Category Archives: Geography

Q. Discuss the mechanism of volcano formation and eruption. Also mention the distribution of volcano around the world.

Model Answer Structure of the answer: Meaning of volcano Mechanism and causes for its formation Distribution of volcano (with the help of data) Conclusion Volcanos or vulcanism comprises of all phenomena connected with movement of heated material from interior/mantle towards the earth surface. The volcano may be “active volcano” like Mount Etna or “dormant volcano” like Mount Vesuvius or Extinct volcano that have no indication of future eruption. Volcanos are

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Q. Wind plays a major role in formation of different erosional and depositional land forms. In this light discuss the various types of land topography formed due to action of wind.

Structure of the answer: Introduction: Role of winds Various erosional features Various depositional features Conclusion Model Answer The wind is the main geomorphic agent especially in the hot deserts. Winds have a dual role in creating Erosional landforms and other in creating Depositional landforms. These geomorphic features are most typically found in arid environments where there is little vegetation, where there are frequently strong winds etc. The landforms

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Q. Discuss the various features of tropical cyclones. While mentioning the factors contributing in formation of tropical cyclone differentiate them from extra-tropical cyclones.

Structure of the answer: Introduction Features of tropical cyclone Factors contributing in formation of cyclones Difference between tropical and extra tropical cyclones Conclusion Model Answer Cyclone is an intense vortex or a whirl in the atmosphere with very strong winds circulating around it in anti-clockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere and in clockwise direction in the Southern Hemisphere.  For Ex- Cyclone Titli Some of the special characteristics of

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Q. Oceans are the major sources for multiple living and non-living resources that are useful for the growth of blue economy. In this light discuss the concept of Blue economy and its importance for India.

Structure of the answer: Introduction (Blue economy) Ocean as the source for various resources Importance of blue economy Final analysis Model Answer The concept of blue economy was given by Gunter Pauli. It is the sustainable use of ocean resources for economic growth, improved livelihoods and jobs and ocean ecosystem health. Thus, it advocates the greening of ocean development for purposes of higher

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Q. The large-scale occurrence of floods is a result of multitude of factors. In this background discuss the causes of floods and steps to minimise the vulnerability to floods.

Structure of the answer: Introduction Causes of floods Steps to mitigate vulnerability Conclusion Model Answer Flood is a state of higher water level along a river channel or on coast leading to inundation of land that is not normally submerge. In India, 40 million hectares out of a geographical area of 3290 lakh hectares is prone to floods. Moreover, every year, 1600 lives are lost

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Q. Discuss the difference between Himalayas and Peninsular drainage system. Also put forth importance of the river system in India.

Structure of the answer: Introduction Difference between Himalayan and Peninsular river system Importance of river system in India Conclusion Model Answer Rivers are considered as the lifelines of a country as they provide the most valuable thing for the survival i.e. water. The rivers in India can be broadly categorized into two different categories based on their origin: the Himalayan Rivers and the Peninsular

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Q. What do you mean by climate forcing? Explain the factors that causes the Earth’s climate to change.

Approach: Explain the meaning of climate forcing  and related phenomenon with relevant examples. Discuss various natural and anthropogenic causes of climate change. Conclude the answer, as per the context. Model Answer Any external factor that originates from outside the climate system and can become a cause of climate change is called Climate Forcing. These factors are specifically known as forcings

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Rivers and their tributaries:-

Rivers and their tributaries:- 1)Tributaries of Ganga: 1. Gomti 2. Ghaghra 3. Gandak 4. Kosi 5. Yamuna 6. Son 7. Hoogly 2)Tributaries of Yamuna: 1. Chambal 2. Sindh 3. Betwa 4. Ken 5. Tons 6. Hindon 3)Tributaries of Godavari: 1. Indravati 2. Manjira 3. Bindusara 4. Sarbari 5. Penganga 6.Pranahita 4)Tributaries of Krishna: 1. Tungabhadra 2. Ghataprabha 3. Malaprabha 4.

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Geography Concepts

El Nino :- El- Nino is Spanish word for male child ( Christ Child) El Nino refers to two things:- 1. ceasing of upwelling off west coast of South America (Eastern Pacific Ocean) 2. appearance of warmer waters than average on the surface of ocean off the west coast of South America. Statistically, El-nino has been found have a negative

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Geography Concepts

Doldrums:- At sea, ITCZ area is called doldrums because sailors in olden days used to get becalmed here. It’s the region of weak winds (small pressure gradients), High Humidity and High Temperatures occuring heat near equator. Horse Latitude:- In olden days, Zones at about 30 N/S Degree were known as Horse latitude. When ships were becalmed, horses were thrown to

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Headline : Prelims Program: Map- Argentina

Headline : Prelims Program: Map- Argentina Details : Why it is important? Argentina hosted the recent G20 summit in 2018. In Feb 2019, Argentina’s President paid a state visit to India. 2019 is the 70th year of establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries.   Argentina Argentina is located mostly in the southern half of the South America. Argentina derives

