Write a note on the factors that led to growth of early nationalism in India. (10 marks)
- Introduce with the lead up the the rise of nationalism in 19th century
- Mention various factors that lead to growth of nationalism in India like exploitation, role of press, nationalism etc.
- Conclude appropriately
Indian nationalism grew in the second half of the 19th century partly as a result of colonial policies and partly as a reaction to colonial policies. The 1857 revolt gave an impetus to a new wave of nationalism.
Some of the major factors that led to growth of nationalism include:
- Colonial Exploitation: Various section of people such as peasants, artisans, workers started realising the exploitative character of the British rule. Early intellectuals like Dadabhai Naoroji and RC dutta educated people about the “drain” of wealth being caused by the British rule.
- Racism: The racial discrimination practised by the British Administration made Indians conscious of national humiliation and resulted in feeling of oneness while facing British.
- Impact of western thought: Spread of education and ideas of scholars such Milton, Paine, Voltaire, Rousseau etc have imbibed rational, political and nationalist thought.
- Role of press and literature: About 169 newspaper in English and vernacular languages were printed that spread various ideas and knowledge.
- Modernization: Modern transport and communication, with ease of movement of people and trade also played an important role.
- Political, Administrative and Economic Unification of India: This was done by the British to make it easier for them to rule such a vast country but it also helped the people in identifying the common enemy.
- Rise of middle class Intelligentsia: They provided intellectual and political leadership.
- Others: Apart from these, various other reasons like the socio-religious reform movements, cultural revivalism and contemporary international movements also contributed.
The above mentioned factors along with activism of various political organisations including INC have played catalytic role and spread the idea of nationalism. The early nationalism formed the basis for the Indian National Movement that culminated in an Independent India after a long struggle.
Subjects : History Modern