About Assam Rifles

About Assam Rifles

Pre-Independence Role

  • The Assam Rifles raised as Catchar Levy in 1835 is the oldest Central Para Military Force in India.
  • The force was formed to primarily protect British tea estates and their settlements against tribal raids.
  • Subsequently, all these forces were reorganised and renamed as the ‘Frontier Force’ as their role was increased to conduct of punitive expeditions across the borders of undivided Assam.
  • This force significantly contributed in opening the region to administration and commerce and over time it came to be known as the “right arm of the civil and left arm of the military”.
  • In 1917, recognising their work during the Great War, fighting shoulder to shoulder with Rifle Regiments of the regular British Army, the name of the force was changed to ‘Assam Rifles’.

Post- Independence Role

  • The Assam Rifles continued to evolve, ranging from:
    • Conventional combat role during the Sino-India War 1962,
    • Operating in foreign land as part of the Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF)
    • Maintenance of law and order and peacekeeping role in the North-Eastern areas of India in the face of growing tribal unrest and insurgency.
    • Reassuring the people of the region became important tasks for the Assam Rifles.
  • Now, the Assam Rifles remains deployed in some of the most remote areas in the Northeast and provides security to the locals.
  • Their long association with the region reflects in the force being fondly called “The Sentinel of the North-East” and “Friends of the Hill People” security in the north-eastern region and guarding the Indo-Myanmar border.
  • It has its headquarters at Shillong and the Force is completely deployed in the North East for guarding the Indo-Myanmar Border, spread over 1,631 kilometres.
  • The force has grown substantially over the years from 17 battalions in 1960 to 46 battalions with about 46,000 personnel at present.


About Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS)

  • The Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) is the final decision-making body on senior appointments in the national security apparatus, defence policy and expenditure, and generally all matters of India’s national security
  • Chairman: Prime Minister
  • Other Members:
    • the External Affairs minister,
    • the Home minister,
    • the Finance minister and
    • the Defence minister.
  • Functions:
    • To deal with all defence related issues.
    • To deal with issues relating to law and order and internal security.
    • To deal with policy matters concerning foreign affairs that have internal or external security implications, including cases relating to agreements with other countries on security-related issues.
    • To deal with economic and political issues impinging on national security.
    • To review the manpower requirements relating to national security and setting up new structures to deal with security-related issues.
    • To consider all cases involving capital expenditure of more than rupees one thousand crore in respect of Department of Defence Production and Department of Defence Research and Development
  • All matters relating to atomic energy.
  • To consider cases of increase in the firmed up cost estimates or revised cost estimates.