How Supreme Court chooses the Chief Justice of India

How Supreme Court chooses the Chief Justice of India Why is it in News?  Chief Justice of India Sharad A. Bobde has recommended Justice N.V. Ramana, the senior-most judge of the Supreme Court, as the next top judge. Justice Ramana is now set to take over as the 48th Chief Justice of India from April 24.Continue reading “How Supreme Court chooses the Chief Justice of India”

What could be the reasons behind an unusually large hole that has opened in the ozone layer over the Arctic?

What could be the reasons behind an unusually large hole that has opened in the ozone layer over the Arctic? Over the last month, a new hole in the ozone layer has started to form over the Arctic. The ozone layer over the North Pole has been depleted plenty of times in the past. ButContinue reading “What could be the reasons behind an unusually large hole that has opened in the ozone layer over the Arctic?”

Issue of Same Sex Marriage

Q. Why is this in news?  Recently, the Central Government opposed same-sex marriage in Delhi High Court stating that a marriage in India can be recognised only if it is between a “biological man” and a “biological woman” capable of producing children. Q. What is the background for it? Petitions, seeking recognition of same sex marriages underContinue reading “Issue of Same Sex Marriage”

Significance of militants’ surrender in Assam and history of Karbi insurgency.

Q. What is the news? Recently 1,040 militants of five militant groups of Karbi Anglong district ceremonially laid down arms at an event in Guwahati in the presence of Chief Minister Sarbananda Sonowal, a development which further bolsters the ‘terrorism-free Assam’ image of the current BJP-led government. Among the surrendered militants is Ingti Kathar Songbijit, aContinue reading “Significance of militants’ surrender in Assam and history of Karbi insurgency.”

Why is it unusually foggy over north India this winter?

Why is it unusually foggy over north India this winter? Q. What is the news? For several days during the last two months, zero visibility and dense fog has engulfed parts of Delhi and all of Punjab and Haryana keeping up with cold weather conditions. Last week alone, multiple road accidents due to poor visibility killed closeContinue reading “Why is it unusually foggy over north India this winter?”

In Focus: Civilian Awards:

In Focus: Civilian Awards: In 1954, Government of India instituted two civilian awards i.e. Bharat Ratna and Padma Vibhushan. The Padma Vibhushan had three classes namely Pahela Varg, Dusra Varg and Tisra Varg, which were subsequently renamed as Padma Vibhushan, Padma Bhushan and Padma Shri in 1955. About: Bharat Ratna Bharat Ratna is the highest civilian awardContinue reading “In Focus: Civilian Awards:”

India’s UNSC moment Editorial 26th Jan’21 TimesOfIndia

World is changing fast today: The world of today is evolving rapidly. Structurally, we are seeing a re-emergence of great power contestation (now between the US and China) unlike any we have seen since the end of the Cold War (when it was between the US and Soviet). Fragmented world emerging:  A rising China isContinue reading “India’s UNSC moment Editorial 26th Jan’21 TimesOfIndia”

About: AstroSat Mission, It’s Features, Objective and Payload

About: AstroSat Mission AstroSat is the first dedicated Indian astronomy mission aimed at studying celestial sources in X-ray, optical and UV spectral bands simultaneously. It was launched in 2015 into a 650 km orbit. AstroSat is also India’s first multi-wavelength satellite which has five unique X-ray and ultraviolet telescopes working in tandem. Features: The payloads of AstroSat coverContinue reading “About: AstroSat Mission, It’s Features, Objective and Payload”

About: Corporate Social Responsibility?

What is Corporate Social Responsibility? It is a corporation’s initiative to assess and take responsibility for the company’s effects on environmental and social well being. It helps a company be socially accountable — to itself, its stakeholders, and the public. By practicing corporate social responsibility, companies can be conscious of the kind of impact they areContinue reading “About: Corporate Social Responsibility?”

International Relation: About G-7

About: G-7 G-7 or ‘Group of Seven’ is the group of the largest advanced economies of the world comprising of the United States (US), United Kingdom (UK), France, Germany, Italy, Canada and Japan. It is the only forum where the world’s most influential and democratic, open societies and advanced economies gather for discussions. G-7 has its originsContinue reading “International Relation: About G-7”

About: Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY)

About: Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) It is the flagship scheme for skill training of youth being implemented by the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE) through the National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC). The objective of the scheme is to enable a large number of Indian youth to take up industry relevant skillContinue reading “About: Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY)”

About Elephants: Elephant reserves, Project elephant, MIKE Programme, Conservation efforts, Threats faced

About: Elephants The Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus) occurs in 16 states of the country and in regions of central and southern Western Ghats, North-east India, eastern India and northern India and in some parts of southern peninsular India.The Indian elephant is one of three extant recognised subspecies of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and native to mainland Asia. The GovernmentContinue reading “About Elephants: Elephant reserves, Project elephant, MIKE Programme, Conservation efforts, Threats faced”

About 3D Printing

Govt readies 3D printing policy for local firms to join new global market In News The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) will soon come up with a policy aimed at promoting 3D printing on an industrial scale. Objectives of the policy The policy will help to develop an ecosystem for design, development and deployment ofContinue reading “About 3D Printing”

Q. In spite of having several achievements, the green revolution has several defects. Examine

Model Answer The Green Revolution in India began in the mid-1960s marking a transition from traditional agriculture in India and the introduction of high-yielding varieties of seeds and the associated agricultural techniques. The Main achievements of the Green Revolution are: Increase in Agricultural Production and productivity: The production and productivity of wheat, rice, maize and bajraContinue reading “Q. In spite of having several achievements, the green revolution has several defects. Examine”

Q. Forest Fires pose a threat not only to the forest wealth but also to the entire regime. In view of this statement discuss the various adverse impacts of Forest Fires.

Model Answer Fires are a major cause of forest degradation and have wide ranging adverse ecological, economic and social impacts including: Effects of forest fire: Loss of valuable timber resources: Forest fires cause indispensable loss to timber and deteriorate its quality. Valuable timber species like teak, sal, chir, deodar, sheesam, rosewood etc. are adversely affected byContinue reading “Q. Forest Fires pose a threat not only to the forest wealth but also to the entire regime. In view of this statement discuss the various adverse impacts of Forest Fires.”

