About: Tuberculosis (TB) It is an infectious disease usually caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) bacteria, which generally affects the lungs (Pulmonary TB), but can also affect other parts of the body (Extrapulmonary). It is spread from one person to the next through the air when people who have active TB in their lungs cough, spit, speak, or sneeze. Most infections show no symptoms, which is also known as latent tuberculosis.Read more
About: Interest rate transmission The monetary policy of the country is handled by RBI, under which it takes various steps to manage inflation and money supply in the economy. Repo rate is the rate at which RBI lends funds to banks and Reverse repo rate is the rate at which it borrows funds from banks. RBI increases or decreases these rates to control the flow of moneyRead more
Co-operatives: Cooperatives are organizations formed at the grassroots level by people to harness the power of collective bargaining towards a common goal. The main aim of Cooperative societies is to provide tangible benefit to all people who face similar problems. Co-operatives are owned by members—producers or consumers—and have in many ways resulted in benefits to the stakeholders. By some estimates,Read more
Explained: How lightning strikes, and why it kills In News: At least 30 people were killed in separate incidents of lightning in various parts of the country in the past 24 hours. What is Lightning? Lightning is a phenomenon where light energy is produced by imbalances between cumulonimbus clouds and the ground, or within the clouds themselves. Most lightning occurs withinRead more
A proposed elephant reserve in Chhattisgarh and its reduced area In News: The proposed Lemru Elephant Reserve (in the pipeline for 20 years) in Chhattisgarh, has become the subject of controversies. This provides the context for understanding of the Elephants and their Reserves in India. In Focus: Elephants and their Conservation Efforts: UPSC Books About the species: Elephant (Elephas maximus) isRead more
Title : Pandemics and Digital Divide https://amzn.to/3B0iiIn Digital divide refers to the gap between those with regular, effective access to digital and information technology, and those without this access. It encompasses both physical access to technology hardware and, more broadly, skills and resources which allow for its use. Factors like gender, physical disability, physical access, age, access to the contents,Read more
Title : Is democracy losing ground? Even as there are powerful pro-democracy movements in Hong Kong and Venezuela, there has been a trend in recent years that democracy is in retreat. Many surveys concur. The latest survey by Freedom House, an American think-tank, is called “Democracy in Crisis”. In 2017, for the 12th consecutive year, countries that suffered democratic setbacksRead more
In Focus: Uniform Civil Code (UCC) What is Uniform Civil Code (UCC)? A Uniform Civil Code refers to a single law for the entire country, applicable to all religious communities in their personal matters such as marriage, divorce, inheritance, adoption etc. It is intended to replace the system of fragmented personal laws, which currently govern interpersonal relationships and related mattersRead more
Digital India initiatives The initiatives under Digital India fall under three umbrellas: A.DI initiatives – Infrastructure Aadhaar Aadhaar identity platform is one of the key pillars of ‘Digital India’, under which every resident of the country is provided with a unique identity or Aadhaar number. It is a strategic policy tool for social and financial inclusion, public sector delivery reforms, managing fiscalRead more
About: Syama Prasad Mookerjee Born on 6 July 1901 in Calcutta, Syama Prasad Mookerjee was an Indian politician, barrister and academician. In 1934, Mookerjee earned the rare distinction of becoming the youngest vice-chancellor of Calcutta University at the age of 33. For his outstanding academic record, he was awarded with the Doctorate of Literature by the Calcutta University and LL.D (Doctor of Law) byRead more
About: Namami Gange Programme, National Ganga Council, National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) #UPSC
Cities situated on river banks will have to incorporate river conservation plans when they prepare their Master Plans, says a policy document from the National Mission for Clean Ganga. About: Namami Gange Programme ‘Namami Gange Programme’, is an Integrated Conservation Mission, approved as ‘Flagship Programme’ by the Union Government in June 2014. Flagship schemes of Government are those schemes whichRead more
In Focus: National Initiative for Proficiency in Reading with Understanding and Numeracy (NIPUN) Bharat Programme
In Focus: National Initiative for Proficiency in Reading with Understanding and Numeracy (NIPUN) Bharat Programme About: The programme was launched by the Department of School Education, Ministry of Education, Government of India. Central Square Foundation, a non-governmental organisation with a focus on foundational literacy and numeracy, has provided inputs and technical support to the Centre in the development of this mission.Read more
About: National Board for Wildlife (NBWL), Functions, Composition, Standing Committee of the NBWL, Protected Areas
About: National Board for Wildlife (NBWL) The National Board for Wildlife (NBWL) is a statutory body constituted in 2003, under the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972. It serves as an apex body to review all wildlife-related matters. The board is advisory in nature and advises the Central Government on framing policies and measures for conservation of wildlife in the country. Functions: The primary function of the Board isRead more
About: OPEC The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries is an intergovernmental organization of 13 nations (as of February 2021), founded in 1960 in Baghdad by the first five members (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela), and headquartered since 1965 in Vienna, Austria. The current OPEC members are Algeria, Angola, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, the Republic ofRead more
About: Purchasing Manager Index (PMI) The Nikkei India Manufacturing PMI, compiled by IHS Markit, is based on data compiled from monthly survey responses by purchasing managers in more than 400 manufacturing companies, on various factors that represent demand conditions.Note: It is also sometime referred to as IHS Markit India Manufacturing PMI. PMI measures activity at the purchasing or input stage. It is very different from industrial production which isRead more
The British rule has been often been described as the reason for drain of Indian wealth to Britain. In this light discuss constituent of economic drain and consequences of the same.
