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Category Archives: Environment & Ecology
South Asia, which accounts for over a quarter of the world’s population, is bolstering its transmission and distribution infrastructure to meet growing energy demand, not only by expanding power grids but also by improving renewable energy sources such as solar and hydropower. The electricity policies of South Asian countries aim at providing electricity to every household. Objective: The objective is toRead more
What is Drought?, Global Assessment Report (GAR) on Drought 2021, Impact of Drought, Cost estimates of Drought, About United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction
Impact of severe droughts on India GDP is 2-5%: UN In News The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR) recently released a report titled Global Assessment Report (GAR) on Drought 2021. What is Drought? The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) defines drought as a period of abnormally dry weather long enough to cause a serious hydrological (water) imbalance. ItRead more
In Focus: Biodiversity Hotspots A biodiversity hotspot is a region with a high amount of biodiversity that experiences habitat loss by human activity. The term “biodiversity hotspot” was coined by a British environmentalist Norman Myers in 1988. For a region to qualify as a biodiversity hotspot, it must meet the following two criteria: Contain at least 1,500 species of vascular plants found nowhereRead more
Sunderbans is the largest single block mangrove forest in the world. About: Sundarbans: Sundarbans is a mangrove area in the delta formed by the confluence of the Ganga, Brahmaputra and Meghna Rivers in the Bay of Bengal. It is the largest single block mangrove forest in the world. The Sundarbans mangrove forest covers an area of about 10,000 sq. km, of which forests in Bangladeshextend over 6,017 sq. km andRead more
About Elephants: Elephant reserves, Project elephant, MIKE Programme, Conservation efforts, Threats faced
About: Elephants The Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus) occurs in 16 states of the country and in regions of central and southern Western Ghats, North-east India, eastern India and northern India and in some parts of southern peninsular India.The Indian elephant is one of three extant recognised subspecies of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and native to mainland Asia. The Government of India has declared IndianRead more
Q. Forest Fires pose a threat not only to the forest wealth but also to the entire regime. In view of this statement discuss the various adverse impacts of Forest Fires.
Model Answer Fires are a major cause of forest degradation and have wide ranging adverse ecological, economic and social impacts including: Effects of forest fire: Loss of valuable timber resources: Forest fires cause indispensable loss to timber and deteriorate its quality. Valuable timber species like teak, sal, chir, deodar, sheesam, rosewood etc. are adversely affected by fire. However, the adhesive impactRead more
Q. What are the different types of ecological succession? In this light also discuss the significance of ecological succession?
Structure of the answer: Introduction Types of ecological succession Significance of ecological succession Way forward Model Answer Ecological succession is the steady and gradual change in a species of a given area with respect to the changing environment. The ultimate aim of this process is to reach equilibrium in the ecosystem. The community that achieves this aim is called a climax community. Further, inRead more
Q. India is currently facing the issue of rising tsunami of e-waste. In this light discuss the challenges being posed by increasing e-waste and also suggest the suitable measures to tackle these challenges.
Structure of the answer: Introduction Rise of e-waste and issues relating to it Challenges posed by it Measures to handle such an issue Final analysis Model Answer Electronic waste/ e-waste is a term used for electronic products that have become unwanted, obsolete and have reached the end of their useful life. India generates near about 2 million metric tonne of e-waste annually andRead more
India and Paris Agreement: The Paris agreement that India signed in 2015, was India’s inflexion point (moment of dramatic change) in its fight against pollution. Specifically, under the Paris agreement, India committed to meet three targets by 2030: Cut greenhouse gas emissions intensity of its GDP by 33-35% (vs 2005 levels) Increase non-fossil fuel-based power capacity to 40% Create anRead more
In Focus: Wetlands, Wetlands in India, Why are wetlands important?, Ramsar Convention, Ramsar Sites in India, Tso Kar
India adds Tso Kar wetland complex to Ramsar Site In News: India has added Tso Kar Wetland Complex in Ladakh as its 42nd Ramsar site, the second one in the Union Territory (UT) of Ladakh. In Focus: Wetlands What are Wetlands? The wetlands are actually land areas covered by water, either temporarily/seasonally or permanently. The wetlands play a key roleRead more
Headline : Is seawater the ultimate answer? Details : Context of the topic: As per National Health Profile (NHP), India’s public health spend as a percentage of GDP has increased by 0.16 percentage points from 1.12% to 1.28% of GDP, between 2009-10 and 2018-19. India’s target is 5% GDP on health spend. The NHP is an annual stocktaking exercise on theRead more
Headline : Vet institute, ambulances mooted in lion conservation plan Details : The News In a bid to step up conservation and protection efforts of critically endangered ‘Asiatic Lions, the Centre and the Gujarat government have announced a 3-year dedicated ‘Asiatic Lion Conservation Project’. Background About Asiatic Lions Asiatic Lions are critically endangered species, listed in the Schedule 1 of Wildlife (Protection) ActRead more
Headline : What impact will the thundershowers, hailstorm have on rabi crop? Details : The topic Recently, there was heavy rainfall and hailstorms in the many areas of northern India. This articles assesses the impact of heavy rainfall and hailstorms on rabi crops. Background In early February, the National Capital Region, Punjab, Haryana, parts of Uttar Pradesh and northern Madhya Pradesh witnessedRead more
Headline : Supreme Court clears 900km Char Dham highway project Details : In News The Supreme Court has cleared the Chardham highway project, by modifying an NGT order. It has also ordered to constitute a fresh committee to look into environmental concerns related to the project. It ordered the Ministry of Environment and Forests to form the high-powered committee (HPC). BackgroundRead more
Headline : What is the economics behind e-vehicle batteries? Details : In News In May 2019 NITI Aayog had proposed to ban the sale of all internal combustion engine (ICE) powered 3-wheelers from 2023 and 2-wheelers below 150cc from March 2025, and called for them to be converted to electric vehicles (eVs). To boost eVs, the Union Budget presented in JulyRead more
About: Climate Risk Index (CRI) The global CRI, analyses impacts of extreme weather events – both in terms of the fatalities (deaths) as well as the economic losses. However, the index does not consider slow-onset events like rising sea levels, glacier melting or ocean warming and acidification. The index is based on data from the Munich Re NatCatSERVICE11, which is considered worldwide as oneRead more