About: Khudiram Bose
- Khudiram Bose was born in 1889, in a small village in Medinipur district of West Bengal.
- He is one of the youngest revolutionaries of the Indian freedom struggle.
- Khudiram Bose is highly regarded in Bengal for his fearless spirit, and his ultimate sacrifice for the cause. However, his legacy has remained largely limited to Bengal.
- Now, the Union Home Minister paid homage to him saying, “Khudiram Bose belongs to all of India and not just West Bengal.”
Early revolutionary activities:
- Khudiram Bose was drawn towards revolutionary activism in his adolescence after attending a series of lectures by Sri Aurbindo Ghose and Sister Nivedita, when they visited Midnapore in early 1900s.
- He actively participated in protests against the partition of Bengal in 1905.
- At 15 years of age, he joined the Anushilan Samiti.
- Anushilan Samiti was a revolutionary organization in Bengal that existed for the first three decades of twentieth century.
- It believed in militant nationalism.
- It was established by Pramathanath Mitra in 1902 and headed by Sri Aurbindo Ghose and his younger brother Barindra Kumar Ghose.
- He was arrested for distributing booklets and other literature, to local people, against the British colonial rulers.
Kingsford and trials of Jugantar editors:
- Jugantar Patrika was a Bengali revolutionary newspaper founded in 1906 in Calcutta by Barindra Kumar Ghosh, Abhinash Bhattacharya and Bhupendranath Dutt.
- It served as the propaganda organ for the revolutionary organisation Anushilan Samiti.
- It faced prosecution a number of times by the British Indian government for publishing “seditious articles”.
- Bhupendranath Dutt was arrested in 1907 for publication of articles “inciting violence against the Government of India”.
- Chief Magistrate Douglas Kingsford of the Presidency Court of Alipore, who versaw the trials of Bhupendranath Dutta and other editors of Jugantar, sentenced them to rigorous imprisonment. He becomes infamous for passing harsh and cruel sentences on young revolutionaries.
Assassination attempt on Kingsford:
- Young revolutionaries like Hemchandra Kanungo and Barindra Kumar Ghosh, who learnt bomb-making techniques, chose Douglas Kingsford as their target.
- Meanwhile, Kingsford was transferred by the government to Muzaffarpur in Bihar.
- In 1908, Prafulla Chaki and Khudiram Bose went to Muzaffarpur with a bomb provided to him by Hemchandra.
- Chaki and Bose threw the bomb on what they believed were the carriage carrying Kingsford and his wife but mistakenly threw it on another carriage killing the wife and daughter of a British Barrister.
Hanging of Khudiram Bose:
- After the attack, Khudiram and Prafulla managed to escape.
- But Khudiram Bose was soon captured at a railway station called Waini, which was later renamed Khudiram Bose Pusa Station in his honour.
- Prafulla Chaki killed himself before he could be arrested.
- On July 13, 1908, Khudiram Bose was sentenced to death after a historic trial, and was executed on August 11, 1908.
- Reports in newspapers of those times said that he went to the gallows with a smile and the Bhagavad Gita in his hand.
- The streets of Calcutta erupted in large protests after his execution.
About: Sri Aurobindo Ghose
- Sri Aurobindo Ghose (1872-1950) was a revolutionary leader of Indian Freedom struggle.
- He helped establish the Anushilan Samiti of Calcutta in 1992.
- He started an English newspaper called in Bande Mataram and contributed articles in the magazine Jugantar.
- In 1908, he was arrested in connection with the Alipore Conspiracy Case or Alipore Bomb Case.
- In his later life, he turned into a spiritual Guru and established his ashram in Puducherry, where he died.
About: Sister Nivedita
- Margaret Noble was an Irish social activist.
- She became a disciple of Swami Vivekananda, and followed him to India. Swami Vivekananda gave her the name Nivedita (meaning “Dedicated to God”) when he initiated her into the vow of Brahmacharya.
- She also took part in the Indian freedom struggle, and was a close associate of Sri Aurobindo Ghose.