Q. The British rule has been often been described as the reason for drain of Indian wealth to Britain. In this light discuss constituent of economic drain and consequences of the same. Structure of the answer: Introduction (drain of wealth) Estimate of drain of wealth Constituent of economic drain Consequences Final analysis Model Answer The constant flow of wealth fromRead more
What is Cybersecurity? Computer security, Cybersecurity or Information Technology Security is the protection of computer systems and networks from information disclosure, theft of or damage to their hardware, software, or electronic data. About: Global Cybersecurity Index (GCI) The Global Cybersecurity Index (GCI) is a trusted reference that measures the commitment of countries to cybersecurity at a global level. GCI was first launchedRead more
About Digital India The Digital India programme was launched in 2015, with a vision to transform India into a digitally empowered society and knowledge economy. It is an umbrella programme that covers multiple government Ministries and Departments. The overall coordination is done by the Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DeitY). It brings together a large number of ideas into aRead more
Chief Secretaries (CS) are members of the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) and are the administrative head of state governments. The Chief Secretary is the senior-most cadre post in the state administration and the status of the Chief Secretary is equal to that of a Secretary to the Government of India. The Indian Constitution does not list the powers and functions of the Chief Secretary. The functions ofRead more
What is Drought?, Global Assessment Report (GAR) on Drought 2021, Impact of Drought, Cost estimates of Drought, About United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction
Impact of severe droughts on India GDP is 2-5%: UN In News The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR) recently released a report titled Global Assessment Report (GAR) on Drought 2021. What is Drought? The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) defines drought as a period of abnormally dry weather long enough to cause a serious hydrological (water) imbalance. ItRead more
In Focus: Cryptocurrencies About: A cryptocurrency is a digital or virtual currency that is secured by cryptography, which makes it nearly impossible to counterfeit or double-spend. Many cryptocurrencies are decentralized networks based on blockchain technology. A defining feature of cryptocurrencies is that they are generally not issued by any central authority, rendering them theoretically immune to governmentinterference or manipulation. Types of Cryptocurrency: Bitcoin: Launched in 2009, the first blockchain-basedRead more
In Focus: Biodiversity Hotspots A biodiversity hotspot is a region with a high amount of biodiversity that experiences habitat loss by human activity. The term “biodiversity hotspot” was coined by a British environmentalist Norman Myers in 1988. For a region to qualify as a biodiversity hotspot, it must meet the following two criteria: Contain at least 1,500 species of vascular plants found nowhereRead more
About: Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) The Central Vigilance Commission was setup by a Government Resolution in 1964, to advise and guide Central Government agencies in the field of vigilance. The Commission was given the status of independent statutory authority through the Central Vigilance Commission Act, 2003. As the apex integrity institution, the Commission is mandated to fight corruption and to ensure integrity in public administration.Read more
About: National Human Rights Commission (NHRC): The National Human Rights Commission is a statutory body established in 1993 under the Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993. The commission is the watchdog of human rights in the country i.e. the rights relating to life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the Constitution or embodied in the international covenants and enforceable byRead more
About: Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) The Central Board of Secondary Education was formed officially in 1962 with the sole purpose to make a common standard and platform for every student in the country. The Board has not been established under any statute. It can be treated only as an authority created by the Government of India to carry on certainRead more
Sunderbans is the largest single block mangrove forest in the world. About: Sundarbans: Sundarbans is a mangrove area in the delta formed by the confluence of the Ganga, Brahmaputra and Meghna Rivers in the Bay of Bengal. It is the largest single block mangrove forest in the world. The Sundarbans mangrove forest covers an area of about 10,000 sq. km, of which forests in Bangladeshextend over 6,017 sq. km andRead more
In News: On Wednesday, May 26 — Buddha Jayanti, Buddha Purnima, or Vesak — India’s largest statue of the Reclining Buddha was to have been installed at the Buddha International Welfare Mission temple in Bodh Gaya, Bihar. The ceremony has been postponed due to Covid-19 restrictions. About the Reclining Buddha: A reclining Buddha is an image that represents Buddha lyingRead more
Freedom of Navigation Operations Q Why is it in News? The US Navy has had “asserted navigational rights and freedoms approximately 130 nautical miles west of Lakshadweep Islands, inside India’s exclusive economic zone (EEZ), without requesting India’s prior consent, consistent with international law”. Q What are Freedom of Navigation Operations? Freedom of Navigation Operations (FONOPs) are closely linked toRead more
Northern Lights, also known as aurora borealis could be visible in regions such as in the northern parts of Illinois and Pennsylvania in the US. Q. What is Aurora, why does it occur? Auroras occur when charged particles ejected from the Sun’s surface — called the solar wind — enter the Earth’s atmosphere. While flowing toward Earth, the fast-moving solarRead more
Define minorities. What are the socio cultural problems before them and what measures should be adopted to solve them? [200 Words]
Ans.: A minority group, refers to a group of people whose practices, race, religion, ethnicity, or other characteristics are lesser in numbers than the main groups of those classifications.In sociology, a minority group refers to a category of people who experience relative disadvantage as compared to members of a dominant social group. Louis Wirth defined a minority group as “a group of people who, because ofRead more
Describe any four cultural elements of diversity in India and rate their relative significance in building a national identity. (UPSC – 2015) [150 Words]
