Headline : Prelims Program: National Innovations on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA)
Climate change: Problems faced in India
- Climate Change, caused by the increased concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere, has emerged as the most prominent global environmental problem.
- Most of the countries including India are facing the problems of rising temperature, melting of glaciers, rising of sea-level leading to inundation of the coastal areas, changes in precipitation patterns leading to increased risk of recurrent droughts and devastating floods, threats to biodiversity, an expansion of pest and a number of potential challenges for public health (IPCC, 2007).
- This is likely to threaten the food security and livelihoods of millions of people in India. Several areas have been recognized as being predominantly risk prone to the impacts of climate change.
- Among these are the most productive coastal areas, Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP) and the frequently drought and flood prone regions of the country. To ensure the food security of the country, the resilience of Indian agriculture to climatic variability and climate change needs to be enhanced.
About National Innovations on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA)
- The Government, through Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), initiated a network project on ‘National Innovations on Climate Resilient Agriculture’ (NICRA).
Goals of NICRA:
- To enhance resilience of Indian agriculture through Strategic Research on adaptation and mitigation (covering crops, livestock, fisheries and natural resource management)
- Technology Demonstration
- Capacity Building
- Sponsored/Competitive Grant Projects
Aim of NICRA
- To make Indian agriculture resilient to climate change through development and application of adaptation and mitigation technologies.
- Phenotyping, physiological evaluation and genetic improvement of irrigated crops (rice, wheat, chickpea) for heat and drought stresses.
- Monitoring of GHG emissions through flux towers/field measurement in irrigated rice-wheat production system in the IGP (New Delhi) and rice-rice system in south-east peninsula (Aduthurai).
- Adaptation and mitigation through improved crop management, enhanced water productivity and nutrient use efficiency; and carbon and nutrient budgeting in rice-wheat system.
- Strengthening real-time data capture on crop health through Satellite Data Reception System and integrate the output to agro-advisories.
- Integrated crop modelling for wheat and rice for impact assessment and indentifying adaptation strategies at regional level for near and long-term downscaled scenario.
- Technology demonstration on farmers fields and capacity building
- Realizing that the climate change is likely to have major impacts on agriculture, the Government through Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) has assessed the impact of climate change on Indian agriculture under different scenarios using crop simulation models.
- The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) has conducted climate change impact analysis on crop yields through various centres in different parts of the country using crop simulation models (INFO-CROP and HAD CM3) for 2020, 2050 and 2080.
- The results indicate variability in temperature and rainfall pattern with significant impacts on crop yields.
- These studies projected reduction in yields of irrigated rice by about 4% in 2020, 7% in 2050 and 10% in 2080.
- Rainfed rice yields are likely to be reduced by 6% in 2020, but in 2050 and 2080 they are projected to decrease only marginally (<2.5%).
- Climate change is projected to reduce timely-sown irrigated wheat production by about 6% in 2020.
- In case of late sown wheat, however, the projected reductions are to the extent of 18, 23 and 25 percent in 2020, 2050 and 2080 respectively.
- Yields of irrigated kharif maize may decrease by about 18% in 2020 and 2050 and about 23% in 2080 due to climate change.
- Rainfed sorghum yields are projected to decline marginally (2.5%) in 2020 scenario and by about 8% in 2050.