Category Archives: History

Explained: The Reclining Buddha and his various other depictions in art

In News:

  • On Wednesday, May 26 — Buddha Jayanti, Buddha Purnima, or Vesak — India’s largest statue of the Reclining Buddha was to have been installed at the Buddha International Welfare Mission temple in Bodh Gaya, Bihar.
  • The ceremony has been postponed due to Covid-19 restrictions.

About the Reclining Buddha:

  • A reclining Buddha is an image that represents Buddha lying down and is a major iconographic theme in Buddhist art.

  • Statues and images of the Reclining Buddha show him lying on his right side, his head resting on a cushion or on his right elbow.
  • It represents the Buddha during his last illness, about to enter Parinirvana, the stage of great salvation after death that can only be attained by enlightened souls.
    • The Buddha’s death came when he was 80 years old, in a state of meditation, in Kushinagar in eastern Uttar Pradesh.

  • It is meant to show that all beings have the potential to be awakened and be released from the cycle of death and rebirth.
  • The reclining Buddha was first depicted in Gandhara Art.

Other depictions/mudras of Buddha:

  • Mudras are a non-verbal mode of communication and self-expression, consisting of hand gestures and fingerpostures.
  • While there are a large number of esoteric mudras, over time Buddhist art has retained only five of them for the representations of the Buddha.
  • These five mudras are:
  1. Dharmachakra mudra:
    • Dharmachakra in Sanskrit means the ‘Wheel of Dharma‘.

    • This mudra symbolizes the occasion when Buddha preached to his companions the first sermon after his Enlightenment in the Deer Park at Sarnath.It thus denotes the setting into motion ofthe Wheel of the teaching of the Dharma.
    • In this mudra the thumb and index finger of both hands touch at their tips to form a circle.
    • This circle represents the Wheel of Dharma, or in metaphysical terms, the union of method and wisdom.
    • In this mudra, the hands are held in front of the heart, symbolizing that these teachings are straight from the Buddha’s heart.

  2. Bhumisparsha mudra:
    • Literally Bhumisparsha translates into ‘touching the earth’.
    • It is more commonly known as the ‘earth witness’ mudra.

    • This mudra, formed with all five fingers of the right hand extended to touch the ground, symbolizes the Buddha’s enlightenment under the Bodhi tree, when he summoned the earth goddess, Sthavara, to bear witness to his attainment of enlightenment.
    • The right hand, placed upon the right knee in earth-pressing mudra, and complemented by the left hand-which is held flat in the lap in the dhyana mudra of meditation, symbolizes the union of method and wisdom.

  3. Varada mudra:
    • This mudra symbolizes charity, compassion and boon-granting.
    • It is the mudra of the accomplishment of the wish to devote oneself to human salvation.

    • It is nearly always made with the left hand, and can be made with the arm hanging naturally at the side of the body, the palm of the open hand facing forward, and the fingers extended.
    • The five extended fingers symbolize the following five perfections:
      1. Generosity
      2. Morality
      3. Patience
      4. Effort
      5. Meditative concentration


  1. Dhyana mudra:
    • The Dhyana mudra may be made with one or both hands.

    • When made with a single hand the left one is placed in the lap, while the right may be engaged elsewhere. The left hand making the Dhyana mudra in such cases symbolizes the female left-hand principle of wisdom
    • When made with both hands, the hands are generally held at the level of the stomach or on the thighs.
    • The Dhyana mudra is the mudra of meditation, of concentration on the Good law, and of the attainment of spiritual perfection.
    • It indicates the perfect balance of thought, rest of the senses and tranquillity.
    • According to tradition, this mudra derives from the one assumed by Buddha when meditating under the pipal tree before his Enlightenment.

  2. Abhaya Mudra:
    • Abhaya in Sanskrit means fearless. Thus this mudra symbolizes protection, peace, and the dispelling of fear.
    • It is made with the right hand raised to shoulder height, the arm crooked, the palm of the hand facing outward, and the fingers upright and joined. The left hand hangs down at the side of the body.

    • In Thailand, and especially in Laos, this mudra is associated with the movement of the waking Buddha.
    • In Gandhara art, this mudra was sometimes used to indicate the action of preaching.

Describe any four cultural elements of diversity in India and rate their relative significance in building a national identity. (UPSC – 2015) [150 Words]

Ans.: Diversity connotes collective differences among people that differentiates one group of people from another.
India is considered as a mega culturally diverse country due to the existence of various groups that provide a unique blend to India’s diversity. These culturally diverse elements have given India an identity that is heterogeneous compared to any such large countries.
 
Cultural elements of diversity in India: 

  • Religious Diversity
    All major religions of the world are found and practised in India. The foreign religions have interacted with regional culture and formed a unique blend that is not formed elsewhere.
    Ex: Blend of Parsi culture with indigenous culture in Maharashtra . 
  • Language
    India is home to a large number of languages that we cannot find in any other countries. These languages have evolved over centuries and some are very rare. This diversity in language has provided India a colourful blend. Fundamental unity is found in the ideas and themes expressed in these languages. 
  • Festivals
    Every region and community in India has their own festivals based on their cultural identity. These festivals are the backbone of their culture and are delicately preserved and followed. These festivals allow the identity of communities to transmit over generations.
    Ex: Lohri in Punjab , Pongal in Kerala, Bihu in NE states. 
  • Races
    India is home to major races of the world. These races have mixed with each other over hundreds of years to give rise to present ones. This has allowed the existence of unique races in India.
    Ex: Indo-Aryan races in India, Dravidian etc. 
  • Pilgrimages 

Significance of cultural elements in building national identity

  • Unity in diversity
    The different cultural elements have allowed India to be seen as a country that respects all traditions and beliefs. This has reiterated India’s commitment to towards unity in diversity motto.
  • Building tolerance
    Existence of various forms of diverse culture in India has made India an example of tolerance. When the world is fighting over colour and language, India’s acceptance of cultural diversity is a beacon of hope. 

Thus, cultural diversity has an important role in shaping India’s national identity that is not based on any language or religion but instead on common hopes and aspirations.

Q. Comment upon the role of women in the Indian freedom struggle. How did the arrival of Gandhiji affect their participation in the political sphere?

Model Answer

Indian freedom struggle was not only a political agitation for freedom but also an inclusive movement that included various sections of the society. The process of inclusion only intensified with the multidimensional role of women with renewed vigour after the arrival of Mahatma Gandhi.

Role of Women in Indian Freedom Struggle –

  • Earliest examples – Right from the revolt of 1857 there was the participation of women in the Indian freedom struggle. Leaders like Rani Laxmi Bai and Begum Hazrat Mahal played an active role to oppose British rule in their area.
  • Inspirational courage and valour –Likes of Bhikaji Cama who unfurled the Indian flag at Stuttgart and Communist leaders like Bina Das and ChattriSangh who tried an assassination attempt on Governor of Bengal were an inspiration for all Indians.
  • Reformist and constructivist role – As women’s education spread, there was a small yet active women’s movement working inside the national movement. Congress leaders like Sarojini Naidu and Annie Besant gave them the leadership. Participation of women deepened the meaning of freedom by demanding political rights for women, which were majorly neglected. Various women organizations like Madras Women Indian Association and All India Women’s Conference in 1927 raised voice for voting rights.

Influence of Mahatma Gandhi on Women’s Participation – Gandhiji worked upon at the levels of ideas, techniques as well as programmes.

  • The idea of sisterhood – He described women as the embodiment of sacrifice, humility and knowledge. (Young India 1921). He made the gender issue neutral by emphasizing role models like Sita and Draupadi (who were portrayed as role models of empowered women, albeit in the cloak of traditionalism). He thus emphasised on sisterhood ideal and made the political role of women more acceptable to male counterparts as well as themselves.
  • Erasing public vs private spheres – He provided prabhatpheris, picketing liquor shops, prohibition, flag satyagrahas as well as constructive works like charkha spinning, which facilitated the participation of women. He also took the freedom struggle to the daily activities and impressed upon the people to carry the spirit of nationalism in their routines – thus inspiring them. All these ensured that women could participate from wherever they were in whatever capacity they could.
  • Programmes and methods – Gandhiji emphasized upon values of non-violence and satyagraha. Adherence to non-violence led to an increase in participation of women, which was visible during the Civil Disobedience Movement (From 1930 to 1934). As even men who were reluctant to allow women to participate owing to violence now readily promoted their participation. Gandhiji made women realize their potential of strength and sacrifice, which made women most trusted satyagrahis. It was Sarojini Naidu who took up leadership role during salt satyagraha after the arrest of Gandhi. (Dharasana Satyagraha)

Gandhiji’s mass based struggle drew many women towards Indian freedom struggle changed in the nature of participation from supportive to equal participation. Thus participation of women made Indian Freedom Struggle a true mass-based struggle which not only led to political independence but a great stride towards the emancipation of women and other weaker sections of society. 

Q. Since the Press was a powerful weapon in the development of Indian Nationalism, it was subjected to restrictions by the British Government. In this regard, discuss the major regulations enacted by the British rulers to curb the freedom of Press in India.

Model Answer

The press was fiercely involved in rallying the masses and newspapers acted as the life breath of nationalistic rebellion. Inevitably, the British government became increasingly apprehensive and several acts were passed to curb the freedom of press.

Major regulations enacted by the British rulers were: 

The Press Act of 1799: It imposed war time press restrictions.  Which included pre-censorship, it was followed by the Licensing Regulations of 1823 which made the starting of a press without license a penal offence. 

The Vernacular Press Act, 1878: It came to be known as the Gagging Act as it discriminated between the English and the Vernacular Press. It was enacted to curb the highly critical nature of the vernacular press. It provided the government with extensive rights to censor reports and editorials in the vernacular press. When a report was judged as seditious, the newspaper was warned, and if the warning was ignored, the press was liable to be seized and the printing machinery confiscated. 