Q. “Artificial intelligence is going to change every industry, but we have to understand its limits”. In light of this, discuss the benefits and challenges associated with AI in Indian context.

Model Answer Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the ability of machines to learn and reason through analogy, analyze, interpret information, recognize speech, visual perception and take decisions. In other words, AI is application of human intelligence by the machines. Benefits of AI Contribution to Economy: The NITI Aayog estimates that AI could potentially give 15% boost toContinue reading “Q. “Artificial intelligence is going to change every industry, but we have to understand its limits”. In light of this, discuss the benefits and challenges associated with AI in Indian context.”

Q. What is Budget Transparency? Scratching its genesis, discuss the benefits associated with budget transparency as well as the ways through which it can be promoted in functioning of a government?

Model Answer Budgets are key documents since they lay out a government’s priorities in terms of policies and programs. Opening up budgets and democratizing the budget process gives citizens a say in policy formulation and resource allocation. Budget transparency refers to the extent and ease with which citizens can access information about and provide feedbackContinue reading “Q. What is Budget Transparency? Scratching its genesis, discuss the benefits associated with budget transparency as well as the ways through which it can be promoted in functioning of a government?”

Q. If Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) wants to remain as relevant and look toward a new phase of Asia-Pacific economic integration, it must include India as its member. Comment.

Model Answer APEC was established in 1989 as an intergovernmental platform for 21 Pacific Rim member economies to promote free-trade in the region. The grouping is facing the heat of unilateralism and protectionism. Competition and divergence in the form of US-China tensions was on full display at the 2018 APEC summit As a result, a debate pertaining toContinue reading “Q. If Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) wants to remain as relevant and look toward a new phase of Asia-Pacific economic integration, it must include India as its member. Comment.”

Discuss the successes and failures of Green Revolution.

Approach Introduce with the green revolution Enumerate the success achieved by green revolution like self-sufficiency, productivity etc. Point out the failures of Green revolution like inequalities, degradation of environment etc. Conclude with the way forward Model Answer The draught of 1966 also made it inevitable to develop new technique of agriculture to increase the productionContinue reading “Discuss the successes and failures of Green Revolution.”

Q. Comment upon the role of women in the Indian freedom struggle. How did the arrival of Gandhiji affect their participation in the political sphere?

Model Answer Indian freedom struggle was not only a political agitation for freedom but also an inclusive movement that included various sections of the society. The process of inclusion only intensified with the multidimensional role of women with renewed vigour after the arrival of Mahatma Gandhi. Role of Women in Indian Freedom Struggle – EarliestContinue reading “Q. Comment upon the role of women in the Indian freedom struggle. How did the arrival of Gandhiji affect their participation in the political sphere?”

Globalization has proved to be double-edged sword for women workers by simultaneously creating opportunities as well as new set of challenges. Discuss. (15 marks)

Approach:   Introduce with globalization List the multifaceted opportunities craeted for working women as a result of globalization. Mention the new challenges as well the women workers had to face. Conclude with measures to overcome the challenges Model Answer Globalization is the process of the cultural, social and economic integration of a country with theContinue reading “Globalization has proved to be double-edged sword for women workers by simultaneously creating opportunities as well as new set of challenges. Discuss. (15 marks)”

Q. Discuss the mechanism of volcano formation and eruption. Also mention the distribution of volcano around the world.

Model Answer Structure of the answer: Meaning of volcano Mechanism and causes for its formation Distribution of volcano (with the help of data) Conclusion Volcanos or vulcanism comprises of all phenomena connected with movement of heated material from interior/mantle towards the earth surface. The volcano may be “active volcano” like Mount Etna or “dormant volcano” like Mount Vesuvius or Extinct volcano that have no indicationContinue reading “Q. Discuss the mechanism of volcano formation and eruption. Also mention the distribution of volcano around the world.”

Q. India is a “indestructible union of destructible state”. Explain this statement in light of the reorganization of the state under Article 3 of the Constitution.

Structure of the answer: Introduction (India being indestructible but State destructible) Background Reorganization of the state under Article 3 Final analysis Model Answer India has been called as “indestructible union” by Dr.B.R. Ambedkar as no Indian state can secede from the Indian union as in the case of confederation or loosely held federation. But on the other hand there isContinue reading “Q. India is a “indestructible union of destructible state”. Explain this statement in light of the reorganization of the state under Article 3 of the Constitution.”

Q. Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) has become a major savior for the banking sector. In this light discuss the impact of new Code on loan recovery and also suggest remedial measures for better implementation of the Code.

Structure of the answer: Background Introduction (about IBC) Positive impact of IBC Lacunas Suggestion and way forward Model Answer Before the passing of IBC it took an average of 4.3 years to resolve insolvency and recovery rate was 25.9% as compared to developed countries where recovery rate was 72%. The salient features are: Consolidation of various laws on insolvency. TheContinue reading “Q. Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) has become a major savior for the banking sector. In this light discuss the impact of new Code on loan recovery and also suggest remedial measures for better implementation of the Code.”

Q. Since the Press was a powerful weapon in the development of Indian Nationalism, it was subjected to restrictions by the British Government. In this regard, discuss the major regulations enacted by the British rulers to curb the freedom of Press in India.

Model Answer The press was fiercely involved in rallying the masses and newspapers acted as the life breath of nationalistic rebellion. Inevitably, the British government became increasingly apprehensive and several acts were passed to curb the freedom of press. Major regulations enacted by the British rulers were:  The Press Act of 1799: It imposed war timeContinue reading “Q. Since the Press was a powerful weapon in the development of Indian Nationalism, it was subjected to restrictions by the British Government. In this regard, discuss the major regulations enacted by the British rulers to curb the freedom of Press in India.”

Q. Wind plays a major role in formation of different erosional and depositional land forms. In this light discuss the various types of land topography formed due to action of wind.

Structure of the answer: Introduction: Role of winds Various erosional features Various depositional features Conclusion Model Answer The wind is the main geomorphic agent especially in the hot deserts. Winds have a dual role in creating Erosional landforms and other in creating Depositional landforms. These geomorphic features are most typically found in arid environments where there is little vegetation, where thereContinue reading “Q. Wind plays a major role in formation of different erosional and depositional land forms. In this light discuss the various types of land topography formed due to action of wind.”

