About Multidimensional Poverty Index

About Multidimensional Poverty Index

  • The Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) was developed in 2010 by the Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative (OPHI) and the United Nations Development Programme.
  • It replaced the previous Human Poverty Index.
  • The global MPI is released annually by OPHI and the results published on its website.
  • It is an international measure of acute poverty covering over 100 developing countries.
  • The MPI looks beyond income to understand how people experience poverty in multiple and simultaneous ways.
  • It identifies how people are being left behind across three key dimensions: health, education and living standards, lacking such things as clean water, sanitation, adequate nutrition or primary education.
  • Those who are deprived in at least a third of the MPI’s components are defined as multidimensionally poor.
  • The index uses the same three dimensions as the Human Development Index: health, education, and standard of living. These are measured using ten indicators.


Dimension Indicators
  • Child Mortality
  • Nutrition
  • Years of schooling
  • School attendance
Living Standards
  • Cooking fuel
  • Toilet
  • Water
  • Electricity
  • Floor
  • Assets
  • Each dimension and each indicator within a dimension is equally weighted.
  • The Multidimensional Poverty Index gives insights that are vital for understanding the many ways in which people experience poverty, and it provides a new perspective on the scale and nature of global poverty while reminding us that eliminating it in all its forms is far from impossible.


Global Poverty figures

  • About 1.3 billion people live in multidimensional poverty globally, which is almost a quarter of the population of the 104 countries for which the 2018 MPI is calculated.
  • Of these 1.3 billion, almost half (46%) are thought to be living in severe poverty and are deprived in at least half of the dimensions covered in the MPI.
  • In 104 primarily low- and middle-income countries, 662 million children are considered multidimensionally poor. In 35 countries, half of all children are poor.


Promising Signs

  • Although similar comparisons over time have not yet been calculated for other countries, the latest information from UNDP’s Human Development Index shows significant development progress in all regions, including many sub-Saharan African countries.
  • Between 2006 and 2017, life expectancy increased over seven years in sub-Saharan Africa and by almost four years in South Asia, and enrolment rates in primary education are up to 100%.This bodes well for improvements in multidimensional poverty.
  • Poverty in India:
    • In India, 271 million moved out of poverty between 2005/06 and 2015/16.
    • The country’s poverty rate has nearly halved, falling from 55%to 28% over the 10-year period.
    • India is the first country for which progress over time has been estimated.
  • These are promising signs that poverty is being tackled globally.



Section : Economics