Why was Britain the first country to experience industrial revolution? And how were the lives of British children affected by the industrial revolution? (150 words)

 Why was Britain the first country to experience industrial revolution? And how were the lives of British children affected by the industrial revolution? (150 words)

Approach

  • Give a brief introduction of industrial revolution.
  • Discuss the factors responsible for industrial revolution in Britain.
  • Then, discuss the impact of industrialization on children.
  • Conclude appropriately.
Model Answer :

The desire to produce more goods at low cost to make higher profits led to the industrial revolution and further growth of capitalism. Industrial Revolution was the beginning of a machine age because it was then that machines began to take over some of the work of men and animals. It began in England in about 1750.

The reasons for Britain to first experience the revolution are:

  • Britain had accumulated vast profits through her overseas trade which could provide the necessary capital.
  • She had acquired colonies which ensured a regular supply of raw materials.
  • Due to a large number of landless small peasants there was no dearth of labor force.
  • Britain had plenty of natural resources such as iron and coal, essential for industries.
  • She also developed a large shipping industry for the transportation.

But some sections of society like children were affected in a negative way by the industrial revolution:

  • Children were often employed in textile factories because they were small enough to move between tightly packed machinery.
  • The long hours of work, including cleaning the machines on Sundays, allowed them little fresh air or exercise.
  • Children hands often got crushed in the machines, while some died when they fell into machines as they dropped off to sleep from exhaustion.
  • The owners of coal mines used children to reach deep coal faces or those where the approach path was too narrow for adults. Roofs caved in or explosions took place, and injuries were therefore common.

Hence industrialization brought benefits like low cost of goods as well as hardships like unemployment, smoky crowded cities, unhealthy living and working conditions, rivalry and conflict between nations.

Subjects : History and Culture

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