Q. Space militarisation has become a new buzzword. How is it different from weaponisation of space? Discuss about the recent race in occupying the space ecosystem and how detrimental is it for human survival?

Model Answer Space militarisation refers to the ecosystem of space systems that are utilised to achieve military objectives. It involves strategic planning, surveillance and telecommunication and reconnaissance as well as real time combat through placement and development of military technology in outer space. While, space weaponisation on the other hand refers to more aggressive and offensive use ofContinue reading “Q. Space militarisation has become a new buzzword. How is it different from weaponisation of space? Discuss about the recent race in occupying the space ecosystem and how detrimental is it for human survival?”

Q. In recent years the caste system in India is assuming new identities. In this light discuss the importance and challenges posed by caste system.

Structure of the answer: Introduction (about India’s caste system) Caste assuming new identities Importance of caste system Challenges of caste system Way forward Model Answer Caste is an endogamous group based on social hierarchy, where position of individual is ascribed by birth rather than achieved status. There are about 3,000 caste and 25,000 sub caste in India. In recent timesContinue reading “Q. In recent years the caste system in India is assuming new identities. In this light discuss the importance and challenges posed by caste system.”

Q. Foreign direct investment (FDI) is a like double edged sword. In this light discuss the positive and negative impact of FDI in India. Also suggest suitable measures to improve FDI in India.

Structure of the answer: Introduction (using data) Positive impact of FDI Negative impact of FDI Measures to increase FDI in India Model Answer FDI is an investment made by a firm or an individual into business interest located in other countries. Unlike, portfolio investment the investor in FDI acquire foreign business asset, ownership or controlling interest inContinue reading “Q. Foreign direct investment (FDI) is a like double edged sword. In this light discuss the positive and negative impact of FDI in India. Also suggest suitable measures to improve FDI in India.”

Q. What are the different types of ecological succession? In this light also discuss the significance of ecological succession?

Structure of the answer: Introduction Types of ecological succession Significance of ecological succession Way forward Model Answer Ecological succession is the steady and gradual change in a species of a given area with respect to the changing environment. The ultimate aim of this process is to reach equilibrium in the ecosystem. The community that achieves this aim isContinue reading “Q. What are the different types of ecological succession? In this light also discuss the significance of ecological succession?”

Q. India’s quest to land its first spacecraft on the moon got off to a smooth start with the successful launch of Chandrayaan-2 mission aboard the country’s most powerful rocket – GSLV Mk-III. In light of this statement, discuss the significance of this mission.

Model Answer Chandrayaan-2 is India’s most challenging, totally indigenous, and India’s second mission to Moon. It is advanced version of previous Chandrayaan-1 mission (launched in 2008) which only involved orbiting around moon, Chandrayaan-2 is much complicated mission as it involves an orbiter, lander and rover. After reaching the 100 km lunar orbit, the Lander housingContinue reading “Q. India’s quest to land its first spacecraft on the moon got off to a smooth start with the successful launch of Chandrayaan-2 mission aboard the country’s most powerful rocket – GSLV Mk-III. In light of this statement, discuss the significance of this mission.”

Q. Hate speech in India is a result of various facilitating factors. In this light discuss the impact of hate speech and suggestion to effectively deal with the same.

Structure of the answer: Introduction (Meaning) Factors supporting hate speeches Impact of hate speech Way for ward/ suggestion Model Answer Hate speech is incitement of hatred primarily against a group of people defined in terms of race, ethnicity, sexual orientation etc. The issue of hate speech has become a recurrent phenomenon especially before the elections. There areContinue reading “Q. Hate speech in India is a result of various facilitating factors. In this light discuss the impact of hate speech and suggestion to effectively deal with the same.”

Q. Regionalism in India is a result of various interconnected factors. In this light discuss the various types regionalism in India and also suggest suitable measures to curtail negative impact of regionalism.

Structure of the answer: Introduction (regionalism) Factors responsible for regionalism Types of regionalism Conclusion/ way forward Model Answer Regionalism is a strong attachment to one’s own region. Thus, it is an ideology that seek to advance cause of a region. The rise of regionalism in India is a result of various factors: Historically, formation of variousContinue reading “Q. Regionalism in India is a result of various interconnected factors. In this light discuss the various types regionalism in India and also suggest suitable measures to curtail negative impact of regionalism.”

Q. Discuss the various features of tropical cyclones. While mentioning the factors contributing in formation of tropical cyclone differentiate them from extra-tropical cyclones.

Structure of the answer: Introduction Features of tropical cyclone Factors contributing in formation of cyclones Difference between tropical and extra tropical cyclones Conclusion Model Answer Cyclone is an intense vortex or a whirl in the atmosphere with very strong winds circulating around it in anti-clockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere and in clockwise direction in the Southern Hemisphere.  For Ex- Cyclone Titli SomeContinue reading “Q. Discuss the various features of tropical cyclones. While mentioning the factors contributing in formation of tropical cyclone differentiate them from extra-tropical cyclones.”

Q. Oceans are the major sources for multiple living and non-living resources that are useful for the growth of blue economy. In this light discuss the concept of Blue economy and its importance for India.

Structure of the answer: Introduction (Blue economy) Ocean as the source for various resources Importance of blue economy Final analysis Model Answer The concept of blue economy was given by Gunter Pauli. It is the sustainable use of ocean resources for economic growth, improved livelihoods and jobs and ocean ecosystem health. Thus, it advocates the greening ofContinue reading “Q. Oceans are the major sources for multiple living and non-living resources that are useful for the growth of blue economy. In this light discuss the concept of Blue economy and its importance for India.”

Q. The amendment procedure under Indian Constitution is a curious mixture of rigidity and flexibility. In this light discuss the different procedure for amendment reflecting such blend.

Structure of the answer:    Introduction (Article 368) Different types of amendment process Reflection of rigidity and flexibility Way forward Model Answer The nature of the amending process envisaged by the makers of our Constitution has been explained by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru as reconciliation of a written Constitution with Parliamentary Sovereignty. Article 368 (Part XX) of the Constitution deals withContinue reading “Q. The amendment procedure under Indian Constitution is a curious mixture of rigidity and flexibility. In this light discuss the different procedure for amendment reflecting such blend.”