Ans.: Diversity connotes collective differences among people that differentiates one group of people from another.India is considered as a mega culturally diverse country due to the existence of various groups that provide a unique blend to India’s diversity. These culturally diverse elements have given India an identity that is heterogeneous compared to any such large countries. Cultural elements of diversity inRead more
How Asian desert dust enhances Indian summer monsoon Q. What is the news? A recent study shows how dust coming from the deserts in the West, Central and East Asia plays an important role in the Indian Summer Monsoon. The researchers also explain how the Indian Summer Monsoon has a reverse effect and can increase the winds in West AsiaRead more
How Supreme Court chooses the Chief Justice of India Why is it in News? Chief Justice of India Sharad A. Bobde has recommended Justice N.V. Ramana, the senior-most judge of the Supreme Court, as the next top judge. Justice Ramana is now set to take over as the 48th Chief Justice of India from April 24. How is CJI Appointed? TheRead more
What could be the reasons behind an unusually large hole that has opened in the ozone layer over the Arctic?
What could be the reasons behind an unusually large hole that has opened in the ozone layer over the Arctic? Over the last month, a new hole in the ozone layer has started to form over the Arctic. The ozone layer over the North Pole has been depleted plenty of times in the past. But this time around, extreme weatherRead more
Q. Why is this in news? Recently, the Central Government opposed same-sex marriage in Delhi High Court stating that a marriage in India can be recognised only if it is between a “biological man” and a “biological woman” capable of producing children. Q. What is the background for it? Petitions, seeking recognition of same sex marriages under the Hindu Marriage Act (HMA), 1955 andRead more
Q. What is the news? Recently 1,040 militants of five militant groups of Karbi Anglong district ceremonially laid down arms at an event in Guwahati in the presence of Chief Minister Sarbananda Sonowal, a development which further bolsters the ‘terrorism-free Assam’ image of the current BJP-led government. Among the surrendered militants is Ingti Kathar Songbijit, a primary accused in multiple casesRead more
Why is it unusually foggy over north India this winter? Q. What is the news? For several days during the last two months, zero visibility and dense fog has engulfed parts of Delhi and all of Punjab and Haryana keeping up with cold weather conditions. Last week alone, multiple road accidents due to poor visibility killed close to a hundred people. WhatRead more
In Focus: Civilian Awards: In 1954, Government of India instituted two civilian awards i.e. Bharat Ratna and Padma Vibhushan. The Padma Vibhushan had three classes namely Pahela Varg, Dusra Varg and Tisra Varg, which were subsequently renamed as Padma Vibhushan, Padma Bhushan and Padma Shri in 1955. About: Bharat Ratna Bharat Ratna is the highest civilian award of the country. It isRead more
World is changing fast today: The world of today is evolving rapidly. Structurally, we are seeing a re-emergence of great power contestation (now between the US and China) unlike any we have seen since the end of the Cold War (when it was between the US and Soviet). Fragmented world emerging: A rising China is challenging the fundamentals of theRead more
About: AstroSat Mission AstroSat is the first dedicated Indian astronomy mission aimed at studying celestial sources in X-ray, optical and UV spectral bands simultaneously. It was launched in 2015 into a 650 km orbit. AstroSat is also India’s first multi-wavelength satellite which has five unique X-ray and ultraviolet telescopes working in tandem. Features: The payloads of AstroSat cover the energy bands of- UltravioletRead more
What is Corporate Social Responsibility? It is a corporation’s initiative to assess and take responsibility for the company’s effects on environmental and social well being. It helps a company be socially accountable — to itself, its stakeholders, and the public. By practicing corporate social responsibility, companies can be conscious of the kind of impact they are having on all aspects ofRead more
About: G-7 G-7 or ‘Group of Seven’ is the group of the largest advanced economies of the world comprising of the United States (US), United Kingdom (UK), France, Germany, Italy, Canada and Japan. It is the only forum where the world’s most influential and democratic, open societies and advanced economies gather for discussions. G-7 has its origins in an intergovernmental organisation thatRead more
About: Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) It is the flagship scheme for skill training of youth being implemented by the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE) through the National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC). The objective of the scheme is to enable a large number of Indian youth to take up industry relevant skill training that will help themRead more
About Elephants: Elephant reserves, Project elephant, MIKE Programme, Conservation efforts, Threats faced
About: Elephants The Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus) occurs in 16 states of the country and in regions of central and southern Western Ghats, North-east India, eastern India and northern India and in some parts of southern peninsular India.The Indian elephant is one of three extant recognised subspecies of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and native to mainland Asia. The Government of India has declared IndianRead more
Govt readies 3D printing policy for local firms to join new global market In News The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) will soon come up with a policy aimed at promoting 3D printing on an industrial scale. Objectives of the policy The policy will help to develop an ecosystem for design, development and deployment of 3D printing in the country. ItRead more
Model Answer The Green Revolution in India began in the mid-1960s marking a transition from traditional agriculture in India and the introduction of high-yielding varieties of seeds and the associated agricultural techniques. The Main achievements of the Green Revolution are: Increase in Agricultural Production and productivity: The production and productivity of wheat, rice, maize and bajra has substantially increased. Less DependenceRead more
Q. Forest Fires pose a threat not only to the forest wealth but also to the entire regime. In view of this statement discuss the various adverse impacts of Forest Fires.
