- Introduce with the national movement leading to 1905
- Enumerate the objectives of the movement under various headers like military, administrative etc.
- Conclude with how the moderate failed and it led to extremists gaining prominence in 1905
The Indian national movement up to 1905 was primarily led by the moderate leaders in the INC who favoured constitutional struggle for incremental gains against the British excesses in India. Their objectives were primarily to reform the Indian civil, military and financial administration.
Reform in Civil & political administration:
- Organization of the provincial councils
- Simultaneous examination for the ICS in India and England
- Abolition or reconstitution of the Indian Council
- Separation of the Judiciary from the executive.
Reforms in the military field:
- Reduction on expenditure on home charges
- Reduction of military expenditure, including on costly foreign wars like the Afghan war of 1878-79
- Repeal of the Arms Act
- Appointment of Indians to the commissioned ranks in the Army
Reforms in financial/revenue administration:
- Introduction of Permanent Settlement to other parts of India
- Rationalization of the financial relations between India and England
However, the national movement of this period had limited success due to its limited support base, connections to landlords etc. The failure of the moderates in extracting any significant reforms from the British has led to the increasing prominence of the extremists in Congress after 1905. As a result, the extremists, who favoured a more militant form of struggle and called for Swaraj, took over the Swadeshi movement during this period.
Subjects : History Modern