- Mahaseer, Snow trout and Indian hill trout are the principle indigenous cold water fish species inhabiting the mountain waters of India.
- Snow trouts are found in snow fed streams of Assam, Eastern Himalayas, Sikkim, Nepal, Kashmir.
- Normally trout is a fish of perennial mountain streams of clear cool water of high oxygen content and thrives in lakes also.
- As a habit, it breeds in shallow slow-moving waters with gravely bottom; but because of high mortality in natural streams and difficulty of collecting the young ones, the fish is usually bred artificially in hatcheries.
- After hatching of eggs and nurture of fry to fingerling stage on artificial feeds, the fingerlings are released into natural streams for further growth.
- Their natural food, and that of adults also, is usually small fish, shrimps, crabs, water-insect larvae and other aquatic organisms.
- Major exotic trouts in India are the Rainbow trout (or steel head) and Brown trout. They were introduced to the streams of India by the British.
- Recently the American Brook Trout from Canada, and a land-locked variety of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo solar) from north Americe, have also been transplanted into trout hatcheries in Kashmir.
- Brown Trout:
- Brown Trout was the first one reproduced and reared artificially in India.
- They were imported in early 1900s from Scotland as a present from Duke of Bedford to the Maharaja of Kashmir.
- The first hatchery for breeding trout was established at Harwan near Srinagar and from there, after a few years, eyed-eggs were transplanted to many streams and lakes in and out of Kashmir.
- Rainbow Trout:
- Also introduced by the British in early 1990s, Rainbow Trout are one of the most successful trouts of Indian waters for cultural purpose because these adapt easily in comparison to the Brown Trouts.
- Moreover, they promptly feed on artificial food and can withstand the high temperature and O2 depleted water as well.
About: Wildlife Institute of India (WII)
- With India’s once rich biodiversity considerably depleting, the need was felt for an organization to help and strengthen endeavors for recovery.
- Wildlife Institute of India (WII) was established at Dehradun in 1982 with a mandate to train government and non-government personnel, carry out research, and advise on matters of conservation and management of wildlife resources.
- The Institute is actively engaged in research across the breadth of the country on biodiversity related issues.
- In 1986, it was granted the status of an autonomous Institution of the Union Ministry of Environment & Forests.
- WII is now recognized as a premier regional institution for training and research in biodiversity conservation.
- WII has international and bilateral collaborations for institutional building, faculty development, infusion of modern technology and creation of a scientific infrastructure.
Section : Environment & Ecology