Q. World trade organisation (WTO) as a multilateral body is facing challenges on various counts. In this light discuss the relevance of WTO and also suggest suitable reform in its functioning.

Structure of the answer: Introduction (about WTO) Challenges faced by WTO Relevance of WTO Reform in functioning of WTO Model Answer WTO was set up under Marrakesh Treaty (1994) and as an organization aim to improve living standards, generate employment, and expand global trade. However, in recent years WTO is facing challenges on various counts such as: ConsensusContinue reading “Q. World trade organisation (WTO) as a multilateral body is facing challenges on various counts. In this light discuss the relevance of WTO and also suggest suitable reform in its functioning.”

Q. The town planning in Harappan Civilisation shows the high level of sophistication. In this light discuss the significant features of Harappan town planning. Also mention the various theories in relation to decline of the Civilisation.

Structure of the answer: Introduction Significant features High level of sophistication Decline of Harappan civilisation Model Answer The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC), also known as Harappan Civilization flourished around 2,500 BC in the western part of South Asia. The Harappan culture was distinguished by its system of town planning. Significant features of the Harappan town planning are as follows: Division ofContinue reading “Q. The town planning in Harappan Civilisation shows the high level of sophistication. In this light discuss the significant features of Harappan town planning. Also mention the various theories in relation to decline of the Civilisation.”

Q. The term ‘governance’, ‘good governance’ and ‘ethical governance’ though looks similar, yet signifies different idea. In this background, differentiate the above-mentioned terms in light of governance structure in India.

Structure of the answer: Introduction Meaning of different terms with help of example Final analysis/ conclusion Model Answer The term ‘governance’, ‘good governance’ and ‘ethical governance’ appears to be used interchangeably and are intrinsically interlinked. Yet, each of them signify different meaning in their own sense.  The same are discussed below with help of examples. The term ‘governance’ is defined as follows: It isContinue reading “Q. The term ‘governance’, ‘good governance’ and ‘ethical governance’ though looks similar, yet signifies different idea. In this background, differentiate the above-mentioned terms in light of governance structure in India.”

Q. The British rule has been often been described as the reason for drain of Indian wealth to Britain. In this light discuss constituent of economic drain and consequences of the same.

Structure of the answer: Introduction (drain of wealth) Estimate of drain of wealth Constituent of economic drain Consequences Final analysis Model Answer The constant flow of wealth from India to England for which India did not get an adequate economic, commercial or material return has been described as drain of wealth from India. Dadabhai Naoroji gave ‘drain ofContinue reading “Q. The British rule has been often been described as the reason for drain of Indian wealth to Britain. In this light discuss constituent of economic drain and consequences of the same.”

Q. The British rule was marked by various Peasants movement. In this background discuss the impact of these movement on freedom struggle.

Structure of the answer: Introduction Various peasant movement in British era Impact of peasant movement on freedom struggle Conclusion Model Answer Peasant movement in India arose due to Britishers economic policies that resulted in the change of ownership of agrarian land, massive debt burden and impoverishment of peasantry. Thus, the peasants rose in revolt against this injusticeContinue reading “Q. The British rule was marked by various Peasants movement. In this background discuss the impact of these movement on freedom struggle.”

Q. India is currently facing the issue of rising tsunami of e-waste. In this light discuss the challenges being posed by increasing e-waste and also suggest the suitable measures to tackle these challenges.

Structure of the answer: Introduction Rise of e-waste and issues relating to it Challenges posed by it Measures to handle such an issue Final analysis Model Answer Electronic waste/ e-waste is a term used for electronic products that have become unwanted, obsolete and have reached the end of their useful life. India generates near about 2 millionContinue reading “Q. India is currently facing the issue of rising tsunami of e-waste. In this light discuss the challenges being posed by increasing e-waste and also suggest the suitable measures to tackle these challenges.”

Q. In recent years there has been number of farmer protest around India demanding increase in Minimum support price (MSP). In this light discuss the effectiveness of MSP and need for replacing it with Price deficiency payment system.

Structure of the answer: Introduction Deficiencies in the MSP system Importance of price deficiency payment system Final analysis Model Answer MSP is the base price set by the Government and whenever the market prices fall below the announced MSPs, procurement agencies step in to procure the crop at the support price. In India, the MSP are recommended byContinue reading “Q. In recent years there has been number of farmer protest around India demanding increase in Minimum support price (MSP). In this light discuss the effectiveness of MSP and need for replacing it with Price deficiency payment system.”

Q. Considering the controversial nature of the position of the Governor, many experts have suggested abolishment of the Governor’s post. In this light discuss the arguments for and against such decision.

Structure of the answer: Introduction Controversial position of the Governor Arguments for abolishing the post Arguments against abolishing the post Final analysis Model Answer The Position of the Governor is controversial in light of emergence of concept of cooperative federalism. The issue has recently cropped up over controversial role of Governor in post-election scenario in Maharashtra and Karnataka. TheseContinue reading “Q. Considering the controversial nature of the position of the Governor, many experts have suggested abolishment of the Governor’s post. In this light discuss the arguments for and against such decision.”

Q. Explain how the American War of Independence had transformed the Europe and other parts of the world?

Model Answer The American Revolution of 1776 had transformed not only the America but also the Europe and other parts of the world. Its direct and indirect influences were felt worldwide in the time to come. The impact of the American Revolution was as follows: Ideological impact: The ideas of liberty, equality, fraternity were popularized all overContinue reading “Q. Explain how the American War of Independence had transformed the Europe and other parts of the world?”

Q. Recent international trend has been averse to the use of nuclear energy. In this light, discuss the reason inhibiting use of nuclear use energy. Also bring out the positive externalities arising from use of nuclear energy.

Structure of the answer:   Introduction Reason for averseness to the use of nuclear energy Positive things in relation to use of nuclear energy Conclusion Model Answer Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam described nuclear power as a gateway to a prosperous future.  However, World Nuclear Association has reported that nuclear electricity generation in 2017 was at its lowest levelContinue reading “Q. Recent international trend has been averse to the use of nuclear energy. In this light, discuss the reason inhibiting use of nuclear use energy. Also bring out the positive externalities arising from use of nuclear energy.”