Model Answer Fires are a major cause of forest degradation and have wide ranging adverse ecological, economic and social impacts including: Effects of forest fire: Loss of valuable timber resources: Forest fires cause indispensable loss to timber and deteriorate its quality. Valuable timber species like teak, sal, chir, deodar, sheesam, rosewood etc. are adversely affected by fire. However, the adhesive impactRead more
Q. “Artificial intelligence is going to change every industry, but we have to understand its limits”. In light of this, discuss the benefits and challenges associated with AI in Indian context.
Model Answer Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the ability of machines to learn and reason through analogy, analyze, interpret information, recognize speech, visual perception and take decisions. In other words, AI is application of human intelligence by the machines. Benefits of AI Contribution to Economy: The NITI Aayog estimates that AI could potentially give 15% boost to the gross value added (GVA)Read more
Q. What is Budget Transparency? Scratching its genesis, discuss the benefits associated with budget transparency as well as the ways through which it can be promoted in functioning of a government?
Model Answer Budgets are key documents since they lay out a government’s priorities in terms of policies and programs. Opening up budgets and democratizing the budget process gives citizens a say in policy formulation and resource allocation. Budget transparency refers to the extent and ease with which citizens can access information about and provide feedback on government revenues, allocations, andRead more
Q. If Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) wants to remain as relevant and look toward a new phase of Asia-Pacific economic integration, it must include India as its member. Comment.
Model Answer APEC was established in 1989 as an intergovernmental platform for 21 Pacific Rim member economies to promote free-trade in the region. The grouping is facing the heat of unilateralism and protectionism. Competition and divergence in the form of US-China tensions was on full display at the 2018 APEC summit As a result, a debate pertaining to the question of the forum’sRead more
Approach Introduce with the green revolution Enumerate the success achieved by green revolution like self-sufficiency, productivity etc. Point out the failures of Green revolution like inequalities, degradation of environment etc. Conclude with the way forward Model Answer The draught of 1966 also made it inevitable to develop new technique of agriculture to increase the production and make India self-sufficient inRead more
Q. Comment upon the role of women in the Indian freedom struggle. How did the arrival of Gandhiji affect their participation in the political sphere?
Model Answer Indian freedom struggle was not only a political agitation for freedom but also an inclusive movement that included various sections of the society. The process of inclusion only intensified with the multidimensional role of women with renewed vigour after the arrival of Mahatma Gandhi. Role of Women in Indian Freedom Struggle – Earliest examples – Right from the revoltRead more
Globalization has proved to be double-edged sword for women workers by simultaneously creating opportunities as well as new set of challenges. Discuss. (15 marks)
Approach: Introduce with globalization List the multifaceted opportunities craeted for working women as a result of globalization. Mention the new challenges as well the women workers had to face. Conclude with measures to overcome the challenges Model Answer Globalization is the process of the cultural, social and economic integration of a country with the rest of the world throughRead more
Q. Discuss the mechanism of volcano formation and eruption. Also mention the distribution of volcano around the world.
Model Answer Structure of the answer: Meaning of volcano Mechanism and causes for its formation Distribution of volcano (with the help of data) Conclusion Volcanos or vulcanism comprises of all phenomena connected with movement of heated material from interior/mantle towards the earth surface. The volcano may be “active volcano” like Mount Etna or “dormant volcano” like Mount Vesuvius or Extinct volcano that have no indication of future eruption. Volcanos areRead more
Q. India is a “indestructible union of destructible state”. Explain this statement in light of the reorganization of the state under Article 3 of the Constitution.
Structure of the answer: Introduction (India being indestructible but State destructible) Background Reorganization of the state under Article 3 Final analysis Model Answer India has been called as “indestructible union” by Dr.B.R. Ambedkar as no Indian state can secede from the Indian union as in the case of confederation or loosely held federation. But on the other hand there is situation of destructible nature ofRead more
Q. Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) has become a major savior for the banking sector. In this light discuss the impact of new Code on loan recovery and also suggest remedial measures for better implementation of the Code.
Structure of the answer: Background Introduction (about IBC) Positive impact of IBC Lacunas Suggestion and way forward Model Answer Before the passing of IBC it took an average of 4.3 years to resolve insolvency and recovery rate was 25.9% as compared to developed countries where recovery rate was 72%. The salient features are: Consolidation of various laws on insolvency. The resolution process has to beRead more
Q. Since the Press was a powerful weapon in the development of Indian Nationalism, it was subjected to restrictions by the British Government. In this regard, discuss the major regulations enacted by the British rulers to curb the freedom of Press in India.