The Newspaper Act:  In 1908, the Newspaper Act was enacted to curb extremist nationalistic tendencies and it empowered the government to confiscate press property which published objectionable material against the government.  

The Indian Press Act of 1931: In the aftermath of the Salt Satyagraha the Indian Press Act of 1931 was enacted, which gave wide ranging powers to suppress any publication that undermined the government’s authority during the civil disobedience movement.

Defence of India Rules: Under the Defence of India Rules during the Second World War pre-censorship was imposed and amendments were made in the Press Emergency Act, the penalty of imprisonment was extended to five years. Further, the Official Secrets Act was also amended to provide a maximum penalty of death or transportation for the publication of information likely to be of use to the enemy. 

Despite the multiple draconian laws, the Indian press remained impervious to the regulations and worked its way around to defend civil liberties and the freedom of press and emerged as the torch bearer of the national movement.

Q. The town planning in Harappan Civilisation shows the high level of sophistication. In this light discuss the significant features of Harappan town planning. Also mention the various theories in relation to decline of the Civilisation.

Structure of the answer:

  • Introduction
  • Significant features
  • High level of sophistication
  • Decline of Harappan civilisation

Model Answer

The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC), also known as Harappan Civilization flourished around 2,500 BC in the western part of South Asia. The Harappan culture was distinguished by its system of town planning.

Significant features of the Harappan town planning are as follows:

  • Division of city into the Citadel e. mound built on the high podium and the lower town containing brick houses inhabited by the common people.
  • The arrangement of the houses in the cities followed a grid system.
  • Advanced drainage and sanitation system of each house were connected with road drains that were covered by stone slabs.
  • The other significant features were well-arranged water supply systemstreet lightning system, designated places to throw waste material

The significant features also show high level of sophistication in town planning as: 

  • The use of burnt bricks in the Harappan cities was remarkable as buildings of Egypt mainly used dried bricks.
  • Harappans laid special emphasis on health and hyenine as seen from bathroom in every house and well laid drainage system.
  • The town planning also kept into mind the need for storehouses for having provision during emergency. For Ex.- Great granaries of Harappa.

However, the Harappan civilization began to decline around 1800-1500 BC and some of the reason/ theories proposed by historians are as follows:

  • The massive floods in the Indus may have been a potent cause for the extinction of the Harappan culture.
  • Repeated seismographic vibrations must have also led to erosion of decline of Harappan civilization as it lied in high seismic region.
  • Further, water scarcity must have led to the exodus of the Harappan people to other places.
  • Outbreak of the plague epidemic is also shown as a reason for the decline of Harappan civilization.
  • Prof D.D. Kosambi is of the opinion that the Aryan invasion is the reason for the decline of Harappan culture.

Thus, the multiple causes/ factors have been proposed to be responsible for the decline of Harappan culture.

Q. The British rule has been often been described as the reason for drain of Indian wealth to Britain. In this light discuss constituent of economic drain and consequences of the same.

Structure of the answer:

  • Introduction (drain of wealth)
  • Estimate of drain of wealth
  • Constituent of economic drain
  • Consequences
  • Final analysis

Model Answer

The constant flow of wealth from India to England for which India did not get an adequate economic, commercial or material return has been described as drain of wealth from India. Dadabhai Naoroji gave ‘drain of wealth theory’ in his book ‘Poverty and Un-British Rule in India’. Scholarly, estimate drain of wealth to be around 9% of India’s GDP in 18th century and 6% of GDP in 19th century.

The various constituents of drain of wealth are as follows:

  • Territorial Expansion enabled the Company to generate greater commercial revenues to access Indian goods for export purposes.
  • The drain also included the movement of private funds to EnglandFor ex.- earnings of Englishmen from plunders during wars, bribes obtained from the native states According to G.A. Princep, over Rs. 1 crore was sent away from India every year between 1813 and 1820 as private wealth.
  • Another form of movement of wealth away from India was the money paid to banks, insurance companies, shipping companies in England for the services they render in India.
  • The Company’s remittances to England (Home Charges) also formed a major part of the drain. This included, salaries/ pensions paid to the Company’s employees in England

The consequence of Drain of wealth were as follows:

  • It impoverished all the section of Indian society particularly the peasants, who bore the brunt of the taxes raised by the Britishers.
  • It drained India of its precious capital, which could have otherwise been invested in industrialization/ modernization of India.
  • The drain of Indian wealth was used for financing the Industrial Revolution in England and is also the reason why industrial revolution did not take place in India.
  • The economic criticism of British rule had helped in shattering the myth of benevolence of British administration in India.
  • It was instrumental in laying the foundations for the demand for Swaraj and ensuing freedom struggle.

Thus, British methods of exploitation though less painful but resembled the blood-sucking leeches.

Q. The British rule was marked by various Peasants movement. In this background discuss the impact of these movement on freedom struggle.

Structure of the answer:

  • Introduction
  • Various peasant movement in British era
  • Impact of peasant movement on freedom struggle
  • Conclusion

Model Answer

Peasant movement in India arose due to Britishers economic policies that resulted in the change of ownership of agrarian land, massive debt burden and impoverishment of peasantry.

Thus, the peasants rose in revolt against this injustice on many occasions. Some of these are as follows:

  • Indigo revolt of 1859-1860 was result of European planters persuading the peasants to plant indigo. Further, they provided loans at a very high interest. This led to not only debt burden but also severe exploitation.
  • Similarly, in Pabna movementSome landlords forcefully collected rents and land taxes that triggered the rebellion.
  • Deccan Riots (1875) peasants of Maharashtra revolted against increasing agrarian distress.
  • Further, in Champaran Satyagraha (1917), European planters resorted to all sorts of illegal and inhuman methods of indigo cultivation. That led Gandhiji took up their cause.
  • Other significant movements were Moplah Rebellion, Kheda Peasant Struggle, Bardoli Movement (Gujarat), Tebhaga Movement in Bengal

Considering the collective effort to fight the oppressive system, some of the noteworthy impact of the peasant movement were as follows:

  • The movement helped creating awareness among the Indians about exploitative nature of British rule.
  • It also helped developing a strong awareness among peasants about their legal rights.
  • These localised revolts also prepared the ground for various other uprisings such as Sikh Wars in Punjab, Revolt of 1857
  • These movement had given much strength to the peasants who participated in the movement. Moreover, the movement also contributed to the growth of nationalism.
  • The positive impact was also seen in form of various steps taken by the government following peasant movements. For ex- appointment of indigo, passing of Deccan Agriculturists Relief Act, 1879

In light of spectrum of above-mentioned arguments, it can be said that these movements created an atmosphere for post-independence agrarian reforms, for instance, abolition of Zamindari etc. and also added to the transformation of the agrarian structure.  Click to View More

Q. Explain how the American War of Independence had transformed the Europe and other parts of the world?

Model Answer

The American Revolution of 1776 had transformed not only the America but also the Europe and other parts of the world. Its direct and indirect influences were felt worldwide in the time to come.

The impact of the American Revolution was as follows:

Ideological impact:

  1. The ideas of liberty, equality, fraternity were popularized all over the world as a result of the American Revolution. These ideas of Enlightenment were absorbed by the common masses everywhere.
  2. The American Revolution provided for the first modern democracy in the world. As a result, democratic ideas gained popularity everywhere and democratic transformation was witnessed in the time to come.
  3. The concept of natural rights of men were also popularized by the American Revolution. The Bills of Rights of 1789 guaranteed a number of Fundamental Rights to American citizens. Through this bill, the idea of natural rights of men put forward by John Locke was given Constitutional guarantee. This act inspired similar guarantees in other parts of the world. The declaration of rights adopted by France in August 1791 was a reflection of the same.
  4. American Revolution paved the way for the first modern written Constitution in the world. The American Constitution was adopted and enacted by the American Congress in September 1787.

Inspired other Revolutions:

  1. The American Revolution played an important role in the outbreak of the revolution in France. Many French soldiers had fought in the support of the liberty and equality of the Americans during the American War of Independence. After the war, on returning to France, they found it difficult to tolerate the denial of those very rights to them in their own mother country.
  2. The flame of Revolution reached Ireland in 1798. A number of nationalist revolutions (led by Simon Bolivar etc) were witnessed in Latin America during the first half of 19th century. Spanish Revolution and the European Revolutions of the 19th century were the continuation of the tradition of revolution triggered by the American Revolution. That is why American Revolution of 1776 is known as the mother of all revolutions.

Effect on India:

  1. The bitter experiences of the American War of Independence made Britain smarter in India. A number of regulations were enacted by Britain particularly after 1783 to strengthen the foundation of its Indian empire.
  2. Having burnt his finger in America, Cornwallis did not take any risk in India. He followed a pro-active approach to wipe out the challenges standing in front of the British East India Company. The Third Anglo-Mysore war fought during 1790-92 was a reflection of the same.

As a result of the success of the American Revolution, America emerged as the most progressive of liberal nations. The liberal and progressive ideas gave an exalted status to the Americans. This process of American ascendancy reached its peak in 1991 when the United States of America remained the only superpower.

Q. In the context of the world history, discuss the achievements of the Bolshevik Revolution of Russia.

Model Answer

The Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 were the two phases of a single revolution where due to the prevailing widespread discontent, Lenin overthrew Kerensky’s government with the help of his revolutionary Red Guard on the night of 6th and 7th November 1917 and declared Russia as a communist nation.

