About Typhoid (Enteric Fever)
- Typhoid Fever is a gastrointestinal infection caused by Salmonella enterica typhi
- It is transmitted from person to person through the fecal-oral route where an infected or asymptomatic individual with poor hand or body hygiene passes the infection to another person when handling food and water.
- The bacteria multiply in the intestinal tract and can spread to the bloodstream. ), which infects humans due to contaminated food and beverages from sewage and other infected humans.
- Symptoms usually develop one to two weeks after exposure and include high fever, malaise, headache, constipation or diarrhoea, rose-colored spots on the chest, and enlarged spleen and liver.
- Healthy carrier state may follow acute illness.
- International Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) estimates that in 2016, there were approximately 12 million cases of typhoid fever resulting in around 130,000 deaths.
- Drug-resistant “superbug” strains of S. Typhi have been reported from several countries in Africa and South Asia, including India, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal.
- Typhoid is hugely underdiagnosed and most people are not given appropriate treatment, leading to antimicrobial resistance (AMR).
- Typbar TCV is the first typhoid vaccine clinically proven to be administered to children from 6 months of age to adults.
- It will confer long-term protection against typhoid fever.
- With WHO-SAGE recommendation countries could introduce the vaccine into their immunisation programmes.
- The vaccine can be used in infants between 6 and 23 months of age and catch up vaccinations can be given to children between 2 and 15 years of age.
- The WHO prequalification of Typbar TCV marks an important milestone in the global effort to rid the world of typhoid fever and improve health for some of the most vulnerable populations in the world
Section : Social Issues