Model Answer The press was fiercely involved in rallying the masses and newspapers acted as the life breath of nationalistic rebellion. Inevitably, the British government became increasingly apprehensive and several acts were passed to curb the freedom of press. Major regulations enacted by the British rulers were: The Press Act of 1799: It imposed war time press restrictions. Which included pre-censorship,Read more
Q. Wind plays a major role in formation of different erosional and depositional land forms. In this light discuss the various types of land topography formed due to action of wind.
Structure of the answer: Introduction: Role of winds Various erosional features Various depositional features Conclusion Model Answer The wind is the main geomorphic agent especially in the hot deserts. Winds have a dual role in creating Erosional landforms and other in creating Depositional landforms. These geomorphic features are most typically found in arid environments where there is little vegetation, where there are frequently strong winds etc. The landformsRead more
Q. Space militarisation has become a new buzzword. How is it different from weaponisation of space? Discuss about the recent race in occupying the space ecosystem and how detrimental is it for human survival?
Model Answer Space militarisation refers to the ecosystem of space systems that are utilised to achieve military objectives. It involves strategic planning, surveillance and telecommunication and reconnaissance as well as real time combat through placement and development of military technology in outer space. While, space weaponisation on the other hand refers to more aggressive and offensive use of space systems for military purposesRead more
Q. In recent years the caste system in India is assuming new identities. In this light discuss the importance and challenges posed by caste system.
Structure of the answer: Introduction (about India’s caste system) Caste assuming new identities Importance of caste system Challenges of caste system Way forward Model Answer Caste is an endogamous group based on social hierarchy, where position of individual is ascribed by birth rather than achieved status. There are about 3,000 caste and 25,000 sub caste in India. In recent times the caste system is assumingRead more
Q. Foreign direct investment (FDI) is a like double edged sword. In this light discuss the positive and negative impact of FDI in India. Also suggest suitable measures to improve FDI in India.
Structure of the answer: Introduction (using data) Positive impact of FDI Negative impact of FDI Measures to increase FDI in India Model Answer FDI is an investment made by a firm or an individual into business interest located in other countries. Unlike, portfolio investment the investor in FDI acquire foreign business asset, ownership or controlling interest in foreign company. FDI equity inflowRead more
Q. What are the different types of ecological succession? In this light also discuss the significance of ecological succession?
Structure of the answer: Introduction Types of ecological succession Significance of ecological succession Way forward Model Answer Ecological succession is the steady and gradual change in a species of a given area with respect to the changing environment. The ultimate aim of this process is to reach equilibrium in the ecosystem. The community that achieves this aim is called a climax community. Further, inRead more
Q. India’s quest to land its first spacecraft on the moon got off to a smooth start with the successful launch of Chandrayaan-2 mission aboard the country’s most powerful rocket – GSLV Mk-III. In light of this statement, discuss the significance of this mission.
Model Answer Chandrayaan-2 is India’s most challenging, totally indigenous, and India’s second mission to Moon. It is advanced version of previous Chandrayaan-1 mission (launched in 2008) which only involved orbiting around moon, Chandrayaan-2 is much complicated mission as it involves an orbiter, lander and rover. After reaching the 100 km lunar orbit, the Lander housing the Rover was to separateRead more
Q. Hate speech in India is a result of various facilitating factors. In this light discuss the impact of hate speech and suggestion to effectively deal with the same.
Structure of the answer: Introduction (Meaning) Factors supporting hate speeches Impact of hate speech Way for ward/ suggestion Model Answer Hate speech is incitement of hatred primarily against a group of people defined in terms of race, ethnicity, sexual orientation etc. The issue of hate speech has become a recurrent phenomenon especially before the elections. There are various factors facilitating hate speechesRead more
Q. Regionalism in India is a result of various interconnected factors. In this light discuss the various types regionalism in India and also suggest suitable measures to curtail negative impact of regionalism.
Structure of the answer: Introduction (regionalism) Factors responsible for regionalism Types of regionalism Conclusion/ way forward Model Answer Regionalism is a strong attachment to one’s own region. Thus, it is an ideology that seek to advance cause of a region. The rise of regionalism in India is a result of various factors: Historically, formation of various regional kingdoms and frequent regional warsRead more
Q. Discuss the various features of tropical cyclones. While mentioning the factors contributing in formation of tropical cyclone differentiate them from extra-tropical cyclones.
Structure of the answer: Introduction Features of tropical cyclone Factors contributing in formation of cyclones Difference between tropical and extra tropical cyclones Conclusion Model Answer Cyclone is an intense vortex or a whirl in the atmosphere with very strong winds circulating around it in anti-clockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere and in clockwise direction in the Southern Hemisphere. For Ex- Cyclone Titli Some of the special characteristics ofRead more
Q. Oceans are the major sources for multiple living and non-living resources that are useful for the growth of blue economy. In this light discuss the concept of Blue economy and its importance for India.