Other significant achievements of the Bolshevik revolution are as follows:

  • Overthrow of power: The overthrow of autocracy, the destruction of the aristocracy and the power of the church were the first achievements of the Bolshevik Revolution.
  • First Communist state: The Bolshevik revolution resulted in the establishment of the first communist state in the world. It transformed communism form and idea to reality.
  • Inspired workers and peasants: The success of Bolshevik Revolution inspired workers and peasants throughout the world. Leftist ideas gained popularity everywhere. Socialist-communist party emerged in Europe as well as in other countries.
  • Emergence of an alternative model: The success of communism in Russia presented an alternative to the capitalist model of political, social and economic life. As a result of which an intense competition in the world to capture the heart and mind of the people took place.
  • Impact on international relations: The emergence of communism in Russia terrified the western capitalist world. Western democracy was forced to pursue a softer policy towards Germany and Italy because the revival of Germany and Italy was considered necessary to counter the spread of communism.
  • Prepared background for the Cold War: The Bolshevik Revolution prepared the background for the Cold War between the capitalist and the communist bloc from 1946-1991.
  • Inspired other countries: The Bolshevik Revolution inspired similar communist movements in many parts of the world. The Chinese communist revolution, and the revolution in Cuba were inspired by the Bolshevik Revolution.

The growing popularity of socialism and subsequent achievements made by the Soviet Union after the Bolshevik revolution helped to recognize that for democracy to be real political rights without social and economic rights were not enough. The idea of the state playing an active role in regulating the economy and planning the economy to improve the condition of the people was accepted. The popularity of socialism also helped to mitigate discrimination based on race, colour and sex.  

Q. Women’s movement post-independence has covered a wide array of topics. In this background mention the issues covered by these movement and government response to the same.

Structure of the answer:        

  • Introduction
  • Issues covered by women’s movement
  • Government response to the same
  • Final analysis

Model Answer

Women’s movement is an important variant of social movement that aimed to bring changes in the institutional arrangements, customs and beliefs in the society that subjugated women. The aim of theses movement changed over a period of time and the same is enunciated in context of post-independence women’s movement: 

  • In the post-Independence organisations such as Kasturba Memorial Trust and Bharatiya Grameen Mahila Sangh aimed to assist the rural women in developing leadership potential.
  • Further, during 1950-60’s, the main thrust of women’s movement was provision of education, health and welfare of women.
  • In late 1970s and 1980s new organisations such as Self-Employment Women’s Association (Gujarat), Working Women’s Forum (Tamil Nadu) concerned themselves with the plight of women workers in the unorganised sector.
  • During 1980s, the environmental issue was also touched by women’s movement such as Chipko movement.
  • Additionally, in 1990s the women movement was focussed on issues like dowry, alcoholism among men, wife-beating For ex- formation of Dahej Virodhi Chetna Manch in Delhi.
  • In late 1990s, for the first-time groups in Mumbai, Delhi raised issues of rape, crime and violence against women. For ex.- anti-rape movements.

The government response to these movement can be reflected from the following words:

  • The government set up women’s cells within a few ministries like Rural Development, Labour
  • Similarly, in the late 1980s the government prepared a National Perspective Plan for Women (1988-2000), which has made several recommendations relating to legal, economic, social and political status of women.
  • The 73rd and 74th amendment provided for across the board reservation of 33% in local body for women.
  • The other response of the government was seen in form of setting up of the National Commission for Women, 1992women specific programmes such as Rashtriya Mahila Kosh

Thus, in overall analysis it can be said that women’s movement were effective in bringing women’s issues back into the arena of public debate. But it is only a beginning of the long struggle ahead for equality, justice and dignity to all women.  Click to View More

Q. Reform movements in religion were largely responsible for social reform movements in India. In this context, discuss the contribution of various socio-cultural reformers in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Approach:

  • Briefly discuss about the social reform movements in India.
  • Discuss the contribution of various socio-cultural reformers in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Model Answer

Indian Society in the 19th century was caught in a vicious web created by religious superstitions and dogmas. All religions in general and Hinduism in particular had become a compound of magic, animism, and superstitions.

The growing knowledge of India’s past glory provided to the Indian people a sense of pride in their civilization. It also helped the reformers in their work of religious and social reform for their struggle against all type of inhuman practices, superstitions etc. They attacked bigotry, superstition and the hold of the priestly class. They worked for emancipation of women in which sati, infanticide, child marriage and widow re-marriage were taken up, casteism and untouchability, education for bringing about enlightenment in society. All these problems has roots in religious beliefs and superstitions.

The contribution of various socio-cultural reformers in the 19th and 20th centuries.

  • Raja Ram Mohan Roy and Brahmo Samaj :Ram Mohan Roy, the father of Indian Renaissance was versatile genius, who opposed the idolatry, denounced Sati, polygamy and abuses of the caste system, favoured remarriage of Hindu widows. He started the ‘AtmiyaSabha’ in 1815 and carried a consistent struggle against the religious and social malpractices. Other prominent reformers of Brahmo Samaj included Debendranath Tagore and Keshub Chandra Sen. They were was instrumental in popularizing the movement, and branches of the samaj were opened outside Bengal.
  • Young Bengal Movement and Henry Vivian Derozio :During the late 1820s and early 1830s, there emerged a radical, intellectual trend among the youth in Bengal, which came to be known as the ‘Young Bengal Movement’. Drawing inspiration from the great French Revolution, Derozio inspired his pupils to think freely and rationally, question all authority, love liberty, equality, and freedom, and oppose decadent customs and traditions.
  • Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar:-Vidyasagar started a movement in support of widow remarriage which resulted in legislation of widow remarriage. He was also a crusade against child marriage and polygamy. He did much for the cause of Women’s education. As secretary of Bethune School (established in 1849), he was one of the pioneers of higher education for the women in India.
  • DayanandSaraswati and Arya Samaj :Swami Dayanand gave the mantra, “Go back to Vedas” as he believed that priestly class and Puranas had perverted Hindu religion. He wrote a book “SatyarthPrakash” which contains his philosophical and religious ideas. He started the Shuddhi Movement to bring back those Hindus who had converted to Islam and Christianity.
  • Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and the Aligarh Movement : Syed’s progressive social ideas were propagated through his magazine Tahdhib-ul-Akhlaq (Improvement of Manners and Morals). Social reforms among Muslims relating to purdah, polygamy, widow remarriage, women’s education, slavery, divorce, etc.
  • M G Ranade and PrarthanaSamaj :Justice MahadevGovindRanade was a distinguished Indian scholar, social reformer and author. The four point social agenda of PrathanaSamaj were
    • Disapproval of caste system
    • Women education
    • Widow remarriage
    • Raising the age of marriage for both males and females

  • Satyashodhak Samaj and Jyotiba Phule :Jyotiba Phule belonged to the Mali (gardener) community and organized a powerful movement against upper caste domination and brahminical supremacy. Phule founded the Satyashodhak Samaj (Truth Seekers’ Society) in 1873. The main aims of the movement were Social service and spread of education among women and lower caste people.
  • Ramakrishna Paramhansa and Swami Vivekananda: Ramakrishna Paramhansa was a mystic who sought religious salvation in the traditional ways of renunciation, meditation and devotion. He was saintly person who recognized the fundamental oneness of all religions and emphasized that there were many roads to God and salvation and the service of man is the service of God.
  • Balshastri Jambhekar :He is known as Father of Marathi journalism. He was one of the pioneers in Bombay who attacked orthodoxy and tried to reform popular Hinduism.
  • KandukuriVeeresalingam: He was a social reformer who first brought about a renaissance in Telugu people and Telugu literature. He encouraged education for women.
  • Sri Narayan Guru Dharma Paripalana (SNDP) Movement: This movement was an example of a regional movement born out of conflict between the depressed classes and upper non-Brahmin castes.
  • Vaikom Satyagraha: It was led by K P Kesava, was launched in Kerela demanding throwing open of Hindu Temples and roads to untouchables.

The writings and speeches of reformers of the 19th century played an important role in the socio-cultural reform which brought about intellectual revolution in India.  These social and religious reform movements arose among all communities of the Indian people which played a socially transformative role.  

Q. Describe briefly the features of bronze sculpture art that reached its zenith during the Chola era.

Approach:

  • Introduce the Chola bronze art – why it is considered as the high stage of development
  • Divide the answer into subparts – patronage, religious purpose, technology, and iconography
  • Also mention various examples to substantiate the points
  • Within the subparts, try to trace the chronological development.

Model Answer

The Chola period is well known for the aesthetic and technical finesse of its metal sculpture. Although the tradition started in ancient past, it reached a high stage of development in South India during the Chola period when some of the most beautiful and exquisite statues were produced. The distinguished patron during the tenth century was the widowed Chola queen, Sembiyan Maha Devi.

 The Purpose:

The images were clothed and ornamented and formed part of temple rituals and ceremonials. Many of the southern images were carried about in processions. Many Shiva temples of South India have a separate natana-sabha, where the image of Nataraja is placed. This can be seen in the temple at Chidambaram.

 The Technique:

Indian sculptors had mastered the bronze medium and the casting process quite early. The ‘lost-wax’ process for casting was learnt during the Harappan Culture. This technique and art of bronze images was skillfully practised in the urban centres of South India like Kumbakonam.

 The early Pallava bronze representations of Nataraja are metal translations of wooden images. Later, in the Chola period, craftspeople recognized the greater tensile strength of metal in comparison with wood. Unlike the northern images that were made out of an alloy of eight metals (gold, silver, tin, lead, iron, mercury, zinc, and copper) while the southern ones are made of an alloy of five metals (copper, silver, gold, tin, and lead) and were solid, not hollow.