Q. What do you understand by Emotional Intelligence(EI)? Highlight its significance, discuss the ways to develop EI among civil servants.

Approach: Explain the concept of Emotional Intelligence(EI) and discuss its components Highlight the significance and importance of EI for civil servants. Discuss the ways to develop EI among civil servants. Model Answer Emotional Intelligence (EI) refers to the capability of a person to recognize, understand and manage own emotions, as well as to understand, manageContinue reading “Q. What do you understand by Emotional Intelligence(EI)? Highlight its significance, discuss the ways to develop EI among civil servants.”

Q. In the context of the world history, discuss the achievements of the Bolshevik Revolution of Russia.

Model Answer The Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 were the two phases of a single revolution where due to the prevailing widespread discontent, Lenin overthrew Kerensky’s government with the help of his revolutionary Red Guard on the night of 6th and 7th November 1917 and declared Russia as a communist nation. Other significant achievements of theContinue reading “Q. In the context of the world history, discuss the achievements of the Bolshevik Revolution of Russia.”

Q. Women’s movement post-independence has covered a wide array of topics. In this background mention the issues covered by these movement and government response to the same.

Structure of the answer:         Introduction Issues covered by women’s movement Government response to the same Final analysis Model Answer Women’s movement is an important variant of social movement that aimed to bring changes in the institutional arrangements, customs and beliefs in the society that subjugated women. The aim of theses movement changed over a period ofContinue reading “Q. Women’s movement post-independence has covered a wide array of topics. In this background mention the issues covered by these movement and government response to the same.”

Q. Government has promised to double farmer’s income by 2022, in this light discuss the measures taken by government to implement the same. Also suggest suitable strategies to timely and sustainable achievement of this target.

Structure of the answer:    Introduction Measures taken by government Suggestion Way forward Model Answer The government has set a target of doubling farmers’ income by 2022 to overcome the distressed situation of agriculture. The situation was evident after large scale farmer’s protest in various parts of India. The reorientation of strategy was needed due to followingContinue reading “Q. Government has promised to double farmer’s income by 2022, in this light discuss the measures taken by government to implement the same. Also suggest suitable strategies to timely and sustainable achievement of this target.”

Q. Reform movements in religion were largely responsible for social reform movements in India. In this context, discuss the contribution of various socio-cultural reformers in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Approach: Briefly discuss about the social reform movements in India. Discuss the contribution of various socio-cultural reformers in the 19th and 20th centuries. Model Answer Indian Society in the 19th century was caught in a vicious web created by religious superstitions and dogmas. All religions in general and Hinduism in particular had become a compoundContinue reading “Q. Reform movements in religion were largely responsible for social reform movements in India. In this context, discuss the contribution of various socio-cultural reformers in the 19th and 20th centuries.”

Q. India has moved forward by providing fundamental rights of basic education through Right to Education (RTE) Act 2009. Analyse the challenges faced at primary level of Education in India. Also discuss the major reforms suggested at primary level in the recent draft education policy 2019.

Approach: Briefly write about Right to Education (RTE) Act 2009 and its current status. Discuss the challenges faced at primary level of Education in India. Discuss the major reforms suggested at primary level in the recent draft education policy 2019. Model Answer With 86th amendment, education was made fundamental rights of the citizen under Article 21(a).Continue reading “Q. India has moved forward by providing fundamental rights of basic education through Right to Education (RTE) Act 2009. Analyse the challenges faced at primary level of Education in India. Also discuss the major reforms suggested at primary level in the recent draft education policy 2019.”

Q. The Government of India, through the Department of Science and Technology (DST), has released a draft of the new Scientific Social Responsibility (SSR) Policy. Discuss the objective of introducing SSR Policy and the benefits associated with it.

Model Answer India is going to be possibly the first country in the world to implement a SSR Policy on the lines of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Under the proposed policy, individual scientists or knowledge workers will be required to devote at least 10 person-days of SSR per year for exchanging scientific knowledge to society.Continue reading “Q. The Government of India, through the Department of Science and Technology (DST), has released a draft of the new Scientific Social Responsibility (SSR) Policy. Discuss the objective of introducing SSR Policy and the benefits associated with it.”

Q. “Upper House of the Indian Parliament has lost its relevance in contemporary times”. Comment.

Model Answer India adopted federal form of governance where the states are represented through the Upper House. Except Money Bills, Upper House plays an important role in the law making process in the country. It also plays the role of counsel to states; however, some experts are of the view that this House should be abolishedContinue reading “Q. “Upper House of the Indian Parliament has lost its relevance in contemporary times”. Comment.”

Q. Civil Servant occupy important position in the government in terms of dealing with large amount of public funds and their decisions have wide repercussions. Thus there is a need for creating ethical competent Civil Servants. In this light, suggest ways to promote ethical competence among Civil Servants.

Structure of the answer: Introduction Justifying the statement Steps to improve ethical competence among civil servant Conclusion Model Answer With great power comes great responsibility. Civil servants have to ensure proper utilisation, appropriation and allocation of funds. The decisions undertaken by the Civil Servant impact large number of individuals and society as a whole. Moreover, itContinue reading “Q. Civil Servant occupy important position in the government in terms of dealing with large amount of public funds and their decisions have wide repercussions. Thus there is a need for creating ethical competent Civil Servants. In this light, suggest ways to promote ethical competence among Civil Servants.”

Q. Describe briefly the features of bronze sculpture art that reached its zenith during the Chola era.

Approach: Introduce the Chola bronze art – why it is considered as the high stage of development Divide the answer into subparts – patronage, religious purpose, technology, and iconography Also mention various examples to substantiate the points Within the subparts, try to trace the chronological development. Model Answer The Chola period is well known forContinue reading “Q. Describe briefly the features of bronze sculpture art that reached its zenith during the Chola era.”

Q. The large-scale occurrence of floods is a result of multitude of factors. In this background discuss the causes of floods and steps to minimise the vulnerability to floods.

