Category Archives: Environment and Ecology

About: National Board for Wildlife (NBWL), Functions, Composition, Standing Committee of the NBWL, Protected Areas

About: National Board for Wildlife (NBWL) The National Board for Wildlife (NBWL) is a statutory body constituted in 2003, under the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972. It serves as an apex body to review all wildlife-related matters. The board is advisory in nature and advises the Central Government on framing policies and measures for conservation of wildlife in the country. Functions: The primary function of the Board is

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About Asiatic Lion, Asiatic Lion Conservation Project

Headline : Vet institute, ambulances mooted in lion conservation plan Details : The News In a bid to step up conservation and protection efforts of critically endangered ‘Asiatic Lions, the Centre and the Gujarat government have announced a 3-year dedicated ‘Asiatic Lion Conservation Project’. Background About Asiatic Lions Asiatic Lions are critically endangered species, listed in the Schedule 1 of Wildlife (Protection) Act

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What impact will the thundershowers, hailstorm have on rabi crop?

Headline : What impact will the thundershowers, hailstorm have on rabi crop? Details : The topic Recently, there was heavy rainfall and hailstorms in the many areas of northern India. This articles assesses the impact of heavy rainfall and hailstorms on rabi crops. Background In early February, the National Capital Region, Punjab, Haryana, parts of Uttar Pradesh and northern Madhya Pradesh witnessed

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Char Dham highway project

Headline : Supreme Court clears 900km Char Dham highway project Details : In News The Supreme Court has cleared the Chardham highway project, by modifying an NGT order. It has also ordered to constitute a fresh committee to look into environmental concerns related to the project. It ordered the Ministry of Environment and Forests to form the high-powered committee (HPC). Background

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Everything about Tiger, Tiger Census,Project Tiger, Tiger and Ecosystem

Headline : Tiger no. up 33% in 4 years, India has 75% of global population Details : In News The 4th Tiger census report, Status of Tigers Co-predators & Prey in India, 2018, has been recently released by PM Modi. According to the report, India has recorded its highest ever rise, at 33%, in the numbers of tigers i.e. from 2,226

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Prelims 2019: About Wildlife Protection Act, 1972, About Indian Fox/ Bengal fox, About Chenchu Tribe

News Summary Chenchus believe that beginning the day by seeing the face of the fox is a fortune and thus they have domesticated foxes. However, the conservation of fox falls under the Indian Wildlife Protection Act 1972, according to which hunting or domesticating it is an offence and attracts punishment.   About Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 The act provides protection to

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Everything about Vultures: Ecological Importance, Declining Population, Threats, IUCN status, Types of Vultures and It’s conservation

Headline : Poisoned cattle carcass kills 37 vultures Details : The news Around 37 vultures belonging to three endangered species died after feeding on pesticide-laced cattle carcass in eastern Assam’s Sivasagar district.   Background Vultures are scavenger birds which feed on the carcasses of large animals. Vultures in the country have reduced from 40 million (in 1990) to less than 60

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Prelims Program: National Innovations on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA)

Headline : Prelims Program: National Innovations on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) Details :  Climate change: Problems faced in India Climate Change, caused by the increased concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere, has emerged as the most prominent global environmental problem. Most of the countries including India are facing the problems of rising temperature, melting of glaciers, rising of sea-level leading

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Everything about Global Energy and CO2 Status Report of International Energy Agency

Headline : India’s carbon dioxide emissions up 5% Details : Topic in News Global Energy and CO2 Status Report of International Energy Agency News Summary According to Global Energy and CO2 Status Report released by IEA, the global energy demand increased by 2.3% in 2018. As a result the energy-related CO2 emissions rose by 1.7% to 33 gigatonnes in 2018. In focus: Global Energy and

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While the frequency of forest fire appears to have increased in the country, India’s approach towards forest fire management has significant gaps. Elucidate. (10 marks)

While the frequency of forest fire appears to have increased in the country, India’s approach towards forest fire management has significant gaps. Elucidate. (10 marks) Approach: Introduce with increased frequency of forest fires in India Bring out the various gaps in forest fire management (NIDM report identified the gaps) Conclude appropriately Model Answer : India, which saw a 46% increase