 Themes and Iconography:

The sculptors largely confined to the iconographic conventions established by long tradition and yet exercised their imagination and worked with greater freedom during the eleventh and the twelfth centuries. As a result, the bronzes images of this era show classic grace, grandeur and taste. It also absorbed some folk iconographic elements into the mainstream religious or court art (eg images of Andal)

The well-known dancing figure of Shiva as Nataraja was evolved and fully developed during the Chola period and since then many variations of this complex bronze image have been modelled. It is primarily depicted as performing angry tandava or blissful tandava. There are differences in the expression, ornamentation, the number of arms, and in the attendant figures. A wide range of Shiva iconography was evolved in the Thanjavur region of Tamil Nadu (eg. Kalyanasundara, Panigraha, Ardhinarishwar, Bhikshatana etc). Other themes include Krishna and the Alvar and Nayanmar saints. There are a few Buddhist images as well.

Later on, during the post-Chola era, there was increasing ornamentation and elaboration of bronze art that continued the iconographic features of the Chola period but became more and more baroque.

Q. What was the immediate trigger of the World War-I? What were the reasons for the breakout of the war? Comment

Model Answer

World War-I has its roots in the assassination of a prince. On 28 June 1914, Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary was assassinated by a Serbian terrorist at Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia. Austria saw the hands of Serbia behind this and served Serbia an ultimatum. Serbia refused to accept one of the demands of ultimatum. Hence, on 28 July 1914, Austria declared war on Serbia.  Then, Germany declared war on Russia and France. Britain declared war on Germany. Japan declared war on Germany with a view to capture its colonies in the Far East. Turkey and Bulgaria joined on the side of Germany. Italy initially remained neutral and later joined the war against Germany in 1915.

There are various reasons for the breakout of the war:

  1. Imperialist Rivalries: The scramble for colonies led to emergence of conflict between imperialist powers. By the last decade of 19th century almost all areas were under imperialist control and further conquest could only happen by dispossessing some other country. Rivalries resulted in attempts to re-divide the world creating conditions of war.
  2. Progress of the latecomer Germany: Germany made massive progress after its unification in 1870. It became leading producer of iron, steel and coal and left behind France and Britain. It entered shipping trade as well and possessed Imperator, the largest ship in the world. Since Germany was a late comer it could not grab as much colony as it desired.
  3. Clash of interests: Both Italy and Austria had their ambitions in the Ottoman Empire. Japan fought with Russia for extending its territorial possessions in the Far East. There was an intense naval rivalry between Germany and Britain as Britain defended its large territory. Germans accused Britain, Russia and France of trying to ‘encircle’ it.
  4. Serbian Nationalism: Serbia had the ambition of uniting all Slavs many of whom lived in Austria – Hungarian empire, which consisted of people from different nationalities (Slovaks, Czechs, Italian, etc.). Therefore, even Austria wanted to destroy Serbia.
  5. Alliance Formation: Opposing groups were formed and vast sums of money were spent to increase size of army and navy and develop deadly weapons. Europe became a vast armed camp. Propaganda for war and projecting own country as superior to other started.
  6. a) Triple Alliance (1882) – Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy.
  7. b) Triple Entente or Understanding (1907) – France, Britain and Russia. Loose group based on mutual understanding.

The First World War was the most frightful war the world had seen so far in terms of devastation it caused, the number of people who fought it, the famines and the social problems it created. Instead of destroying imperialism, it helped the victorious powers in enlarging their possessions.  

Q. The Britishers formed Indian National Congress (INC) to act as a safety valve. However, the Indians used the forum as a lightning conductor much to the whammy of Britishers. In this light the purpose behind formation of INC and the intention of Indians in respect of the same.

Structure of the answer:

  • Introduction
  • Safety valve theory/ Britisher’s intention on formation of INC
  • Use of INC by Indians for propagating nationalist interest
  • Conclusion

Model Answer

There is wide spread belief that reason behind the formation of INC was safety valve theory i.e. Britishers wanted to pacify the raising discontent among Indian masses through INC. The discontent among Indians was due to issues like passing of Vernacular Press act, Illbert bill controversy (1883), general discrimination etc.

In this background the INC was formed by retired British Civil Servant A.O. Hume and some of the reasons put forth for formation of INC are as follows:

  • C Banerjee says that INC was to gauge the extent of discontent among the Indians masses so as to take pre-emptive steps against large scale flare up.
  • Further, the Britishers did not want another face off with the Indians like Revolt of 1857. So, they gave the Indians a tool with which they can vent their frustration.
  • The Britishers also wanted to remain informed of the pulse of the masses.
  • Moreover, the Britishers knowingly allowed formation of INC so that Indian Intelligentsia would be busy inside INC rather than politically instigating mass.

However, the above justification appears to be a half truth after considering the following propositions:

  • Formation of INC was not a sudden incident as since 1860s many regional associations were active in India. For ex.- Poona Sarvajanik Sabha, Bombay Presidency Association
  • Leaders like Dadabhai Naoroji, Pherojshah Mehta wanted an all India political body to give a proper shape to the movement and to mobilize the whole country against oppressive rule of British.
  • Further, Indians formed this platform with help of Britishers to prevent any suppression as happened in 1857. Thus, wanted to use Hume as a lightning conductor for the same.

Thus, once INC was formed, the reason for its formation did not matter much as INC evolved over a period of time and helped India to get much needed freedom.

Q. Post- Independence, integration and unification of India demonstrated to be a long process plagued with challenges. In this context, examine the early challenges that India faced as a newly independent country.

Approach:

  • Write about the prevailing conditions after independence in the introduction.
  • Mention how it created challenges for India- both external and internal.
  • Conclude by mentioning India’s democratic credentials which helped India to survive as a nation.

Model Answer

15th August 1947 marked the end of colonial rule in India and the country found itself standing on the threshold of a new era wherein the task was to build a strong nation. While India found itself independent from the British, it was still to find independence from social, economic and political problems that hindered India’s growth story. The problems that India faced right after independence can be divided into three phases:

Phase 1 ( 1947- 1967): The problems that India faced after independence in this phase were as follows:

  • Communal Violence: Partition was marked with large scale communal violence.
  • The Refugee Problem: The partition of India gave way to the refugee problem. By mid-1948 about 5.5 million non-Muslims had moved into India and a very large number of Muslims had left India for Pakistan.
  • Origin of the Kashmir Problem: Kashmir was strategically important for both India and Pakistan, however, the famous movement lead by Sheik Abdullah wanted integration with India. The Maharaja, on the other hand, feared democracy in India and communalism in Pakistan, thus hoping to stay independent.
  • Foundation of the Indian Democracy: The first general elections in India which were held in 1952 was a landmark event in the history of the state which marked the establishment of the Indian democracy.
  • Linguistic Reorganization: Boundaries of the British Indian provinces had been drawn and redrawn in a haphazard manner without any thought to cultural and linguistic cohesion. Most provinces were multilingual and multicultural and after independence, many former princely states were absorbed into them. There was a demand for linguistically homogeneous provinces.
  • The Indus Water Dispute: The dispute started in 1960. The dispute arose because Indus and its tributaries flow through both India and Pakistan.
  • Mass poverty: At the time of Independence, the incidence of poverty in India was about 80% or about 250 million. Famines and hunger pushed India to take external help for its food security.
  • Illiteracy: When India gained Independence, its population numbered about 340 million. The literacy level then was just 12% or about 41 million.
  • Low economic capacity: Stagnant agriculture and poor industrial base. In 1947, agriculture accounted for 54% of India’s GDP. At the time of independence, 60% of India’s population depended on agriculture for a living.

Phase 2 ( 1967-1977): The problems that India faced after independence in this phase were as follows:

  • Linguistic reorganization: Boundaries of the British Indian provinces had been drawn and redrawn in a haphazard manner without any thought to cultural and linguistic cohesion. Continued demand for linguistically homogeneous provinces led to emergence of secessionist trends.
  • The Elections of 1967: In 1967 elections were held in February. The most important feature of the elections of 1967 was the coming together of the opposition parties.
  • Naxal Movement: The Naxalite Movement was a revolutionary movement that was started by the Naxalbari in Bengal which immediately expanded to other regions.
  • JP Movement: From 1973 there was a sharp recession, growing unemployment, rampant inflation and scarcity of basic food. The oil crisis of the mid 70’s had also contributed to the crisis and all of these developments together led to riots and large-scale unrest and strikes and erosion of support for the Congress from the poor and the middle class.
  • Emergency: National Emergency of 1975 as the government’s response to the JP Movement is considered as dark phases of Indian democracy. It curtailed the fundamental rights of the citizens and shook the foundations of Indian democratic credentials.
  • Hostile neighbours: India had to face consequent wars with Pakistan (1965, 1971) and China(1962) during the early phases of its independence. This not only hindered India’s growth and created regional instability.

Phase 3 ( 1977- 1984): The problems that India faced after independence in this phase were as follows:

  • Secessionist movements: Punjab’s Khalistan movement of the 1980s, Insurgency in the North-East, and the Naxal Movement in central-eastern India (1960s) were the biggest internal security challenges to India.
  • Punjab Crisis: During the 80’s the separatist movement in Punjab constituted the greatest threat to the unity and integrity of India.. From 1980, the Akali Dal under the leadership of Harcharan Singh Longowal decided to choose the path of confrontation. He installed in the Golden temple and began to preach his separatist message.
  • Operation Blue Star: In June 1984, Mrs Gandhi and her advisors decided to take some drastic action against the militants in the Golden temple. On 3rd June the Indian army led by General K S Brar surrounded the golden temple and on 5th June they were entered. Many temple employees and devotees died in the crossfire.

Indian democracy is a heterogeneous model with a vast socio-religious and cultural diversity. It was predicted by western political analysts that the Indian model of democracy would not last long. However, it was due to India’s strong commitment to its constitutional principles that led India to not only survive as a nation but also to emerge as the leader of the newly independent countries. 

