What are wetlands?

What are wetlands?

  • Wetlands can be defined as lands transitional between terrestrial and aquatic eco-systems where the water table is usually at or near the surface or the land is covered by shallow water.
  • They support rich biodiversity and provide wide range of ecosystem services such as water storage, water purification, flood mitigation, erosion control, aquifer recharge and others.
  • The wetlands are threatened by reclamation and degradation due to activities like drainage and landfill, pollution, hydrological alteration (water withdrawal and changes in inflow and outflow), over-exploitation resulting in loss of biodiversity and disruption in ecosystem services provided by them.
  • There are at least 115 wetlands that are officially identified by the central government and of those 26 are identified as wetlands of international importance under Ramsar Convention.
  • The Ramsar Convention is an international intergovernmental treaty for conservation of wetlands and India is a party to the treaty.


Wetlands (Conservation and Management) Rules, 2017

Under the new Rules, wetlands are defined as:

“An area of marsh, fen, peatland or water; whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres, but does not include river channels, paddy fields, human-made water bodies/tanks specifically constructed for drinking water purposes and structures specifically constructed for aquaculture, salt production, recreation and irrigation purposes”.



National Wetlands Committee

  • Under the new rules, the powers have been given to the State governments so that protection and conservation work can be done at the local level. Central government has mainly retained powers regarding monitoring.
  • The 2017 Rules have done away with the Central Wetlands Regulatory Authority (CWRA) entirely.
  • To oversee the work carried out by States, the rules stipulates for setting up of National Wetlands Committee, which will be headed by the MoEFCC Secretary, to monitor implementation of these rules.
  • The Committee will also advise the Central Government on appropriate policies and action programmes for conservation and wise use of wetlands, recommend designation of wetlands of international importance under Ramsar Convention, advise on collaboration with international agencies on issues related to wetlands etc.

State Wetlands Authority

  • The new rules stipulate setting up of a State Wetlands Authority in each State and union territories that will be headed by the State’s environment minister.
  • The members will include one expert each in the fields of wetland ecology, hydrology, fisheries, landscape planning and socioeconomics to be nominated by the state government.
  • These authorities will need to develop a comprehensive list of activities to be regulated and permitted within the notified wetlands and their zone of influence, recommend additional prohibited activities for specific wetlands, define strategies for conservation and wise use of wetlands, and undertake measures for enhancing awareness within stakeholders and local communities on values and functions of wetlands.
  • The State authorities will also need to prepare a list of all wetlands of the State or union territory within three months, a list of wetlands to be notified within six months.
  • A comprehensive digital inventory of all wetlands has to be prepared within one year which will be updated every ten years.

Other prohibitions

  • The rules prohibit activities like conversion of wetland for non-wetland uses including:
  1. Encroachment of any kind
  2. Setting up of any industry and expansion of existing industries
  3. Manufacture or handling or storage or disposal of hazardous substances
  4. Construction and demolition
  5. Waste, solid waste dumping
  6. Discharge of untreated wastes and effluents from industries, cities, towns, villages and other human settlements


Why Environmental experts are not happy?

  • The 2010 Rules specifically included in the definition of wetlands “all inland waters such as lakes, reservoir, tanks, backwaters, lagoon, creeks, estuaries and man-made wetland and the zone of direct influence on wetlands”. These have not been spelt out in the 2017 Rules.
  • They raised the concern over the provision “central government may consider proposals from the state government or union territory administration for omitting any of the (prohibited) activities on the recommendation of the authority” in the new rules can be misused.
  • They also stated that as per the 2010 version of the rules, there was a Central Wetlands Regulatory Authority (CWRA) which will now be replaced by a national committee, which is advisory in nature.
  • Another major objection is about the process of appeal against the decisions of wetland authorities.
  • According to the 2010 rules, anyone aggrieved with the CWRA’s decisions could have filed an appeal with the National Green Tribunal, but the new 2017 rules have no provisions on the appeal process.
  • The identification process by the State Wetland Authority does not distinguish between existing wetlands and especially those past wetlands which have been encroached and can be proved through legal documents.