Describe the landforms which are products of endogenetic forces. (10 marks)
- Introduce with Endogenetic forces
- <Flow chart of various movements due to engogenetic forces would be useful under Diastrophism and Sudden Movement>
- List out various landforms created with a brief description of their formation
- Conclude appropriately
Endogenetic forces are forces resulting from dynamic processes operating beneath the crust of the Earth. These forces cause the parts of earth to rise or subside forming various types of landforms.
- Intermondane Plateau- The Intermontane plateaus form either bordering the fold mountain range or are partly or fully enclosed by fold mountains. Vertical movements raise this extensive landforms of nearly horizontal rocks to thousands of meters above sea level. Example, Plateau of Tibet, surrounded by The Himalayas, Karakoram, Kunlun, Tien Shahon its two sides.
- Structural plains– These plains are formed by the uplift of a part of the sea floor or continental shelf. These are located on the borders of almost all the major continents. Example Great Plains plains of the USA.
- Continental plateau– Plateaus formed by the upliftment or extensive spreading of lava on the Earth’s surface.
- Fold mountains– When the sedimentary rocks are subjected to compressional forces for millions of years, they get bent into up and down folds which lead to the formation of anticlines and synclines, such Earth movements occur from time to time and lift the folds to a considerable height which result into the formation of fold mountains. Example: The Himalayas in Asia, The Alps in Europe, The Rockies in North America, and The Andes in South America.
- Block Mountains– When the forces of tension acts on the rocks, they create faults in them. When the land between the two almost parallel faults is raised above the adjoining areas, it create block mountain. Example: The Vosges in France; Black Forest mountain in Germany
- Rift Valley orGraben: When a block between two normal faults is depressed, the valley formed in the faults is known as Rift Valley or Gr
- Volcanic mountain– Volcanic Mountains are formed when molten rock (magma) deep within the earth, erupts, and piles upon the surface. Magna is called lava when it breaks through the earth’s crust. When the ash and lava cools, it builds a cone of rock. Rock and lava pile up, layer on top of layer. Examples: Mount St. Helens in North America, Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, Mount Kea and Mount Loa in Hawaii
The landforms created by endogenetic forces often further undergo change leading to new modifications due to changes in climatic conditions and vertical or horizontal movements of landmasses.
Subjects : Geography – Physical