Culture:- Brief for Prelims

Ugadi/ Losar/ Gudi Padawa

  • Ugadi is celebrated as New Year’s Day in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. The name Ugadi is derived from the name “Yuga Adi”, which means ‘the beginning of a new age’. It is celebrated on the first day of the Hindu month Chaitra, which marks the onset of spring.
  • The festival of Losar marks the beginning of New Year in Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir. Losar is Tibetan word for ‘new year’.
  • Gudi Padwa is celebrated as New Year’s Day in Maharashtra. It is celebrated on the same day as Ugadi i.e., the first day of the month Chaitra. Lord Brahma is worshipped on this day and the gudi, Brahma’s flag (also called Brahmadhvaj), is hoisted in every house as a symbolic representation of Rama’s victory over Ravana.
  • Vishu is celebrated as New Year’s Day in Kerala. It is celebrated on the first day of the Malayalam month of Medam (mid-April on the Gregorian calendar). Offerings to the divine called Vishukanni are neatly arranged on the eve of the festival and consist of rice, linen, cucumber, betel leaves, holy texts, coins and yellow flowers called konna (Cassia fistula). It is considered auspicious to see the Vishukanni first thing in the morning. On this day, people read the Ramayana and go to temples, Hindu places of worship. Children burst crackers, people wear new clothes and prepare special dishes and the elders of the house give out money to the children, servants and tenants. The money given is called Vishukaineetam

Languages and civilisation Editorial 5th Apr’19 IndianExpress

Headline : Languages and civilisation Editorial 5th Apr’19 IndianExpress 

Details : 

Importance of language:

  • Language is a tool for intellectual and emotional expression.
  • Language is a vehicle for the transmission of culture, scientific knowledge and a worldview across generations.
  • It is the vital, unseen thread that links the past with the present.
  • The great Indian poet Acharya Dandi had said that if the light of language does not exist, we will be groping in a dark world.

Indian literary tradition:

  • There is a rich literary tradition in many languages, especially the ones recognised as classical languages by the Government of India.
  • Modern Indian languages have ancient roots and are derived in some way from the classical languages.

Great Sanskrit literary heritage in India: 

  • Sanskrit, of course, is one of the oldest Indo-European languages, dating back to the second millennium BC.
  • The manuscripts still in existence in Sanskrit number over 30 million, one hundred times those in Greek and Latin combined, constituting the largest cultural heritage that any civilisation has produced before the invention of the printing press.
  • Since studying the classical languages and literature would provide access to authentic sources of history, the National Mission for Manuscripts was set up in 2003.
  • Preservation of ancient texts is only the first step. We need to encourage scholars to do research using these primary sources and unearth new nuggets of knowledge.
  • It is important to study ancient texts and propagate them among modern audiences.

Classical languages of India:

  • Some languages have been given classical language status because of their ancient literary heritage.
  • For instance, Tamil literature dates back to 500 BC, Telugu to 400 BC, Kannada to 450 BC, Malayalam to 1198 AD and Odia to 800 AD.
  • Each of these languages has a rich treasure house of literature, examples include:
    • Sangam literature and Tholkappiyum in Tamil
    • Kavitrayam’s Andhra Mahabharatam in Telugu
    • Ramacharitham of Cheeraman in Malayalam
    • Kavirajamarga of Amoghavarsha in Kannada
    • Kharavela’s inscriptions in Odia
  • For each of the populations speaking these languages, their literature is a matter of pride and distinct identity and the language is a goddess to be revered. There are songs in praise of these languages in Telugu, Kannada and Tamil.

Honouring those working on classical languages:

  • Recently, President’s award was given to scholars of Sanskrit, Pali, Prakrit, Arabic, Persian, Telugu, Kannada, Odia and Malayalam for their service in the preservation and development of classical languages.
  • It shows nation’s appreciation and recognition to renowned scholars who are keeping alive the traditional knowledge and acting as the intellectual bridge between the past and the present.

Falling linguistic diversity of India harms our cultural richness:

  • India is a multilingual country where more than 19,500 languages or dialects are spoken.
  • However, studies by experts estimate that almost 600 languages are on the verge of extinction and that more than 250 languages have disappeared in the past 60 years.  
  • Almost 97 per cent of the population speaks one of the 22 scheduled languages.
  • When a language dies, an entire culture dies.

Preserving and developing India’s linguistic heritage: 

  • Our languages are a crucial part of our history, our culture and our evolution as a society.
  • It is important to protect and conserve our linguistic heritage.
  • Protecting our cultural heritage, including languages, is our constitutionally-mandated duty.

Leveraging technology:

  • The resources required to develop language technology and artificial intelligence-based tools are inadequate or unavailable for many Indian languages.
  • We must harness the power of technology to preserve and promote our languages and culture.

Governmental efforts:

  • The Government of India launched the Linguistic Data Consortium for Indian Languages (LDC-IL) in 2008 and has been preparing high-quality linguistic resources over the last 11 years in all the scheduled languages of India.
  • The Data Distribution Portal is also being launched, where more and varied datasets will be added using several types of AI-based technologies such as automatic dictation, speech recognition, language understanding, machine translation, grammar and spell check.
  • The Central Institute of Indian Languages has been doing commendable work to provide linguistic resources in Indian languages.

A multi-pronged approach:

  • Language preservation and development needs a multi-pronged approach.
    • Education: It should begin at the primary school level and be continued to higher levels of education. Functional literacy in at least one language should be ensured.
    • Usage at homes: More and more people should start using their native languages at home, in the community, in meetings and in administration.
    • Encouraging literature: More people should write poetry, stories, novels and dramas in these languages. We must accord a sense of dignity and a sense of pride to those who speak, write and communicate in these languages.
    • Publications: We must encourage Indian language publications, journals and children’s books.
    • Dialects and folk literature must be given adequate focus.

Conclusion:

  • Language promotion should be an integral part of good governance.
  • Language should become a catalyst for inclusive development.
  • By harnessing technology, the mission of “digital India” can be a mission for a literate India and a mission for an inclusive knowledge society.

Importance:

GS Paper I: Society

Section : Editorial Analysis

Everything about Ramappa Temple and World heritage site

Ramappa Temple for world heritage site:

  • Telangana is expected to get its first site, the Ramappa Temple at Palampet, included in UNESCO World Heritage Site in the 43rd session of the World Heritage Committee.

Background

  • India has already got 37 sites inscribed in the World Heritage List.
  • There are total 29 cultural sites, 7 Natural sites and 1 mixed site of India in the World Heritage list.
  • Moreover, around 42 sites from India including the Qutb Shahi monuments of Hyderabad, Golconda Fort, and Charminar from Telangana are on the tentative list of World Heritage Sites.
  • The Ramappa Temple was proposed to be included as part of ‘The Glorious Kakatiya Temples and Gateways’ along with the Thousand Pillar Temple, Swayambhu Temple and Keerti Thoranas of Warangal Fort since 2014.
  • Now, the temple is in the reckoning as a standalone world heritage site.

News Summary

  • The 43rd session of the World Heritage Committee will be held in Baku, Azerbaijan.
  • The committee will decide on the inclusions of World heritage sites for 2019 in that session.
  • It is expected that the Ramappa Temple at Palampet near Warangal, Telangana could be selected for inclusion in the list of World heritage sites.

Significance of the inclusion

  • First in Telangana: It would be Telangana’s first UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • Prestige/Identity: The sites inscribed on the World Heritage List gains the prestige which often helps raise awareness among citizens and governments for heritage preservation.
  • Protection and conservation: Greater awareness leads to a general rise in the level of the protection and conservation given to heritage properties.
  • Financial Assistance: A country may also receive financial assistance and expert advice from the World Heritage Committee to support activities for the preservation of its sites.
  • Tourism: Once listed, it brings international attention to the site and hence, ensures economic benefits to the nation.
  • Protection during wartime: The site becomes protected under Geneva Convention against destruction or misuse during war.

About the Temple

  • Rudreswara (Ramappa) temple at Palampet near Warangal, got its name Ramappa because of its chief sculptor Ramappa.
  • It’s probably the only temple in the country to be known by the name of its sculptor.
  • The medieval Deccan Ramappa Temple which dates back to 1213 AD, was built by the patronage of the Kakatiya ruler Kakati Ganapathi Deva under the authority of his Chief Commander Rudra Samani.
  • Features of the temple
    • The Ramappa temple is a Shivalaya, crowned with a shikharam and surrounded by pradakshinapatha sits a 6 feet high star shaped platform.
    • The temple is built on a valley and it rests on bricks that are scientifically shown to float in water.
    • It has intricate carvings adorning the walls, pillars and ceilings unique to the time of Kakatiyan sculptors and empire.
    • The hall in front of the sanctum has numerous carved pillars that have been positioned to create an effect that combines light and space in a unique way.
    • The sculptural work of dance postures in the temple appear like a record of dances of the region in stone and was of great inspiration for the famous work ‘NrityaRatnavali’, by Jayapa Senani.
    • The postures pertaining to BharataNatya, Shrunga, Bharunga, Rathi, Perini Nritya , are engraved on the pillars.
    • The ‘Nagini’ and other eleven devanarthakis arranged as supporting beams on both sides of each entrance define the highly refined aesthetic sense of Kakatiya
    • The desi (local) varieties of dances such as Perini, Prenkana, SuddaNartana, Dandarasak, Sivapriya, Chindu and Kolata are some dance forms in the sculptural art of the temple.
  • This temple is described as the “brightest star in the galaxy of medieval temples of the Deccan” a repository of Kakatiyan creative genius.
  • The Ramappa temple is a best example of the love for art, music and dance as patronized by Kakatiyas.