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Define Environmental Lapse Rate (ELR). What are the various types of temperature inversion? (200 words)

Define Environmental Lapse Rate (ELR). What are the various types of temperature inversion? (200 words) Approach: Define ELR Define Temperature inversion Discuss various types of temperature inversions (mention the areas where they are prominent if possible) Conclude appropriately Model Answer : Environmental lapse rate (ELR) is the rate at which the air temperature changes with height in the atmosphere surrounding a cloud

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A climate vulnerability index for India

Headline : A climate vulnerability index for India Details : News Summary India will soon have a climate-vulnerability index which will be developed by Department of Science and Technology(DST). It is being modeled on the basis of a similar climate-vulnerability assessment done on 12 Himalayan states in 2018.   Climate Vulnerability Index The Climate Vulnerability Index will be developed on the

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Do forest surveys separately

Headline : Do forest surveys separately Details : The news • A highpower committee constituted by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) has recommended the government to separate the forest surveys for estimating trees grown in forest and outside  forest. About India State of Forest Report • Forest Survey of India (FSI) an organization under the Ministry of Environment Forest & Climate Change Government of India has been assessing the forest and tree resources of

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Prelims Program: National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA)

Headline : Prelims Program: National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) Details : About National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) has been formulated for enhancing agricultural productivity especially in rainfed areas focusing on integrated farming, water use efficiency, soil health management and synergizing resource conservation.   Objectives To make agriculture more productive, sustainable, remunerative and climate resilient by

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Why a dam in Karnataka bothers Tamil Nadu

Headline : Why a dam in Karnataka bothers Tamil Nadu Details : Why in news? Recently, Tamil Nadu Chief Minister E K Palaniswami wrote to the Prime Minister urging him to stop the process of a feasibility study for the Mekedatu dam project in Karnataka.   About Mekedatu dam project Being set up by the Karnataka government, the project is near Mekedatu,

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Zoological Survey of India

The Zoological Survey of India (ZSI), a premier research institution under the Ministry has completed 100 years of services to the Nation, undertaking survey, exploration and research leading to the advancement of our knowledge on the exceptionally rich faunal diversity of the country since its inception in 1916. Over the successive plan periods functions of ZSI have also expanded gradually

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Botanical Survey of India

Botanical Survey of India (BSI) is the apex research organization under Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC), Govt. of India for carrying out taxonomic and floristic studies on wild plant resources of the country. It was established in 1890 with the basic objective to explore the plant resources of country and to identify the plants species with economic

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Wildlife Crime Control Bureau

Wildlife Crime Control Bureau (WCCB) is a statutory multi-disciplinary body established under the Ministry, to combat organized wildlife crime in the country. The Bureau has its headquarters in New Delhi and five regional offices at Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai and Jabalpur; three sub-regional offices at Guwahati, Amritsar and Cochin; and five border units at Ramanathapuram, Gorakhpur, Motihari, Nathula and Moreh.

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Brief about Fly Ash

Fly ash is a fine powder which is a byproduct from burning pulverized coal in electric generation power plants. Fly ash is a pozzolan, a substance containing aluminous and siliceous material that forms cement in the presence of water. When mixed with lime and water it forms a compound similar to Portland cement. The fly ash produced by coal-fired power

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Brief about Bio-fortification

Consider the following statements 1.     Biofortification is the process by which the nutritional quality of food crops is improved through agronomic practices, conventional plant breeding, or modern biotechnology. 2.     Conventional fortification differs from Biofortification in that conventional fortification aims to increase nutrient levels in crops during plant growth rather than through manual means during processing of the crops. Which of

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Everything about Tiger Estimation and It’s techniques.