Structure of the answer: Introduction Causes of floods Steps to mitigate vulnerability Conclusion Model Answer Flood is a state of higher water level along a river channel or on coast leading to inundation of land that is not normally submerge. In India, 40 million hectares out of a geographical area of 3290 lakh hectares is prone to floods.Continue reading “Q. The large-scale occurrence of floods is a result of multitude of factors. In this background discuss the causes of floods and steps to minimise the vulnerability to floods.”

Q. What was the immediate trigger of the World War-I? What were the reasons for the breakout of the war? Comment

Model Answer World War-I has its roots in the assassination of a prince. On 28 June 1914, Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary was assassinated by a Serbian terrorist at Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia. Austria saw the hands of Serbia behind this and served Serbia an ultimatum. Serbia refused toContinue reading “Q. What was the immediate trigger of the World War-I? What were the reasons for the breakout of the war? Comment”

Q. The Citizen’s Charter is an ideal instrument of organisational transparency and accountability. Identify the importance and components of Citizen’s Charter. Tracing out its limitations, suggest measures for its greater effectiveness.

Approach: Start introduction mentioning the challenges in public service delivery. Define Citizen’s Charter stating its importance and it components. Discuss the limitation in implementation of Citizen’s Charter. Discuss the measures to ensure its effective implementation. Model Answer The public service delivery of India faced a problem of bureaucratic corruption and delays. The government functioned in a very opaque andContinue reading “Q. The Citizen’s Charter is an ideal instrument of organisational transparency and accountability. Identify the importance and components of Citizen’s Charter. Tracing out its limitations, suggest measures for its greater effectiveness.”

Q. To resolve the issue of unemployment, there is a need for multi-prong approach. In this light discuss the steps needed to resolve this long-standing issue and also mention the measures taken by the government in this regard.

Structure of the answer: Introduction Steps needed for unemployment Steps taken by the government Way forward Model Answer Unemployment is a situation where person is capable of working both physically and mentally at the existing wage rate, but does not get a job to work. As per the recent statistics unemployment rate in India rose to 7.2%Continue reading “Q. To resolve the issue of unemployment, there is a need for multi-prong approach. In this light discuss the steps needed to resolve this long-standing issue and also mention the measures taken by the government in this regard.”

Q. Discuss the difference between Himalayas and Peninsular drainage system. Also put forth importance of the river system in India.

Structure of the answer: Introduction Difference between Himalayan and Peninsular river system Importance of river system in India Conclusion Model Answer Rivers are considered as the lifelines of a country as they provide the most valuable thing for the survival i.e. water. The rivers in India can be broadly categorized into two different categories based on their origin: theContinue reading “Q. Discuss the difference between Himalayas and Peninsular drainage system. Also put forth importance of the river system in India.”

Q. The reason for malnutrition/ hunger are multidimensional. In this light, discuss the factors contributing to malnutrition and also suggest suitable measures to improve malnutrition in India.

Structure of the answer:    Introduction Causes of malnutrition in India Measures to overcome Conclusion Model Answer Malnutrition is a physical state that includes undernutrition (wasting, stunting, underweight), inadequate vitamins or minerals, overweight, obesity, and resulting diet-related non-communicable diseases. As per Reports 31.4% of children are malnourished. The factors contributing to malnutrition are as follows: Despite increase in foodContinue reading “Q. The reason for malnutrition/ hunger are multidimensional. In this light, discuss the factors contributing to malnutrition and also suggest suitable measures to improve malnutrition in India.”

Six ‘freedom’ reforms to bolster job creation and employability Editorial 30th Dec’20 LiveMint

Covid highlighted the government’s will to tackle issues taking a long-term view: Covid’s pain reminded us of our economy’s pre-existing issues, including inadequate formalization, financialization, urbanization, industrialization and human capital. In such situations, economists and policymakers often think only of the present, with the belief that current circumstances are special, unique and unprecedented. However, theContinue reading “Six ‘freedom’ reforms to bolster job creation and employability Editorial 30th Dec’20 LiveMint”

In Focus: Provisions to summon a session of the Assembly

Governor’s role in calling an Assembly session: what the law, courts say Context: The Kerala Governor recently refused to accept the Kerala Cabinet’s request to summon (call) a special sitting of the Assembly to debate the new three central farm laws. This provides the context to study about the provisions related to the Governor’s powers to summonContinue reading “In Focus: Provisions to summon a session of the Assembly”

Q. The Britishers formed Indian National Congress (INC) to act as a safety valve. However, the Indians used the forum as a lightning conductor much to the whammy of Britishers. In this light the purpose behind formation of INC and the intention of Indians in respect of the same.

Structure of the answer: Introduction Safety valve theory/ Britisher’s intention on formation of INC Use of INC by Indians for propagating nationalist interest Conclusion Model Answer There is wide spread belief that reason behind the formation of INC was safety valve theory i.e. Britishers wanted to pacify the raising discontent among Indian masses through INC. The discontent among IndiansContinue reading “Q. The Britishers formed Indian National Congress (INC) to act as a safety valve. However, the Indians used the forum as a lightning conductor much to the whammy of Britishers. In this light the purpose behind formation of INC and the intention of Indians in respect of the same.”

Q. Discuss the difference between the code of ethics and the code of conduct.

Approach: Briefly discuss about the code of ethics and the code of conduct. Differentiate between the given terms. Substantiate your answer with relevant examples. Model Answer Code of ethics and code of conduct specify the ethical standards that a group (e.g., staff or a professional group) should follow in order to continue as a memberContinue reading “Q. Discuss the difference between the code of ethics and the code of conduct.”

Q. What do you mean by climate forcing? Explain the factors that causes the Earth’s climate to change.

Approach: Explain the meaning of climate forcing  and related phenomenon with relevant examples. Discuss various natural and anthropogenic causes of climate change. Conclude the answer, as per the context. Model Answer Any external factor that originates from outside the climate system and can become a cause of climate change is called Climate Forcing. These factorsContinue reading “Q. What do you mean by climate forcing? Explain the factors that causes the Earth’s climate to change.”

Q. Discuss the relevance of the Legislative Councils in the States in the backdrop of recent demand of certain states to create the second house?