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Prelims Program: Indus River System

Details : Why it is important? In view of the Pulwama attack, India is weighing its options for retaliation against Pakistan, who sponsored the attack.Out of many options, one big move that India can take is to abrogate the Indus Waters Treaty (which deals with river Indus and its five tributaries).  Join Telegram: https://t.me/SimplifiedIAS Indus River System It is one

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Why a dam in Karnataka bothers Tamil Nadu

Headline : Why a dam in Karnataka bothers Tamil Nadu Details : Why in news? Recently, Tamil Nadu Chief Minister E K Palaniswami wrote to the Prime Minister urging him to stop the process of a feasibility study for the Mekedatu dam project in Karnataka.   About Mekedatu dam project Being set up by the Karnataka government, the project is near Mekedatu,

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Tropical Evergreen Forests Conditions for growth:

Tropical Evergreen Forests Conditions for growth: Tropical Evergreen and Semi Evergreen Forests are found mainly in the areas where the annual rainfall is more than 250 cm, with a short dry season. The average annual temperature should be above 22 °C. Characteristics: Lofty, very dense, multi-layered forest with mesophytic evergreen, 45m or more in height, with large number of species,

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Geography – Seismic Gap, Liquefaction

Seismic Gap:- It’s the earthquake prone area where occurs a gap in the occurrence record of major earthquakes. This means, that statistically, major earthquake is due ie, much more time had elapsed since the last major earthquake than the average time gap between two major earthquake as per the historical occurances. Telegram : https://t.me/SimplifiedIAS Liquefaction:- Earthquake waves gets significantly amplified

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Geography Concept:- Trade Winds, Outback

Trade Winds:- Trade winds are most regular of all the planetary winds and in general they blow with great force and in constant direction. Since trade winds blow from the subtropical latitudes to the warmer equatorial latitudes, they have great capacity of holding moisture. In their passage across oceans, they gather more moisture and bring heavy rainfall to the east

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Grography – ITCZ, Doldrums, Horse Latitude

Doldrums:- At sea, ITCZ area is called doldrums because sailors in olden days used to get becalmed here. It’s the region of weak winds (small pressure gradients), High Humidity and High Temperatures occuring heat near equator. Telegram:  https://t.me/SimplifiedIAS Horse Latitude:- In olden days, Zones at about 30 N/S Degree were known as Horse latitude. When ships were becalmed, horses were

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Solar storms:

Solar storms: It could refer to the following: Coronal mass ejection: Corona, the outer solar atmosphere, is structured by strong magnetic fields. Where these fields are closed, often above sunspot groups, the confined solar atmosphere can suddenly and violently release bubbles of gas and magnetic fields called coronal mass ejections. Solar flares: These are intense burst of radiations coming from the release

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Biomes of the World

Equatorial Zone Equatorial rainforest – around equator Amazon rainforest, Congo basin, and east indies Uniform weather through out the year Rains in the afternoons Double rainfall peaks coinciding with the equinoxes Canopy structure – layered trees Epiphytes Unfertile soil Abundance of species Difficult to penetrate the jungle Cloud Forests – relates to Selvas Hardwood trees – mahogany, rosewood, rubber, ebony

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Minerals of India

Minerals Metallic  Ferrous – Iron, manganese Non Ferrous – Cu, Bauxite Non Metallic  Fuel – Coal, Oil, petroleum Others – mica, limestone, granite Iron ore  India has largest reserve in Asia Haematite and magnetite Northern Orissa – Rourkela steel plant (German collaboration) Jharkand – Jamshedpur , Bokaro steel plant (Russian collaboration) Chattisgarh – Bhilai steel plant (Russian collaboration) Western WB

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World Economic Forum – WEF

It is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva. The forum was founded in 1971 by Klaus Schwab, a German-born business professor at the University of Geneva. Recognized by the Swiss authorities as the international institution for public-private cooperation, its mission is cited as “committed to improving the state of the world by engaging business, political, academic, and other

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Indian Meteorological Department – IMD

The Indian Meteorological Department (IMD), also referred to as the Met Department, is an agency of the Ministry of Earth Sciences of the Government of India. It is the principal agency responsible for meteorological observations, weather forecasting and seismology. It was established in 1875. IMD is headquartered in New Delhi and operates hundreds of observation stations across India and Antarctica. IMD is

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PM National Relief Fund (PMNRF)

The fund consists entirely of public contributions and does not get any budgetary support. The corpus of the fund is invested with banks in fixed deposits. Disbursements are made with the approval of the Prime Minister. PMNRF has not been constituted by the Parliament. The fund is recognized as a Trust under the Income Tax Act and the same is managed

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NATURAL VEGETATION In India

Natural vegetation refers to a plant community that has been left undisturbed over a long time, so as to allow its individual species to adjust themselves to climate and soil conditions as fully as possible. Himalayan heights are marked with temperate vegetation; Western Ghats and the Andaman Nicobar Islands have tropical rain forests Deltaic regions have tropical forests and mangroves;

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