How do groups influence the performance of an individual? Explain with real life examples. (150 words)
- Briefly explain group in introduction.
- Then discuss influence on individual while performing an activity alone and in a group.
- Conclude appropriately.
A group may be defined as an organized system of two or more individuals, who are interacting and interdependent, who have common motives, have a set of role relationships among its members, and have norms that regulate the behavior of its members. These groups influence the behavior of individuals or its members in one or different form. Two broad categories are:
(i) When an individual performing an activity alone in the presence of others- Task performance can be facilitated and improved, or inhibited and worsened by the presence of others. For example– Ram is about to participate in a dance contest. Due to nervousness, he may not be able to perform well. But on the other hand, he may perform well due to the encouragement he gets performing in front of an audience.
(ii) When an individual performing an activity along with the others as part of a larger group- Some studies have found that individuals work less hard in a group than they do when performing alone. This phenomenon is referred to as ‘social loafing’. However, if the group dynamics, leadership and incentive structures are good, then the individuals could be driven to perform at a higher level in a group that they would have done by themselves alone. For example– Game of tug-of-war. As group members feel less responsible for the overall task, such situations give opportunities to group members to relax and become a free rider. But when all of them are driven to really win, they would put in more effort.
However, individuals behave in different ways depending on one’s attitude, personality, situation etc. Hence, group’s influence on individual performance is different in different conditions.
Subjects : Ethics – EQ + Attitude