About UNESCO World Heritage site

  • A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
  • To be selected, a World Heritage Site must be an already classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and historically identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance (such as an ancient ruin or historical structure, building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, mountain, or wilderness area.
  • It may signify a remarkable accomplishment of humanity, and serve as evidence of our intellectual history on the planet.
Section : History & Culture

What role did Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel play in the Dandi march of 1930? 

Headline : What role did Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel play in the Dandi march of 1930? 

Details : 

Context of the topic:

  • On the occasion of the 89th anniversary of the Dandi March, tributes have also been paid to the contributions made by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel to the movement.

 

 

About Dandi March

  • Dandi March or Salt Satyagraha was a non-violent means of protest led by Mahatma Gandhi, which began on 12th March 1930 and ended on April 6th, 1930.
  • Mahatma Gandhi along with his followers walked from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi near coastal Surat to protest against the repressive salt tax imposed by the colonial government.
  • The march covering the distance of 390 km worked as a catalyst for India’s struggle for Independence.
  • The Salt March began with around 80 people, but as more and more people joined in for the 390 km-long journey, it grew into a strong force of 50,000 people.
  • Upon reaching the seashore in Dandi, Mahatma Gandhi broke the law by producing salt (which was illegal under the colonial laws).

Circumstances leading to Dandi March

  • During that time, the British had prohibited Indians from collecting or selling salt.
  • Indians were also forced to buy the salt from the British, who not only exercised monopoly over its manufacture and sale but also levied a heavy salt tax.
  • The Salt March was a collective beginning of a mass resistance movement against the British tyranny.

 

 

Role of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel in the Dandi march

  • Sardar Patel played a significant role in mobilising people for the Dandi march.
  • Initially, Sardar Patel was not sure about the impact of salt as a satyagrahic weapon. But once the decision was taken, he not only plunged into the preparations but, gave the campaign its first propulsion.
  • The Sardar toured the area to determine the best route to the salt-laden coast and planned the route for the Dandi March.
  • He also alerted the peasantry, already ‘trained’ by the Bardoli satyagraha, for the coming campaign.

Arrest of Patel before Satyagraha

  • As Patel went about mobilising people for the march, he was arrested at village Raas on March 7, five days before the march was scheduled.
  • He was sentenced to three months imprisonment and lodged at Sabarmati jail in Ahmedabad.
  • The news of Patel’s arrest shook the entire population of Gujarat who rose up in protest against the government and in turn joined the Satyagraha.

 

 

Aftermath of Dandi March

  • The Salt March got national and international recognition and shook the British with its non-violent nature.
  • It got massive press coverage and drew the world’s attention towards the Indian Independence Movement.
  • This turned into a mass civil disobedience movement throughout India as millions broke salt laws by either making salt or buying ‘illegal’ salt.

 

Section : History & Culture

Prelims Program: Indus River System

Details :

Why it is important?

  • In view of the Pulwama attack, India is weighing its options for retaliation against Pakistan, who sponsored the attack.Out of many options, one big move that India can take is to abrogate the Indus Waters Treaty (which deals with river Indus and its five tributaries).

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Indus River System

  • It is one of the most important rivers on the Indian subcontinent.
  • Origin: The Indus River originates near the Mansarovar Lake in the Tibetan plateau, on the northern slopes of the Kailash Mountain Range.
  • Length of the river: 3200 kilometer (2000 mile)
  • It passes through Ladakh district in Kashmir.
  • Subsequently, the river gets into Pakistan running across the North in a southward route down the whole span of Pakistan, to join the Arabian Sea.
  • Left- bank tributaries (joins the main river from left side): Zaskar river, Suru river, Soan river, Jhelum river, Chenab river, Ravi river, Beas river, Satluj river are its major left-bank tributaries.
  • Right- bank tributaries (joins the main river from right side): The Shyok river, Gilgit river, Hunza river, Swat river, Kunnar river, Kurram river and Kabul river are its major right-bank tributaries.
  • The name Punjab has been derived from these tributaries that collectively signify “five waters” or “land of five waters”. The five rivers or Panjnad after which Punjab is named are the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and the Sutlej.

 

Five main tributaries of the Indus River:

Jhelum

  • Source: Spring at Verinag.
  • The river runs through the Wular lake and Srinagar in India, prior to moving into the Punjab province of Pakistan.
  • Important Dam: Uri dam (J&K)

Chenab

  • Source: River Chandra and river Bhaga rise on the opposite sides of the Baralacha pass and meet at Tandi (H.P) to from Chenab.
  • In Himachal Pradesh, the river is also called the Chandrabhaga.
  • It flows parallely to the Pir Panjal Range.
  • The river cuts a deep gorge near Kistwar,
  • It enters the plain area near Akhnur in Jammu and Kashmir and is subsequently connected with the Jhelum.
  • It creates the border between the Rechna (between Ravi and Chenab) and the Jech (between Jhelum and Chenab) Doabs.
  • The Chenab also meets the Ravi and the Sutlej in Pakistan.
  • Imp Dams: Baglihar Dam (J&K), Dulhasti Dam (J&K), Salal Dam (J&K)

Sutlej (Satluj)

  • Source: Rakshas Tal or Rakas Lake, which is linked to the Manasarovar Lake with a watercourse in Tibet.
  • Through Shipkila pass the river Satluj enters India from Tibet
  • It cuts a gorge in Naina Devi Dhar, where Bhakra dam has been constructed. Later it enters the Punjab plains.
  • Beas joins the Satluj at Harike and in Pakistan, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum rivers also adds their water into Satluj before it joins the Indus.
  • Imp Dams: Bhakra dam (H.P.) and Kol Dam (H.P.)

Ravi

  • Source: Kullu hills near Rotang pass
  • The river drains the area between Pir Panjal and Dhaola Dhar ranges.
  • It enters plains near Madhopur (Punjab) and later enters Pakistan.
  • Imp Dams: Ranjit Sagar Dam(Punjab), Shahpur Kandi Dam(Punjab), Bassi Dam (H.P.), Chamera Dam (H.P.)

Beas

  • Source: Bias Kund near Rohtang pass.
  • The river flows across Kulu and Manali,
  • The Beas meets the Sutlej river close to Harika, after being connected with some tributaries.
  • River Beas lies entirely within the Indian territory.
  • Imp Dams: Pong Dam (H.P.), Pandoh Dam (H.P.),

 


Important Term

Doab: The tract of land lying between two converging, or confluent, rivers

Punjab Doabs

Each of the tracts of land lying between the confluent rivers of the Punjab region of India and Pakistan has a distinct name

The names (except for ‘Sindh Sagar’) are a combination of the first letters, in the Persian alphabet, of the names of the rivers that bound the Doab. For example, Jech = ‘Je'(Jhelum) + ‘Ch'(Chenab).

 

 

Section : Miscellaneous

Comparison between Nagara and Dravidian style of temple architecture

Consider the below statements with regard to Nagara and Dravidian Style of Temple Architecture:

Images such as Mithunas and the river goddesses as door keepers guarding the temple are common sight in the Dravida style of temple architecture.
The north Indian idea of multiple shikharas rising together as a cluster was not popular in dravida style.
A large water reservoir or a temple tank enclosed in the complex is general in south Indian temples.
Which of the statements above is/are correct?

a       3 only
b       1 and 3 only
c       2 and 3 only
d       1, 2 and 3
Explanation:

Solution (c)

Comparison between Nagara and Dravidian style of temple architecture

·         In north Indian temples we can see images such as Mithunas (erotic) and the river goddesses, Ganga and Yamuna guarding the temple. But in the Dravida style of temple architecture, instead of these sculptures, we can see the sculptures of fierce dvarapalas or door keepers guarding the temple.

·         A large water reservoir or a temple tank enclosed in the complex is general in south Indian temples.

·         Subsidiary shrines are either incorporated within the main temple tower, or located as a distinct, separate small shrine besides the main temple.

·         The north Indian idea of multiple shikharas rising together as a cluster was not popular in dravida style.

·         At some of the most sacred temples in south India, the main temple in which the garbhagriha is situated has, in fact, one of the smallest towers.

·         This is because it is usually the oldest part of the temple.

·         When the population and the size of the town associated with the temple increased, it would have become necessary to make a new boundary wall around the temple (and also associated structures).

·         An example for this is the Srirangam temple at Thiruchirapally, which has as many as seven concentric rectangular enclosure walls, each with gopurams.

·         The outermost is the oldest while the tower right in the centre housing the garbhagriha is the oldest.

Do you know?

Just as the nagara architecture has subdivisions, dravida temples also have subdivisions. These are basically of five different shapes:

a)      Kuta or caturasra – square

b)      Shala or ayatasra – rectangular

c)      Gaja-prishta or vrittayata (elephant backed) –elliptic

d)      Vritta – circular

e)      Ashtasra – octagonal

Prelims 326

Consider the following pairs:
Committee Objective
1. Butler committee: to clarify the relationship between the British crown and the Princely states.
2. Hunter Committee: to involve more Indians in Civil Service
3. Hartog Committee: spreading English learning and female education in India
Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?
A.
1 only
B.
1 and 3 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2 and 3
Explanation :
The Indian states committee or Butler committee in 1927 was appointed to investigate and clarify the relationship between the paramount power and the Princes. Pair 1 is correct.
The Hunter Committee was formed to enquire the Punjab wrongs and actions of General Dyer, Hartog Committee was constituted in 1929 to assess the state of education. Pairs 2 and 3 are incorrect.
Sir Charles Wood, the President of the Board of Control of the English East India Company, had an important effect on spreading English learning and female education in India. In 1854 he sent the “Wood’s dispatch” to the Governor General Lord Dalhousie.
The Aitchison Commission (Public Service Commission) was set up in 1886 under the chairmanship of Sir Charles Aitchison to come up with a scheme for fulfilling the claims of Indians to higher and more extensive employment in public service.
Hartog Committee was appointed to survey the growth of education in British India. In 1929, the Hartog Committee submitted its report. It devoted far more attention to mass education than Secondary and University Education. The committee was not satisfied with the scanty growth of literacy in the country and highlighted the problem of ‘Wastage’ and ‘Stagnation’ at the primary level. The Hartog Committee had concentrated its attention more on primary and secondary education and less on university education.