Onestopupsc Fourth all India Tiger estimation has began in the Nagarjunasagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve. Appliances and apps being used Android phones and a new app are being used by forest officials to collect field data for digital enumeration.The app, Monitoring System for Tigers – Intensive Protection and Ecological Status (M-StrIPES) is being used for the first time to avoid human error

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Why Bengaluru’s Bellandur lake keeps catching fire? Join Telegram Channel

Onestop IAS A huge plume of fire was spotted emanating seemingly spontaneously from the severely-polluted Bellandur Lake in mid January. The Lake has witnessed occasional fires on its surface in the past as well. Apart from fire, the lake also witness the issues like froth formation, loss of biodiversity due to encroachment etc. The Bellandur Lake Bellandur Lake, spread over

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Features of Sunderbans

Feature of Sunderbans  It is classified as a moist tropical forest.  It is a UNESCO world heritage site.  Recognised under Ramsar wetland site  Dominated by “ Sundri tree”  Largest single block of halophytic mangrove forest in the world.  It has common features of the both estuarine and mangrove ecosystem.  Agent of carbon Sequestration  It

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Everything about Great White Pelican

Great White Pelican • It is a bird in the pelican family. • It is also known as the eastern white pelican, rosy pelican or white pelican. Telegram:  https://t.me/SimplifiedIAS Geographic distribution • It is mainly found in southeastern Europe, Asia and Africa. Behaviour • Northern populations of this species are fully migratory and travel via important stop-over sites. Other populations

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Biomes of the World

Equatorial Zone Equatorial rainforest – around equator Amazon rainforest, Congo basin, and east indies Uniform weather through out the year Rains in the afternoons Double rainfall peaks coinciding with the equinoxes Canopy structure – layered trees Epiphytes Unfertile soil Abundance of species Difficult to penetrate the jungle Cloud Forests – relates to Selvas Hardwood trees – mahogany, rosewood, rubber, ebony

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Asian Nature Conservation Foundation:

Asian Nature Conservation Foundation: It was established in 1997 as a charitable trust. It has its headquarters at the Innovation Centre office of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. It is a small group of conservation scientists, planners, information managers and administrators working together to support the conservation of biological diversity in India. It is actively involved in the conservation

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Everything about OIL SPILL

OIL SPILL:  An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon or naturally extracted oil into the environment, especially marine areas, due to human activity and is a form of pollution. Remedies: 1.Dispersant: Dispersants are chemicals that when applied to oil floating on the surface greatly increases the rate of dispersal and breakdown of the oil. Dispersants assist

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Bharat Standard Norms

Bharat Standard Norms Introduced in the year 2000, the Bharat norms are emission control standards put in place by the government to keep a check on air pollution. Based on the European regulations (Euro norms), these standards set specifications/limits for the release of air pollutants from equipment using internal combustion engines, including vehicles. Typically, the higher the stage, the more

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International Treaties fro Hazardous Substance Management

Hazardous Substance Management To promote safe management and use of hazardous substance in order to avoid damage to the health and env. International conventions Basel convention – control the transboundary mvmt of hazardous waste Non binding agreement Reduce the movement of hazardous waste between nations Prevent transfer of hazardous waste from developed to less developed country USA, UK dumping e-waste in India,

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Nature Conservation – International Treaties

Nature Conservation Under Biodiversity conservation scheme, there are two main subcomponents Bio Diversity Bio Safety  Bio Diversity Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Legally binding Aichi target  India enacted the Biological Diversity Act, 2002 to give effect to the provisions of CBD. National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) was created to implement the provisions of BDA, 2002. Located at Chennai Autonomous body Statutory body Regulatory body

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CITES ( Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora)

CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between governments. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. Today, it accords varying degrees of protection to more than 35,000 species of animals and plants, whether they are traded as live specimens, fur coats

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Everything about CORAL BLEACHING:

CORAL BLEACHING: Bleaching occurs when abnormal environmental conditions, such as warmer sea temperatures, cause corals to expel tiny photosynthetic algae, draining them of their colour. When water is too warm, corals will expel the algae (zooxanthellae) living in their tissues causing the coral to turn completely white. This is called coral bleaching. Algae are vital to the coral. Corals use

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Major Air Pollutants

Major Air Pollutants Particulate matter (PM): PM affects more people than any other pollutant. The major components of PM are sulfate, nitrates, ammonia, sodium chloride, black carbon, mineral dust and water. It consists of a complex mixture of solid and liquid particles of organic and inorganic substances suspended in the air. The most health-damaging particles are those with a diameter

