Discuss the key reasons for continuous ceasefire violations at the line of control between India and Pakistan.

Model Answer


The India–Pakistan border in Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) has witnessed repeated ceasefire violations (CFVs) over the past decade. With degrading bilateral relations between India and Pakistan, CFVs have gone up exponentially. These CFVs have the potential not only to begin a crisis but also to escalate an ongoing one.

Reasons behind the ceasefire violations at LoC:

  • To test the other side: Most of the time, when a new battalion is posted at India’s border, Pakistani troop’s starts a fire to check their strength and agility response. Also, if Pakistan changes the battalion on its border, it starts firing to show its fighting capabilities.
  • Defense constructions: Whenever a defense construction takes place, the Ceasefire violations also occur to divert the focus of other side troops from this construction.
  • Unclear LoC: LoC is not defined properly through the 1948 ceasefire agreement, the Shimla Agreement, Karachi Agreement. The 2003 agreement is not yet finalized and this led to an ambiguity in the demarcated areas. It triggers the Ceasefire in the majority of the cases.
  • To infiltrate the terrorist: If Pakistan wants to send terrorists in India through the border, it starts firing at one area to get all focus and infiltrate through other areas.
  • The emotional state of soldiers: The ceasefire violations increased when Indian Cricket team defeated the Pakistani cricket team. Also, when India successfully conducted a missile test, the ceasefire violation occur.

Way Forward:

Confidence building measures to enhance mutual trust and economic cooperation to enhance trade can aid in the peace at the border.

Only six ceasefire violations have been reported until August 2021, ever since India and Pakistan agreed in February 2021 to observe all pacts related to cross-border firings along the Line of Control (LoC) and the International Border in Jammu and Kashmir, according to the Lok Sabha. If it continues, the diplomatic missions can be restored to define the LoC clearly, and peace can be brought to the border.

Additional Information about Ceasefire ViolationsThe line of control (LoC) had emerged from 1948 when the UN negotiated with India and Pakistan after the Kashmir war. Both the countries had reached an agreement to Ceasefire in 2003 after the Kargil War of 1999. It brought peace along the border till 2006. According to the Union Ministry of Home Affairs, as many as 5,133 incidents of ceasefire violations were reported in 2020, 3,479 in 2019, and 2,140 in 2018.