Prelims 309

Which of the following decisions was/were taken at the Lucknow Session of Congress, 1916?
1. The extremists were readmitted into the Indian National Congress.
2. Indian National Congress accepted the demand of separate electorates by Muslim League.
3. The Home Rule League movement was to be discontinued.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
A.
1 and 2 only
B.
1 and 3 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2 and 3
Explanation :
At the Lucknow session of the Congress in December, 1916, the extremists were welcomed back into the Congress by the Moderate president, Ambika Charan Majumdar nearly ten years after the Surat split. Hence, statement 1 is correct.
The Lucknow Congress was significant also for the famous Congress League Pact, popularly known as the Lucknow Pact by which Muslim League and Congress agreed to separate electorate. Hence, statement 2 is correct.
The Home rule league was not discontinued by Lucknow Session of Congress. The league merged into Indian National Congress in 1920, to form an united political front. Hence, statement 3 is not correct.

Prelims 306

With regard to philosophy of Advaitavada, consider the following statements:
1. It believed in dualism.
2. It rejected the path of Bhakti.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
A.
1 only
B.
2 only
C.
Both 1 and 2
D.
Neither 1 nor 2
Explanation :
Advaitavada philosophy propounded by Adi Shankara also called the doctrine of non-dualism, did not reject the path of bhakti , but rather the bhakt or the devotee had to first clean his heart through jnan or knowledge which can only be attained through Vedic scriptures. In other words, Sankara confirmed Vedas as the fountainhead of true knowledge. He propounded that God, soul & the created world are both one. At the practical level, there may appear to be differences but at the ‘parmarthik’ level there are no real differences. Hence, statement 1 and 2 is incorrect.
Advaita Vedanta believes that an enlightened guru, having the knowledge of both the scriptures and Brahman, is indispensable for anyone seeking salvation. Mandukya Karika of Gaudapada is considered to be the first available treatise on Advaita Vedanta, while the monumental works of Shankaracharya constitute its core literature.
Pramanas are the standards of ascertaining right knowledge, truth, or valid knowledge. In this world duality it is very difficult to know which is right knowledge and which is reliable for salvation or to ascertain truth. Advaita Vedanta recognizes six Pramanas, of which three were proposed by Shankaracharya and three by his followers. They are as stated below.
1. Pratyaksha: knowledge that comes through perception. This is objective knowledge which is experienced directly either through the senses or in deeper states of consciousness.
2. Anumana: knowledge that comes by means of inference. This is speculative knowledge based upon supposition or belief.
3. Upamana: Knowledge that comes by means of analogy, comparison and contrasting. This is relational knowledge.
4. Arthapatti: knowledge obtained by meaningful assumptions based on common sense and previous experience. This is hypothetical knowledge.
5. Anupalabdhi: Knowledge gained through negation.
6. Agama: Knowledge that comes through study of scriptures. This is pure theoretical knowledge.

Prelims 305

With reference to Indian classical music, consider the following statements:
1. While there exist various styles of singing in Hindustani music, Carnatic music is sung only in one style.
2. The number of ragas in Hindustani music is more than those in Carnatic music.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
A.
1 only
B.
2 only
C.
Both 1 and 2
D.
Neither 1 nor 2
Explanation :
While Carnatic music is sung and performed in only one style, there exist various style of singing and performing in Hindustani music. Each style of school is called a ‘gharana’. Hence, statement 1 is correct.
Carnatic Style employs Shrutis or semitones to create a Raga and thus have many more Ragas than the Hindustani style. Carnatic ragas differ from Hindustani ragas. The names of ragas are also different. However, there are some ragas which have the same scale as Hindustani ragas but have different names; such as Hindolam and Malkauns, Shankarabharanam and Bilawal. There is a third category of ragas like Hamsadhwani, Charukeshi, Kalavati etc. which are essentially Carnatic Ragas. They share the same name, the same scale (same set of notes) but can be rendered in the two distinctively different Carnatic and Hindustani styles. Hence, statement 2 is incorrect.

Prelims 304

Which of the following can be said to be the major reasons behind the decline of the Vijaynagara Empire?
1. Strain in the imperial structure following the death of Krishnadeva Raya.
2. The Battle of Talikota.
3. Invasion by the Mughals.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
A.
1 and 2 only
B.
2 and 3 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2 and 3
Explanation :
Statement 3 is incorrect because till that date Mughal had not expanded their Empire in the South.
The Vijayanagara kingdom was founded by Harihara and Bukka of the Sangama dynasty in 1336. Krishna Deva Raya (1509-30 A.D.) who was the greatest ruler of the Vijayanagar Empire. Under him, Vijayanagara emerged as the strongest military power in the south. Strain began to show within the imperial structure following Krishnadeva Raya’s death in 1529. His successors were troubled by rebellious nayakas or military chiefs. By 1542, control at the centre had shifted to another ruling lineage, that of the Aravidu, which remained in power till the end of the seventeenth century. During this period, as indeed earlier, the military ambitions of the rulers of Vijayanagara as well as those of the Deccan Sultanates resulted in shifting alignments. Eventually this led to an alliance of the Sultanates against Vijayanagara. In 1565 Rama Raya the chief minister of Vijayanagara, led the army into battle at Rakshasi Tangadi (also known as Talikota), where his forces were defeated by the combined armies of Bijapur, Ahmadnagar and Golconda. The victorious armies sacked the city of Vijayanagara. The city was totally abandoned within a few years. Now the focus of the empire shifted to the east where the Aravidu dynasty ruled from Penukonda and later from Chandragiri (near Tirupati).
The Battle of Talikota (1565) was a watershed battle fought between the Vijayanagara Empire and the Deccan sultanates. The battle took place at Talikota, today a town in northern Karnataka to the southeast from the city of Bijapur. The battle of Talikota ended the prominence of Viajaynagar kingdom in South Indian politics. The Kingdom of Mysore, Nayakas of Vellore, Nayakas of Keladi in Shimoga declared their independence from Vijayanagar.
Hence, statements 1 and 2 are correct.

Prelims 303

With reference to Buddhist text, Tripitaka, consider the following:
1. Vinay Pitaka mentions the rules and regulations for those who joined the Sangha or monastic order.
2. Sutta Pitaka contains the philosophy of Buddhism.
3. Abhidhamma Pitaka contains the teachings of the Buddha.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
A.
1 only
B.
2 and 3 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2 and 3
Explanation :
After the death of Buddha, Buddhists text were compiled in the form of Tripitakas. It means 3 baskets to hold three types of text. They were classified according to length as well as subject matter.
Vinay Pitaka included rules and regulations for those who joined the Sangha or monastic order. And the Abhidhamma pitaka deals with the philosophical matters.
The Sutta Pitaka contains the teaching of the Buddha. Sutta means teaching. The text has more than 10,000 suttas. Hence, only statement 1 is correct.

Prelims 302

Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding the Indian Parliamentary Committee of 1893?
1. It was organised in London by Sir William Wedderburn.
2. Its aim was to agitate for Indian political reforms in the British Parliament.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
A.
1 only
B.
2 only
C.
Both 1 and 2
D.
Neither 1 nor 2
Explanation :
Sir William Wedderburn organised the Indian Parliamentary Committee in London in 1893 with himself as chairman and Herbert Roberts as secretary. Hence, statement 1 is correct.
Its main aim was to raise voice against British policies in India and demand for Indian political reforms in the House of Commons (British Parliament). Hence, statement 2 is correct.

Prelims 301

Consider the following statements:
1. The subject matter of Ajanta paintings is mostly Buddhism.
2. Buddhist literature refers to paintings of various types and techniques.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
A.
1 only
B.
2 only
C.
Both 1 and 2
D.
Neither 1 nor 2
Explanation :
The Ajanta Caves are 29 (approximately) rock-cut Buddhist cave monuments which date from the 2nd century BCE to about 480 CE in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra state of India. The subject matter of Ajanta paintings is almost exclusively Buddhist, excepting decorative patterns on the ceilings and the pillars. They are mostly associated with the Jatakas, collection of stories, recording the previous births of the Lord Buddha. Hence, statement 1 is correct.
Buddhist literature refer to paintings of various types and techniques for example, Lepyacitras, lekhacitras and Dhulitcitras. The first was the representation of folklore, the second one was line drawing and painting on textile while the third one was painting on the floor. Hence, statement 2 is correct.

Everything about Madhubani Painting

Madhubani which means ‘forest of honey’, is a style of folk painting old enough to find mention in some of the ancient Indian texts like the holy Ramayana. It is also known as Mithila, for its origin is said to be the Mithila region in Bihar. Traditionally, the Madhubani paintings are created using fingers and twigs, and items like matchsticks have come to be used in their creation in recent times. Their various styles include Bharni, Katchni, Tantrik, Godna, and Kohbar, which would historically be painted only by women from the upper strata in the caste system, who would make them on mud walls on special occasions. The norms have now changed and the paintings can be enjoyed by anyone and in various forms. Madhubani is now found on apparel, paper, canvas, and other products, which boast of designs inspired by Hindu deities such as Krishna, Rama, Lakshmi, Shiva, Durga, Saraswati, all of whom have been painted in Madhubani since ancient times. Other subjects of Madhubani paintings include peacocks, fish and human connection with nature.