Structure of the answer: Introduction (Blue economy) Ocean as the source for various resources Importance of blue economy Final analysis Model Answer The concept of blue economy was given by Gunter Pauli. It is the sustainable use of ocean resources for economic growth, improved livelihoods and jobs and ocean ecosystem health. Thus, it advocates the greening of ocean development for purposes of higherRead more
Q. The amendment procedure under Indian Constitution is a curious mixture of rigidity and flexibility. In this light discuss the different procedure for amendment reflecting such blend.
Structure of the answer: Introduction (Article 368) Different types of amendment process Reflection of rigidity and flexibility Way forward Model Answer The nature of the amending process envisaged by the makers of our Constitution has been explained by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru as reconciliation of a written Constitution with Parliamentary Sovereignty. Article 368 (Part XX) of the Constitution deals with the power of Parliament toRead more
Q. World trade organisation (WTO) as a multilateral body is facing challenges on various counts. In this light discuss the relevance of WTO and also suggest suitable reform in its functioning.
Structure of the answer: Introduction (about WTO) Challenges faced by WTO Relevance of WTO Reform in functioning of WTO Model Answer WTO was set up under Marrakesh Treaty (1994) and as an organization aim to improve living standards, generate employment, and expand global trade. However, in recent years WTO is facing challenges on various counts such as: Consensus based rule making has become aRead more
Q. The town planning in Harappan Civilisation shows the high level of sophistication. In this light discuss the significant features of Harappan town planning. Also mention the various theories in relation to decline of the Civilisation.
Structure of the answer: Introduction Significant features High level of sophistication Decline of Harappan civilisation Model Answer The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC), also known as Harappan Civilization flourished around 2,500 BC in the western part of South Asia. The Harappan culture was distinguished by its system of town planning. Significant features of the Harappan town planning are as follows: Division of city into the Citadel e. mound builtRead more
Q. The term ‘governance’, ‘good governance’ and ‘ethical governance’ though looks similar, yet signifies different idea. In this background, differentiate the above-mentioned terms in light of governance structure in India.
Structure of the answer: Introduction Meaning of different terms with help of example Final analysis/ conclusion Model Answer The term ‘governance’, ‘good governance’ and ‘ethical governance’ appears to be used interchangeably and are intrinsically interlinked. Yet, each of them signify different meaning in their own sense. The same are discussed below with help of examples. The term ‘governance’ is defined as follows: It is the exercise of economic, political andRead more
Q. The British rule has been often been described as the reason for drain of Indian wealth to Britain. In this light discuss constituent of economic drain and consequences of the same.
Structure of the answer: Introduction (drain of wealth) Estimate of drain of wealth Constituent of economic drain Consequences Final analysis Model Answer The constant flow of wealth from India to England for which India did not get an adequate economic, commercial or material return has been described as drain of wealth from India. Dadabhai Naoroji gave ‘drain of wealth theory’ in his book ‘PovertyRead more
Q. The British rule was marked by various Peasants movement. In this background discuss the impact of these movement on freedom struggle.
Structure of the answer: Introduction Various peasant movement in British era Impact of peasant movement on freedom struggle Conclusion Model Answer Peasant movement in India arose due to Britishers economic policies that resulted in the change of ownership of agrarian land, massive debt burden and impoverishment of peasantry. Thus, the peasants rose in revolt against this injustice on many occasions. Some ofRead more
Q. India is currently facing the issue of rising tsunami of e-waste. In this light discuss the challenges being posed by increasing e-waste and also suggest the suitable measures to tackle these challenges.
Structure of the answer: Introduction Rise of e-waste and issues relating to it Challenges posed by it Measures to handle such an issue Final analysis Model Answer Electronic waste/ e-waste is a term used for electronic products that have become unwanted, obsolete and have reached the end of their useful life. India generates near about 2 million metric tonne of e-waste annually andRead more
Q. In recent years there has been number of farmer protest around India demanding increase in Minimum support price (MSP). In this light discuss the effectiveness of MSP and need for replacing it with Price deficiency payment system.
Structure of the answer: Introduction Deficiencies in the MSP system Importance of price deficiency payment system Final analysis Model Answer MSP is the base price set by the Government and whenever the market prices fall below the announced MSPs, procurement agencies step in to procure the crop at the support price. In India, the MSP are recommended by the Commission for Agricultural Cost andRead more
Q. Considering the controversial nature of the position of the Governor, many experts have suggested abolishment of the Governor’s post. In this light discuss the arguments for and against such decision.
Structure of the answer: Introduction Controversial position of the Governor Arguments for abolishing the post Arguments against abolishing the post Final analysis Model Answer The Position of the Governor is controversial in light of emergence of concept of cooperative federalism. The issue has recently cropped up over controversial role of Governor in post-election scenario in Maharashtra and Karnataka. These events reflected that Governor’s interferenceRead more
Q. Explain how the American War of Independence had transformed the Europe and other parts of the world?
Model Answer The American Revolution of 1776 had transformed not only the America but also the Europe and other parts of the world. Its direct and indirect influences were felt worldwide in the time to come. The impact of the American Revolution was as follows: Ideological impact: The ideas of liberty, equality, fraternity were popularized all over the world as a resultRead more
Q. Recent international trend has been averse to the use of nuclear energy. In this light, discuss the reason inhibiting use of nuclear use energy. Also bring out the positive externalities arising from use of nuclear energy.
