What India pays the world & what it gets back?

Headline : What India pays the world & what it gets back?

Details :

Why in news?

  • Amid galloping oil prices and a slowing foreign investment, India’s current account deficit for 2017-18 has touched $48bn, the highest since 2012-13.
  • The value of what India’s imports vastly exceed what it exports, spelling concern for our balance of payment (BoP) position.



What is balance of payment?

  • Balance of payment is simply a record of all international transactions done by the residents, companies or the government of a country with rest of the world.
  • The transactions are recorded as credits and debits.
  • For instance, entries like Indians spending to buy foreign goods or spending money in foreign trips will be recorded as debit from the Indian account.
  • Similarly foreigners spending money to buy Indian goods or for tourism will be shown as credit to the Indian account.


What is current account deficit?

  • Current account is a part of the overall balance of payment and reflects a country’s international trade.
  • It primarily measures net trade in goods and services along with all other earnings or payments that are required to be completed in a defined time period.
  • Latest data shows India has a $48 billion current account deficit. India’s exports, which are much lower than imports, is the main cause of current account deficit.
  • Another major component of India’s deficit is foreign investment income, where profits are repatriated to a company’s origin country.
  • India is in surplus in trade in services and a net gainer of remittances.
  • These two surplus components, however, are not large enough to offset the trade deficit.


What services bring current account surplus to India?

  • The detailed analysis of service component of current account deficit shows that the largest component of India’s services surplus comes from IT industries.
  • Similarly, India is a net exporter of travel meaning foreigners visiting India spend more money than Indians visiting foreign countries.
  • India has to send abroad a significant amount of money for use of intellectual property.
  • India is a net importer of recreational services that include services in film, music industry and so on.



What are the capital and financial account components of balance of payment?

  • Earlier balance of payment consisted only of current and capital account.
  • The capital account indicated if the country was a net importer or exporter of capital.
  • Recently IMF has bifurcated capital account into capital and financial account.
  • According to IMF’s definition the capital account measures credit and debit for non-produced non-financial assets and capital transfers. These include entries like land sold to embassies, sales of lease and licences and so on.


Section : Economics