Approach: Briefly write about the constitutional process of formation of Legislative Council. Discuss both the arguments: favour and against the existence of Legislative council. Write the final conclusion mentioning what should be the way forward. Model Answer Legislative councils of state are created under Article 169 of the Constitution. Parliament may by law create or abolish theContinue reading “Q. Discuss the relevance of the Legislative Councils in the States in the backdrop of recent demand of certain states to create the second house?”

Q. The suburbanisation occurring at a relatively early stage of India’s urban development is creating new challenges for Indian cities. Enumerate the reasons and suggest remedies.

Approach: Brief introduction about suburbanisation phenomenon in most urbanising countries. Enumerating the reasons why it is occurring at a relatively early stage of India’s urban development. Highlight the challenges it is creating for Indian cities and suggest ways forward. Model Answer A 2013 World Bank report, “Urbanization beyond Municipal Boundaries”, found that suburban areas (orContinue reading “Q. The suburbanisation occurring at a relatively early stage of India’s urban development is creating new challenges for Indian cities. Enumerate the reasons and suggest remedies.”

 Note on Solar storm

Headline : Note on Solar storm Details : Magnetic fields The surface of the Sun is a very busy place. It has electrically charged gases that generate areas of powerful magnetic forces. These areas are called magnetic fields . Solar activity The Sun’s gases are constantly moving, which tangles, stretches and twists the magnetic fields. This motionContinue reading ” Note on Solar storm”

About: Advanced Towed Artillery Gun System (ATAGS), Advanced features of ATAGS:

Army to test indigenous artillery system with 48-km strike range In News: The Army will soon begin testing an indigenously-developed artillery system (ATAGS) with 48-km strike range. About: Advanced Towed Artillery Gun System (ATAGS) Built by DRDO and partners, India’s ATAGS is a 155 mm/52 calibre towed howitzer artillery gun. Artillery is a class of heavy militaryContinue reading “About: Advanced Towed Artillery Gun System (ATAGS), Advanced features of ATAGS:”

About: Antitrust laws, Laws drafted by European Union

Explained: Targeting Big Tech in US, EU In News Recently, the European Union (EU) has issued two draft digital-services laws that could increase scrutiny (inspection) over big technology (Big Tech) companies. The UK regulator, Competition and Markets Authority has also announced its own plans to put limits on major technology companies. Around the same time in theContinue reading “About: Antitrust laws, Laws drafted by European Union”

Fight against pollution: India set to achieve Paris targets Editorial 24th Dec’20 FinancialExpress

India and Paris Agreement: The Paris agreement that India signed in 2015, was India’s inflexion point (moment of dramatic change) in its fight against pollution. Specifically, under the Paris agreement, India committed to meet three targets by 2030: Cut greenhouse gas emissions intensity of its GDP by 33-35% (vs 2005 levels) Increase non-fossil fuel-based powerContinue reading “Fight against pollution: India set to achieve Paris targets Editorial 24th Dec’20 FinancialExpress”

In Focus: Wetlands, Wetlands in India, Why are wetlands important?, Ramsar Convention, Ramsar Sites in India, Tso Kar

India adds Tso Kar wetland complex to Ramsar Site In News: India has added Tso Kar Wetland Complex in Ladakh as its 42nd Ramsar site, the second one in the Union Territory (UT) of Ladakh. In Focus: Wetlands What are Wetlands? The wetlands are actually land areas covered by water, either temporarily/seasonally or permanently. TheContinue reading “In Focus: Wetlands, Wetlands in India, Why are wetlands important?, Ramsar Convention, Ramsar Sites in India, Tso Kar”

About: Cairn dispute, Retrospective taxation , The Permanent Court of Arbitration

Cairn wins arbitration ruling against India in tax dispute In News The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) at The Hague has ruled that the Indian government was wrong in applying retrospective tax on Cairn Energy Plc. This is the second ruling against the Indian government at international tribunals over the retrospective tax issue in three months. InContinue reading “About: Cairn dispute, Retrospective taxation , The Permanent Court of Arbitration”

About: Nature Index (Artificial Intelligence), Nature research, Nature Index 2020 Artificial Intelligence

In News The Nature Index 2020 Artificial Intelligence was recently released by ‘Nature Research’. About: Nature Research Nature Research is a division of the international scientific publishing company Springer Nature that publishes academic journals, magazines, online databases, and services in science and medicine. Nature Research’s flagship publication is Nature, a weekly multidisciplinary journal first published in 1869. Nature,Continue reading “About: Nature Index (Artificial Intelligence), Nature research, Nature Index 2020 Artificial Intelligence”

About: Post Matric Scholarship for students belonging to Scheduled Castes (PMS-SC), Benefits and Features

Cabinet nod to Rs 59,000 core investment in post-matric scholarship scheme for SC students In News: The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) chaired by the Prime Minister has approved major and transformatory changes in the Centrally Sponsored Scheme ‘Post Matric Scholarship to students belonging to Scheduled Castes (PMS-SC)’. The Cabinet also approved a totalContinue reading “About: Post Matric Scholarship for students belonging to Scheduled Castes (PMS-SC), Benefits and Features”

About: The Zomi tribe, Sixth schedule, Powers under the Sixth Schedule, Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC)

Manipur’s Zomi people push for BTC-like council In News The Zomi Council, representing nine Zomi tribes, has renewed its demand for the creation of Zoland Territorial Council (ZTC) under the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution. About: The Zomi tribe Zomi council is an apex body of the Zomi tribes which include Gante, Kom, Mate, Paite, Simte, TedimContinue reading “About: The Zomi tribe, Sixth schedule, Powers under the Sixth Schedule, Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC)”

About: Coastal radar chain network

In News In order to expand the coastal radar chain network, efforts are in advanced stages to set up coastal radar stations in Maldives, Myanmar, Bangladesh and Thailand. Similar proposals are being developed for some more countries. About: Coastal radar chain network After the 2008 Mumbai attacks in which terrorists used a fishing boat to enter theContinue reading “About: Coastal radar chain network”

About: Advanced Towed Artillery Gun System (ATAGS)

Built by DRDO and partners, India’s ATAGS is a 155 mm/52 calibre towed howitzer artillery gun. Artillery is a class of heavy military ranged weapons (like modern day canons) built to launch munitions far beyond the range and power of normal firearms. The new version has a 48-km strike range, higher than the 35-40 km range ofContinue reading “About: Advanced Towed Artillery Gun System (ATAGS)”

What is Winter Solstice, which made December 21st the shortest day of the year?