Structure of the answer: Introduction Reason for averseness to the use of nuclear energy Positive things in relation to use of nuclear energy Conclusion Model Answer Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam described nuclear power as a gateway to a prosperous future. However, World Nuclear Association has reported that nuclear electricity generation in 2017 was at its lowest level since 1999. Even, Germany has decided to closeRead more
Q. What do you understand by Emotional Intelligence(EI)? Highlight its significance, discuss the ways to develop EI among civil servants.
Approach: Explain the concept of Emotional Intelligence(EI) and discuss its components Highlight the significance and importance of EI for civil servants. Discuss the ways to develop EI among civil servants. Model Answer Emotional Intelligence (EI) refers to the capability of a person to recognize, understand and manage own emotions, as well as to understand, manage and influence emotions of others.Read more
Q. In the context of the world history, discuss the achievements of the Bolshevik Revolution of Russia.
Model Answer The Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 were the two phases of a single revolution where due to the prevailing widespread discontent, Lenin overthrew Kerensky’s government with the help of his revolutionary Red Guard on the night of 6th and 7th November 1917 and declared Russia as a communist nation. Other significant achievements of the Bolshevik revolution are as follows:Read more
Q. Women’s movement post-independence has covered a wide array of topics. In this background mention the issues covered by these movement and government response to the same.
Structure of the answer: Introduction Issues covered by women’s movement Government response to the same Final analysis Model Answer Women’s movement is an important variant of social movement that aimed to bring changes in the institutional arrangements, customs and beliefs in the society that subjugated women. The aim of theses movement changed over a period of time and the same isRead more
Q. Government has promised to double farmer’s income by 2022, in this light discuss the measures taken by government to implement the same. Also suggest suitable strategies to timely and sustainable achievement of this target.
Structure of the answer: Introduction Measures taken by government Suggestion Way forward Model Answer The government has set a target of doubling farmers’ income by 2022 to overcome the distressed situation of agriculture. The situation was evident after large scale farmer’s protest in various parts of India. The reorientation of strategy was needed due to following reasons: Earlier strategy focused primarilyRead more
Q. Reform movements in religion were largely responsible for social reform movements in India. In this context, discuss the contribution of various socio-cultural reformers in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Approach: Briefly discuss about the social reform movements in India. Discuss the contribution of various socio-cultural reformers in the 19th and 20th centuries. Model Answer Indian Society in the 19th century was caught in a vicious web created by religious superstitions and dogmas. All religions in general and Hinduism in particular had become a compound of magic, animism, and superstitions.Read more
Q. India has moved forward by providing fundamental rights of basic education through Right to Education (RTE) Act 2009. Analyse the challenges faced at primary level of Education in India. Also discuss the major reforms suggested at primary level in the recent draft education policy 2019.
Approach: Briefly write about Right to Education (RTE) Act 2009 and its current status. Discuss the challenges faced at primary level of Education in India. Discuss the major reforms suggested at primary level in the recent draft education policy 2019. Model Answer With 86th amendment, education was made fundamental rights of the citizen under Article 21(a). Right to education act 2009Read more
Q. The Government of India, through the Department of Science and Technology (DST), has released a draft of the new Scientific Social Responsibility (SSR) Policy. Discuss the objective of introducing SSR Policy and the benefits associated with it.
Model Answer India is going to be possibly the first country in the world to implement a SSR Policy on the lines of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Under the proposed policy, individual scientists or knowledge workers will be required to devote at least 10 person-days of SSR per year for exchanging scientific knowledge to society. Objectives The main objective ofRead more
Model Answer India adopted federal form of governance where the states are represented through the Upper House. Except Money Bills, Upper House plays an important role in the law making process in the country. It also plays the role of counsel to states; however, some experts are of the view that this House should be abolished as it is not servingRead more
Q. Civil Servant occupy important position in the government in terms of dealing with large amount of public funds and their decisions have wide repercussions. Thus there is a need for creating ethical competent Civil Servants. In this light, suggest ways to promote ethical competence among Civil Servants.
Structure of the answer: Introduction Justifying the statement Steps to improve ethical competence among civil servant Conclusion Model Answer With great power comes great responsibility. Civil servants have to ensure proper utilisation, appropriation and allocation of funds. The decisions undertaken by the Civil Servant impact large number of individuals and society as a whole. Moreover, it also has an impact onRead more
Q. Describe briefly the features of bronze sculpture art that reached its zenith during the Chola era.
Approach: Introduce the Chola bronze art – why it is considered as the high stage of development Divide the answer into subparts – patronage, religious purpose, technology, and iconography Also mention various examples to substantiate the points Within the subparts, try to trace the chronological development. Model Answer The Chola period is well known for the aesthetic and technical finesseRead more
Q. The large-scale occurrence of floods is a result of multitude of factors. In this background discuss the causes of floods and steps to minimise the vulnerability to floods.
