2015-16)
• India has reduced its poverty rate drastically from 55% to 28% with 271 million people moved out of poverty between 2005-06 and 2015-16.
• In India, poverty reduction among children, the poorest states, Scheduled Tribes, and Muslims was fastest.
• The multidimensional poverty among children under 10 has fallen the fastest.
• In 2005-06 there were 292 million poor children in India, so the latest figures represent a 47% decrease or 136 million fewer children growing up in multidimensional poverty.
• Jharkhand had shown the greatest improvement, followed by Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, and Nagaland.
• Kerala, one of the least poor regions in 2006, reduced its MPI by around 92%.
• When considering the durable and lifetime consequences of childhood deprivation, particularly in nutrition and schooling, this is a tremendously good sign for India’s future.
Still more to do:
• While progress has been remarkable, the country still has the largest number of people living in multidimensional poverty in the world (364 million people).
• Traditional disadvantaged sub-groups such as rural dwellers, lower castes and tribes, Muslims and young children are still the poorest in 2015-16.
o While 80% of ST members had been poor in 2005-06, 50% of them were still poor in 2015-16.
o While 60% of Muslims had been poor in 2005-06, 31% of them were still poor in 2015-16.
o Every third Muslim is multidimensionally poor, compared to every sixth Christian.
o Two in five children under 10 years of age are poor (41 per cent), but less than one quarter of people aged 18 to 60 (24 per cent) are poor.
• Poorest state (2015-16): Bihar, with more than half its population in poverty.
• The four poorest states: still home to over half of all the MPI poor people in India..
o Uttar Pradesh
o Madhya Pradesh
• Worldwide, 1.3 billion people live in multidimensional poverty in the 105 developing countries it covered, which is 23%, or nearly a quarter, of the population of these countries.
• These people are deprived in at least one-third of overlapping indicators in health, education, and living standards.
• Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia regions account together for 83% of all multidimensionally poor people in the world.
• Global Child poverty
o The level of global child poverty is staggering, with children accounting for virtually half (49.9%) of the world’s poor.
o Worldwide, over 665 million children live in multidimensional poverty.
o In South Sudan and Niger, some 93% of all children are MPI poor.