In News: December 21st is the day of Winter Solstice in the northern hemisphere, and it is the shortest day (day with the shortest day-time) of the year. This year, the day-time of December 21st in Delhi was approximately 10 hours 19 minutes long. About: Winter and Summer Solstices The winter solstice, hiemal solstice or hibernal solsticeContinue reading “What is Winter Solstice, which made December 21st the shortest day of the year?”

About: Khudiram Bose

Khudiram Bose was born in 1889, in a small village in Medinipur district of West Bengal. He is one of the youngest revolutionaries of the Indian freedom struggle. Khudiram Bose is highly regarded in Bengal for his fearless spirit, and his ultimate sacrifice for the cause. However, his legacy has remained largely limited to Bengal.Continue reading “About: Khudiram Bose”

About: Krishna Godavari basin

About: Krishna Godavari basin The delta plain formed by Krishna and Godavari rivers in the state of Andhra Pradesh and the adjoining areas of Bay of Bengal is known as Krishna Godavari Basin. It is a proven hydrocarbon reserve, with an inland part that covers an area of 28,000 sq. km and an offshore (located in the sea orContinue reading “About: Krishna Godavari basin”

What is cloning?

Sach-Gaurav It is born to a Murrah buffalo. Its birth weight is 54.2 kg and it has a normal physiological parameters and blood profile. The genotype of the calf was confirmed by microsatellite analysis (parentage verification) and chromosome analysis.   What is cloning? The term cloning describes a number of different processes that can beContinue reading “What is cloning?”

About Typhoid (Enteric Fever)

About Typhoid (Enteric Fever) Typhoid Fever is a gastrointestinal infection caused by Salmonella enterica typhi It is transmitted from person to person through the fecal-oral route where an infected or asymptomatic individual with poor hand or body hygiene passes the infection to another person when handling food and water. The bacteria multiply in the intestinal tractContinue reading “About Typhoid (Enteric Fever)”

Background: Working of Antibiotics

Background: Working of Antibiotics What are Antibiotics? Antibiotics are drugs that fight infections caused by bacteria. In order to be effective, it has to be selectively toxic to only target bacteria which are harmful. Antibiotics work in the following 2 ways Killing the bacteria Inhibiting the ability of bacteria to grow and multiply In orderContinue reading “Background: Working of Antibiotics”

About: Emergency use authorisation (EUA) or Emergency License

About: Emergency use authorisation (EUA) or Emergency License Vaccines, like medicines, require the approval of a regulatory authority before they can be administered to people. In India, the Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO) is the national regulatory body for Indian pharmaceuticals and medical devices. The final approval is granted only after the completion of the trialsContinue reading “About: Emergency use authorisation (EUA) or Emergency License”

About: Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA)

About: Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) was enacted in 2005 providing a legal right to employment for adult members of rural households. It aims at addressing causes of chronic poverty through the ‘works’ (projects) that are undertaken, and thus ensuring sustainable development. Core objectives: Providing not less than 100Continue reading “About: Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA)”

Factory of the world Editorial 28th Nov’20 TimesOfIndia

Global efforts at diversifying supply chains: Global companies have stepped up efforts of diversifying their supply chains in the wake of the Covid-19-induced disruptions and US-China trade tensions. They are looking to implement the ‘China Plus One’ strategy i.e., not depending on China alone for any supplies, and looking for more locations. For example, largeContinue reading “Factory of the world Editorial 28th Nov’20 TimesOfIndia”

About: Foreign Exchange Reserves

About: Foreign Exchange Reserves Foreign exchange reserves are the foreign currencies held by a country’s central bank.The reserves in India are managed by the Reserve Bank of India for the Indian government and the main component is foreign currency assets. Reserve Bank of India accumulates foreign currency reserves by purchasing from authorized dealers in open market operations. ReserveContinue reading “About: Foreign Exchange Reserves”

Q. Post- Independence, integration and unification of India demonstrated to be a long process plagued with challenges. In this context, examine the early challenges that India faced as a newly independent country.

Approach: Write about the prevailing conditions after independence in the introduction. Mention how it created challenges for India- both external and internal. Conclude by mentioning India’s democratic credentials which helped India to survive as a nation. Model Answer 15th August 1947 marked the end of colonial rule in India and the country found itself standingContinue reading “Q. Post- Independence, integration and unification of India demonstrated to be a long process plagued with challenges. In this context, examine the early challenges that India faced as a newly independent country.”

About Quantum computers

About Quantum computers In 1950s quantity of information for the first time were expressed in terms of the number of “bits”. The bits, the 0s and 1s of binary code, are the basis of all conventional computing to store information. 0s and 1s are represented in the form of electric charges. In ordinary computers, charge is stored,Continue reading “About Quantum computers”

Higher Education: ‘Destination India’ for foreign students Editorial 16th Nov’20 FinancialExpress

Not many overseas students are studying in India: The higher education sector in India remains inwardly oriented, that is, most of the students in Indian colleges and universities are Indians. India has not been able to attract many foreign students in Indian higher education institutions. Statistics on overseas students in India for higher education: OutContinue reading “Higher Education: ‘Destination India’ for foreign students Editorial 16th Nov’20 FinancialExpress”

About: Pfizer Vaccine

BNT162b2 is a vaccine that has been developed using mRNA technologye. it makes use of the messenger RNA molecules that tell cells what proteins to build. The mRNA, in this case, is coded to tell the cells to recreate the spike protein of the novel coronavirus. The coronavirus spike protein is a molecular machine that facilitates the entry of coronavirusContinue reading “About: Pfizer Vaccine”

About: India’s agricultural exports

About: India’s agricultural exports Agricultural exports are extremely important as the exports help farmers/producers/exporters to take advantage of wider international market and increase their income. Exports have also resulted in increased production in agriculture sector by increasing area coverage and productivity. Giant strides have been made in agri export since independence. In 1950-51, India’s agriContinue reading “About: India’s agricultural exports”