Structure of the answer: Introduction Causes of floods Steps to mitigate vulnerability Conclusion Model Answer Flood is a state of higher water level along a river channel or on coast leading to inundation of land that is not normally submerge. In India, 40 million hectares out of a geographical area of 3290 lakh hectares is prone to floods. Moreover, every year, 1600 lives are lostRead more
Q. What was the immediate trigger of the World War-I? What were the reasons for the breakout of the war? Comment
Model Answer World War-I has its roots in the assassination of a prince. On 28 June 1914, Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary was assassinated by a Serbian terrorist at Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia. Austria saw the hands of Serbia behind this and served Serbia an ultimatum. Serbia refused to accept one of the demandsRead more
Q. The Citizen’s Charter is an ideal instrument of organisational transparency and accountability. Identify the importance and components of Citizen’s Charter. Tracing out its limitations, suggest measures for its greater effectiveness.
Approach: Start introduction mentioning the challenges in public service delivery. Define Citizen’s Charter stating its importance and it components. Discuss the limitation in implementation of Citizen’s Charter. Discuss the measures to ensure its effective implementation. Model Answer The public service delivery of India faced a problem of bureaucratic corruption and delays. The government functioned in a very opaque and unaccountable manner. There existed aRead more
Q. To resolve the issue of unemployment, there is a need for multi-prong approach. In this light discuss the steps needed to resolve this long-standing issue and also mention the measures taken by the government in this regard.
Structure of the answer: Introduction Steps needed for unemployment Steps taken by the government Way forward Model Answer Unemployment is a situation where person is capable of working both physically and mentally at the existing wage rate, but does not get a job to work. As per the recent statistics unemployment rate in India rose to 7.2% in 2019. Unemployment represent itselfRead more
Q. Discuss the difference between Himalayas and Peninsular drainage system. Also put forth importance of the river system in India.
Structure of the answer: Introduction Difference between Himalayan and Peninsular river system Importance of river system in India Conclusion Model Answer Rivers are considered as the lifelines of a country as they provide the most valuable thing for the survival i.e. water. The rivers in India can be broadly categorized into two different categories based on their origin: the Himalayan Rivers and the PeninsularRead more
Q. The reason for malnutrition/ hunger are multidimensional. In this light, discuss the factors contributing to malnutrition and also suggest suitable measures to improve malnutrition in India.
Structure of the answer: Introduction Causes of malnutrition in India Measures to overcome Conclusion Model Answer Malnutrition is a physical state that includes undernutrition (wasting, stunting, underweight), inadequate vitamins or minerals, overweight, obesity, and resulting diet-related non-communicable diseases. As per Reports 31.4% of children are malnourished. The factors contributing to malnutrition are as follows: Despite increase in food grain production access to rice, wheatRead more
Covid highlighted the government’s will to tackle issues taking a long-term view: Covid’s pain reminded us of our economy’s pre-existing issues, including inadequate formalization, financialization, urbanization, industrialization and human capital. In such situations, economists and policymakers often think only of the present, with the belief that current circumstances are special, unique and unprecedented. However, the Indian government has also demonstratedRead more
Governor’s role in calling an Assembly session: what the law, courts say Context: The Kerala Governor recently refused to accept the Kerala Cabinet’s request to summon (call) a special sitting of the Assembly to debate the new three central farm laws. This provides the context to study about the provisions related to the Governor’s powers to summon an assembly. In Focus: ProvisionsRead more
Q. The Britishers formed Indian National Congress (INC) to act as a safety valve. However, the Indians used the forum as a lightning conductor much to the whammy of Britishers. In this light the purpose behind formation of INC and the intention of Indians in respect of the same.
Structure of the answer: Introduction Safety valve theory/ Britisher’s intention on formation of INC Use of INC by Indians for propagating nationalist interest Conclusion Model Answer There is wide spread belief that reason behind the formation of INC was safety valve theory i.e. Britishers wanted to pacify the raising discontent among Indian masses through INC. The discontent among Indians was due to issues likeRead more
Approach: Briefly discuss about the code of ethics and the code of conduct. Differentiate between the given terms. Substantiate your answer with relevant examples. Model Answer Code of ethics and code of conduct specify the ethical standards that a group (e.g., staff or a professional group) should follow in order to continue as a member of the group. They areRead more
Q. What do you mean by climate forcing? Explain the factors that causes the Earth’s climate to change.
Approach: Explain the meaning of climate forcing and related phenomenon with relevant examples. Discuss various natural and anthropogenic causes of climate change. Conclude the answer, as per the context. Model Answer Any external factor that originates from outside the climate system and can become a cause of climate change is called Climate Forcing. These factors are specifically known as forcingsRead more
Q. Discuss the relevance of the Legislative Councils in the States in the backdrop of recent demand of certain states to create the second house?
Approach: Briefly write about the constitutional process of formation of Legislative Council. Discuss both the arguments: favour and against the existence of Legislative council. Write the final conclusion mentioning what should be the way forward. Model Answer Legislative councils of state are created under Article 169 of the Constitution. Parliament may by law create or abolish the second chamber in a state ifRead more