Describe the different steps towards the unification of Italy after revolution of 1848.
- Start with the condition of Italy before 1848.
- Then discuss major stages in unification after 1848.
- Conclude appropriately.
In early 19th century, Italy was divided into a number of states. The major states were Sardinia, Lombardy, Venetia, and Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Sicily and Naples), Papal States, Tuscany, Parma and Modena. Of these, the most powerful was the kingdom of Sardinia. Venetia and Lombardy were under Austrian occupation.
After the revolution of 1848, which is also known as Young Italy movement, the major steps in unification were:
- After 1848, Prime Minister Count Cavour, took the initiative of uniting Italy under the leadership of Sardinia. Hoping to gain the support of Britain and France, he entered the Crimean war in 1853-56 against Russia.
- In 1859, Cavour entered into an alliance with Louis Bonaparte and went to war with Austria in which Austria was ousted from Lombardy.
- The other states like the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies were still to be united with Sardinia.
- An uprising at the end of November 1860 under the leadership of Garibaldi led to liberation of the Two Sicilies.
- Rome was still outside the kingdom of Italy. When the war between France and Prussia broke out in 1870, Bonaparte was forced to withdraw his troops from Rome.
- Italian soldiers occupied the city of Rome in 1870, and in July 1871, Rome became the capital of united Italy.
Although Italy became a monarchy in spite of the important role played by leaders like Garibaldi, it marked a great advance in the history of Italy.
Subjects : History and Culture