• Mangroves are salt-tolerant plants.
  • They are present in tropical and subtropical inter-tidal regions of the world.
  • The specific regions where these plants occur are termed as ‘mangrove ecosystem’.
  • They are highly productive but extremely sensitive and fragile.


Threats to the Mangroves

  • The threats to the mangrove ecosystem could be broadly grouped into two:
  1. Natural threats : Climatic changes, Cyclones and Physical processes.
  2. Anthropogenic threats : Diseases, deterioration, pollution, grazing, agriculture, aquaculture and human encroachment(including reclamation), etc.


Reasons for the loss of Mangroves

The main reasons which contribute to the phenomenon of losing land including mangroves forests in the Sunderbans are:-

  • Climate Change
  •  Sea level rise leads to:
  1. Coastal erosion
  2. Coastal flooding
  3. Increase in the number of tidal creeks
  4. Less fresh water flow and sediment supply, leads to the loss of land.



  • The continuation of loss of mangrove cover in response to climate change and sea level rise poses a serious threat. Such as:-
  1. Ecosystem of the Indian Sunderbans is getting fragile.
  2. Many other ecosystem services are getting affected.
  3. Carbon sequestration potential is decreasing.
  4. Due to lack of freshwater inflow change in mangrove successions is taking place.
  5. Freshwater loving species of mangroves are replaced by salt-water loving ones.
  6. Fishing community is getting affected.



  • The Sundarbans delta is the largest mangrove forest in the world.
  • The Sundarban Delta is situated on the border of India and Bangladesh, where the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mehgna rivers converge in the Bengal basin.
  • The area itself gets its name from the large number of Sundari (Heritiera fomes) trees in the region.
  • It is also home to the Royal Bengal Tiger.