Bring out the salient features of key heterodox schools of Indian Philosophy.
- Introduce heterodox school of Indian Philosophy.
- Discuss the key features of different schools within the heterodox school of Indian Philosophy.
- Conclude appropriately
Schools that do not accept the authority of Vedas are by definition unorthodox or heterodox (nastika) schools of Indian philosophy. The following schools are considered as heterodox schools:
- Its founder was Charvaka, author of the Barhaspatya Sutras.
- This school is also known as Lokayata, which means keen attachment to the physical and material world (Loka).
- Charvaka is a materialistic, sceptical and atheistic school of thought.
- Charvaka argued against the need to achieve salvation and also denied the existence of God and soul.
- This schools advocated hedonism and propound the theory of ‘eat, drink and make merry’.
- The founder of the school is Gautama Buddha.
- The question of God is largely irrelevant in Buddhism, and one should not trust the Vedas blindly.
- Buddhism believes that the world is full of suffering, the theory of which is encoded in four noble truths.
- It advocates Noble Eightfold Path for ending the suffering and attain nirvana.
- Buddhism is majorly divided into two sects i.e. Hinayana and the Mahayana.
- The founder of Jain philosophy is Mahavira, the 24 th Tirthankara, although Jainism as a religion is much older.
- Their basic principle is anekantavada i.e. reality is perceived differently from different points of view, and that no single point of view is completely true.
- According to Jainism, only Kevalis have infinite knowledge and can know the true answer. All others would only know a part of the answer.
- They argue that controlling the mind and regulating one’s conduct can stop the suffering faced by human beings. The mind can be controlled by seeking right knowledge and perception.
- Jain philosophy advocates following the panch-mahavratas i.e. nonviolence, abstinence, truth, non-stealing and celibacy.
Although differing in many features, almost all the schools of Indian philosophy, except Charvaka, are intimately associated with spirituality and have a common goal to improve the human life.
Subjects : History and Culture