The conditions and the nature of The Non-Cooperation Movement were different from the Civil Disobedience Movement. Critically examine.

The conditions and the nature of The Non-Cooperation Movement were different from the Civil Disobedience Movement. Critically examine.

Approach

  • Give a brief introduction about the non-cooperation and civil disobedience movements.
  • Give an account of conditions present at the time of both movements.
  • Explain how the nature of both movements differs.
  • Conclude with a stand based on above discussion.
Model Answer :

Both the Non-Cooperation Movement (NCM) and the Civil Disobedience Movement (CDM) were the mass movements in India’s struggle for freedom. They differed in following ways:

Conditions at the time of NCM (1920-22):

  • Due to the First World War, the economy was in a bad condition. The prices of essential commodities were high and industrial production decreased.
  • Rowlatt Act was passed to arrest suspects without any trial.
  • The Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre exposed the brutal nature of the foreign rule.
  • The Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms failed to satisfy the rising demand of the Indians for self-government.
  • Muslim sections of the population were angered by the treatment meted out to Turkey by the British after the First World War under Treaty of Sevres.

Conditions at the time of CDM (1930-34):

  • In Lahore session of 1929, Congress took decision to launch CDM with the aim of complete independence.
  • Land revenue was very high and there was monopoly of government even on basic commodities like salt.
  • Gandhi’s eleven demands like release of political prisoners, abolishment of salt tax etc. were not accepted by the government.

Nature of the movements:

  • NCM was in response to Punjab wrongs and Khilafat issue while CDM was in response of rejection of 11 demands put forward by congress.
  • The stated objective of NCM was to attain Swaraj but CDM’s was to attain Poorna Swaraj.
  • The NCM was centered on not cooperating with the government. For example- boycott of government schools and colleges, law courts, legislative councils, foreign clothes, government honors and titles etc. On the other hand, CDM was centered on peaceful breach of law. For example- refusal to abide by salt law, to resign from government jobs, to disobey the laws, to refuse to pay taxes etc.
  • The congress was organizationally stronger at the time of CDM as compared to NCM.
  • No major labor upsurge coincided with CDM as it was at the time of NCM.

Although the nature and conditions at the time of both movements were different both were largely peaceful mass movements started to attain the goal of India’s freedom.

Subjects : History Modern