Naxalite movement and Forest Rights Act, 2006

About Naxalite movement

  • The Naxalite movement was started by Charu Majumdar, Kanu Sanyal and Jangal Santhal in West Bengal in 1967 under the banner of Communist Party of India (Marxist).
  • The CPI (Maoist) was formed in 2004 with the merger of the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) People’s War, commonly known as the People’s War Group, and the Maoist Communist Centre of India.
  • The movement has changed many banners over the past four decades and is now called the CPI (Maoist), which is a banned organisation in the country.

 

About Forest Rights Act, 2006

  • The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act 2006 (FRA) aims to redress the historical injustice that forest-dwellers have experienced, particularly the denial of their rights to forest land and resources.
  • It was enacted to protect the marginalised socio-economic class of citizens and balance the right to environment with their right to life and livelihood.
  • Objectives:
    • To grant legal recognition to the rights of traditional forest dwelling communities.
    • To give communities and the public a voice in forest and wildlife conservation.
  • Eligibility (to qualify as Forest Dwelling Scheduled Tribe (FDST):
  1. Must be a Scheduled Tribe in the area where the right is claimed
  2. Primarily resided in forest or forests land prior to 13-12-2005
  3. Depend on the forest or forests land for bonafide livelihood needs
  • Rights under the act:
    • Rights to hold and live in the forest land under the individual or common occupation for habitation or for self-cultivation for livelihood
    • Right of ownership
    • Access to collect, use and dispose of minor forest produce
    • Community rights such as nistar. (Nistar means forest rights for bonafide livelihood purposes.)
    • Habitat rights for primitive tribal groups and pre-agricultural communities
    • Right to protect, regenerate or conserve or manage any community forest resource which they have been traditionally protecting and conserving for sustainable use

Note: The act also provides for diversion of forest land for public utility facilities managed by the Government, such as schools, dispensaries, fair price shops, electricity and telecommunication lines, water tanks, etc. with the recommendation of Gram Sabhas.

 

About Naxalite movement

  • The Naxalite movement was started by Charu Majumdar, Kanu Sanyal and Jangal Santhal in West Bengal in 1967 under the banner of Communist Party of India (Marxist).
  • The CPI (Maoist) was formed in 2004 with the merger of the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) People’s War, commonly known as the People’s War Group, and the Maoist Communist Centre of India.
  • The movement has changed many banners over the past four decades and is now called the CPI (Maoist), which is a banned organisation in the country.

 

Naxal Affected Areas in India

  • 90 districts in 11 States are considered as affected by Left Wing Extremism (LWE)
  • State List:
    • Andhra Pradesh
    • Bihar
    • Chhattisgarh
    • Jharkhand
    • Kerala
    • Madhya Pradesh
    • Maharashtra
    • Odisha
    • Telangana
    • Uttar Pradesh
    • West Bengal

 

Recent steps to address LWE problem

  • National Policy and Action Plan to address LWE problem has been put in place that envisages a multi-pronged strategy involving security related measures, developmental interventions, ensuring  rights  &  entitlements  of  local  communities
  • Security Measure: The Central Government assists the LWE affected State Governments by providing Central Armed Police Forces battalions, training, funds for modernization of State police forces, equipment & arms, sharing of intelligence etc.
  • Developmental interventions: The Central Government has taken various measures including construction of roads, strengthening of communications network, installation of mobile towers, improving network of banks, post offices, health and education facilities in the LWE areas through concerned Ministries.
  • Special Central Assistance (SCA) Scheme: The Government of India has approved Special Central Assistance (SCA) Scheme for the most LWE affected districts, under which funds are provided to States for filling the critical gaps in public infrastructure & services which are of urgent nature.
Section : Polity & Governance
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