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Air Pollution

Causes of air pollution: Diesel vehicles are more polluting than petrol They are high in PM, Nitrogen oxide not good for health Ban 10 year old diesel truck entering city Vehicular emissions Dust emissions from construction work, thermal power plants etc.. Burning of wastes etc.. Major pollutants: Benzene – byproduct of burning diesel. It is carcinogen  (cancer causing tissue).. Short

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Gangetic Dolphin

Dolphins are one of the oldest creatures in the world along with some species of turtles, crocodiles and sharks. Platanista gangetica , the biological name of the Gangetic river dolphin, also called the “blind” river dolphin or the “side-swimming dolphin” is unique to India and an endangered species. Ganges river dolphins once lived in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna and Karnaphuli-Sangu river systems of Nepal, India,

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Amur Falcons

Amur falcons are the longest travelling raptors in the world. They weigh just 150 grams Males are mostly grey in colour and the females have dark-streaked cream or orange underparts. The species flies non-stop from Mongolia to northeast India covering 5,600 km in five days and nights, a small part of its 22,000 km circular migratory journey. The birds halt briefly

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International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is a membership Union uniquely composed of both government and civil society organisations. It provides public, private and non-governmental organisations with the knowledge and tools that enable human progress, economic development and nature conservation to take place together. Created in 1948, IUCN has evolved into the world’s largest and most diverse environmental

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Biodiversity hotspots

Biodiversity hotspots? Biodiversity hotspots are a method to identify those regions of the world where attention is needed to address biodiversity loss and to guide investments in conservation. The idea was first developed by Norman Myers in 1988 to identify tropical forest ‘hotspots’ characterized both by exceptional levels of plant endemism and serious habitat loss, which he then expanded to

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What is Green Climate Fund?

What is Green Climate Fund? The Fund is a unique global platform to respond to climate change by investing in low-emission and climate-resilient development. GCF was established by 194 governments to limit or reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in developing countries, and to help vulnerable societies adapt to the unavoidable impacts of climate change. Given the urgency and seriousness of

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National Mission for Clean Ganga

National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) is the implementation wing of National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA). It is a registered society originally formed by Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change(MoEFCC) on 12th August 2011 under the Societies Registration Act, 1860. Now both NGRBA and NMCG are allocated to the Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation(MoWR,RD

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Kashmir’s Red stag

In order to get more attention and protection to Kashmir’s Red stag, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has decided to put Red Stag on the critically endangered species list. It is listed under Schedule-I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 and J&K Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1978 and has also been listed among the top 15 species

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Ramsar Convention on Wetlands

Ramsar Convention on Wetlands India is a signatory to Ramsar convention Intergovernmental treaty Conservation and wise use of wetlands and its resources Adopted in the Iranian city of Ramsar Transboundary Ramsar Sites Changwon declaration – ensuring human well being Montreax Records Loktak Lake, Manipur (largest fresh water lake in NE) – Loktak Lake is the largest freshwater lake in Northeast

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Olive ridley Turtles

Also known as the Pacific ridley sea turtle, Olive turtles are a medium-sized species of sea turtle found in warm and tropical waters, primarily in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. They are best known for their behavior of synchronized nesting in mass numbers. Known as aribada The olive ridley is classified as Vulnerable according to the International Union for Conservation

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Sumatran Rhino

Critically endangered species Smallest of all rhinos and the only Asian variety with two horns They are born covered in shaggy, reddish brown fur Its nick name is Hairy rhino They once roamed the vast, dense forests of Sumatra, Borneo and Malaysia but land-clearing and poaching have devastated their numbers. In Sumatra, there are also small clusters in the west and

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What are invasive species? #upsc #ias

An invasive species is a non native organism that causes ecological harm after being introduced to a new environment. Humans are responsible for the spread of a majority of earth’s invasive species, often carrying them to different parts of the world on ships. Once they enter a new ecosystem, invasive species can outcompete native organisms for resources like food, especially if they

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