TataTarini Temple

Taratarini Temple is located in which of the following states?

a     Madhya Pradesh
b     Odisha
c      Andhra Pradesh
d     Kerala
Explanation:

Solution (b)

Taratarini Temple on the Kumari hills at the bank of the River Rushikulya near Brahmapur city in Ganjam District, Odisha, India is worshiped as the Breast Shrine (Sthana Peetha) and manifestations of Adi Shakti. The Tara Tarini Shakti Peetha is one of the oldest pilgrimage centers of the Mother Goddess and is one of four major ancient Tantra Peetha and Shakti Peethas in India.

The mythological texts recognize four major Shakti Peethas: Tara Tarini (Stana Khanda), near Brahmapur; Bimala (Pada Khanda) inside the Jagannath Temple, Puri; Kamakhya (Yoni khanda), near Guwahati; and Dakshina Kalika (Mukha khanda) in Kolkata. There are 52 other sacred Shakti Peethas, which originated from the limbs of Mata Sati’s corpse in the Satya Yuga.

The Indian Navy has made its new boat ― ‘Tarini’ based on the design of famous temple Tara Tarini.

Quiz- Q18. Consider the following statements regarding the literary work Akbar Nama:

Q18. Consider the following statements regarding the literary work Akbar Nama:

1. Ain-i-Akbari was written by Abul Fazl as part of Akbar Nama.

2. The first and third parts of Akbar Nama provide a historical narrative like birth of Akbar, the history of Timur’s family and the reigns of Babur and Humayun and the Suri Sultans of Delhi.

3. Ain-i Akbari, the second part was organized as a compendium of imperial regulations and a gazetteer of the empire.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

A. 1 only

B. 2 and 3 only

C. 3 only

D. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: A

Exp: Statement 1 is correct: The Ain-i Akbari of Abu’l Fazl Allami was the culmination of a large historical, administrative project of classification undertaken by Abu’l Fazl at the order of Emperor Akbar. It was completed in 1598, the forty- second regnal year of the emperor, after having gone through five revisions. The Ain was part of a larger project of history writing commissioned by Akbar. This history, known as the Akbar Nama, comprised three books.

Statement 2 is incorrect: The first two parts of Akbar Nama provided a historical narrative and not the first and third part of it.

Statement 3 is incorrect: The Ain-i Akbari, the third book (Not the second), was organized as a compendium of imperial regulations and a gazetteer of the empire. The Ain gives detailed accounts of the organization of the court, administration and army, the sources of revenue and the physical layout of the provinces of Akbar’s empire and the literary, cultural and religious traditions of the people.

Q14. In the Stupas of Mauryan period many inscriptional evidences are found. Which of the following was/were inscribed in those Stupas?

Quiz- Q14. In the Stupas of Mauryan period many inscriptional evidences are found. Which of the following was/were inscribed in those Stupas?

1. Name and profession of donors

2. Donations by the guilds

3. Name of the artisans

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

A. 1 only

B. 1 and 2 only

C. 3 only

D. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: D

Exp: In Mauryan period, from the second century BCE onwards, we get many inscriptional evidences through the mentioning of donors and, at times, their profession. The pattern of patronage was a collective one and there are very few instances of royal patronage. Patrons ranged from lay devotees to gahapatis and kings. Donations by the guilds are also mentioned at several sites. However, there are very few inscriptions mentioning the names of artisans such as Kanha at Pitalkhora and his disciple Balaka at Kondane caves.

Explain De-urbanisation phenomenon during British rule

“In the late eighteenth century, Calcutta, Bombay and Madras rose in importance as Presidency cities. They became the centres of British power in the different regions of India. At the same time, a host of smaller cities declined. Many towns manufacturing specialised goods declined due to a drop in the demand for what they produced. Old trading centres and ports could not survive when the flow of trade moved to new centres. Similarly, earlier centres of regional power collapsed when local rulers were defeated by the British and new centres of administration emerged. This process is often described as de-urbanisation. Cities such as Machlipatnam, Surat and Seringapatam were de-urbanised during the nineteenth century. By the early twentieth century, only 11 per cent of Indians were living in cities.”

Everything about Ramkrishna Mission

Ramakrishna Mission

• It is an embodiment of the synthesis of ancient Indian and modern western cultures.

• Ramakrishna Paramahamsa (1836-86) was the founder of this socio-religious movement.

• Formally, the Mission was founded in May 1897 by Paramahamsa’s disciple, Narendranath Dutta, who was later on known as Swami Vivekananda (1863-1902).

Objectives of the Mission

• To bring into existence a band of monks dedicated to a life of renunciation and practical spirituality, from among whom teachers and workers would be sent out to spread the universal message of Vedanta, as illustrated in the life of Ramakrishna.

• In conjunction with lay disciples, to carry on preaching, philanthropic and charitable works, looking upon all men, women and children, irrespective of caste, creed or colour, as veritable manifestations of the Divine.

• Paramahamsa himself founded the Ramakrishna Math with his young monastic disciples as a nucleus to fulfill the first objective.

• The second objective was taken up by Swami Vivekananda after Ramakrishna’s death. Vivekananda carried the message of Ramakrishna all over India.

Belur Math

• The headquarters of the Ramakrishna Math and Mission are at Belur, near Kolkata.

• This centre was established in 1898 by Swami Vivekananda.

• The Math is a religious trust dedicated to the nursing of the inner spiritual life of the members of the monastery.

• The Mission is a charitable society dedicated to the expression of inner spiritual life in outward collective action in the service of men.

• The Belur Math is the headquarters of both the Math and the Mission.

Religious and social reforms

• The Mission has given top priority to the idea of social service, both in terms of philanthropic work and upliftment of religious and spiritual life.

• It has been successful in propagating the universal principle of Vedanta and giving a true picture of India to the western world.

• The Mission has opened many schools and dispensaries, and helped the victims of natural calamities.

Khadi and Freedom movement

Khadi and Freedom movement

  • Khadi owes its revival to the Father of the Nation, Mahatma Gandhi who saw it as a tool to become self-reliant and independent.
  • Britishers bought raw materials at cheaper rate from India and sold their costly finished products in India.
  • This unfavourable balance of trade was first brought to the mainstream by Dada Bhai Nairoji.
  •  Dada Bhai Naroji put forward the theory of “drain of wealth” in his book “ Poverty and Un-british rule in India”.
  • Later, the use of swadeshi products was promoted by extremists and it became an important agenda during Bengal partition movement in 1905.
  • To put an end to the drain of wealth, the Swadeshi products were encouraged and produced.
  • Khadi was then introduced in 1920 by INC at Nagpur session as a political weapon for giving concrete expression to the Swadeshi Spirit to boycott the foreign goods.
  • During India’s freedom struggle, Gandhi encouraged handloom weaving, spinned with Charkha and promoted khadi and also used it as a medium to spread the wave of nationalism at grass root level.
  • The movement rendered an opportunity to Indians to be self-reliant on cotton and to be free from clothes produced by foreign manufacturers.
  • The first Khadi Production Centre was established at Katiawad, Gujarat.

 

Chronology of events that contributed to the development of Khadi in India

  • In the early20s and 30s, various Boards and Associaions were set up for Khadi.
  • In 1946, Govt. of Madras sought the advice of Gandhiji and set up a Department for Khadi.
  • In 1948, Govt. of India recognized the role of Rural Cottage Industries in the Industrial Policy Resolution and soon included it in the DPSP of the Constitution in Article 43.
  • These ideas were elaborated in the First five-year Plan and the policy framework for setting up of a body for Khadi.
  • In 1953, All India Khadi and Village Industries Board (AIKVIB) were set up which later became a statutory body- Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC).

Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC)

  • It was set up in 1957.
  • Khadi is being promoted in India by Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC), Ministry of MSME, Govt. of India.
  • Since then the commission has been:
  1. Planning and executing the development.
  2. Working towards promoting research in production techniques.
  3. Supplying raw material and tools to producers.
  4. Quality control and marketing of khadi products.

Everything about Lala Lajpat Rai

Lala Lajpat Rai

Details :

  • Lala Lajpat Rai was one of the foremost leaders who fought against British rule in India.
  • He was popularly known as Punjab Kesari (Lion of the Punjab).
  • Lala Lajpat Rai was born in January 1865 and got martyrdom on November, 17, 1928.
  • Lala Lajpat Rai joined the Government College at Lahore in 1880 to study Law.
  • While in college he came in contact with patriots and joined the Arya Samaj founded by Swami Dayanand Saraswati.
  • He passed his Vakilship Examination in Second Division from Government College in 1885 and started his legal practice in Hissar.
  • Besides practicing, Lalaji collected funds for the Dayanand College, attended Arya Samaj functions and participated in Congress activities.
  • He was elected to the Hissar municipality as a member and later as secretary.
  • He was also associated with activities of Punjab National Bank and Lakshmi Insurance Company in their early stages.

Role In Freedom Struggle:

  • Lala Lajpat Rai was one of the three most prominent Hindu Nationalist members of the Indian National Congress,  part of the Lal-Bal-Pal trio.
  • They formed the extremist faction of the Indian National Congress. They believed in action instead of petition, propaganda strategy of moderates.
  • Lalaji actively participated in the struggle against partition of Bengal.
  • Along with Surendra Nath Banerjee, Bipin Chandra Pal and Aurorbindo Ghosh, he galvanized Bengal and the nation in a vigorous campaign of Swadeshi.
  • Lajpat Rai was deported to Mandalay, Burma (now Myanmar), without trial on May 1907.
  • Lalaji believed that it was important for the national cause to organize propaganda in foreign countries to explain India’s position because the freedom struggle had taken a militant turn.
  • He left for Britain in April 1914 for this purpose. At this time First World War broke out and he was unable to return to India.
  • He went to USA to galvanize support for India. He founded the Indian Home League Society of America and wrote a book called “Young India”.
  • The book severely indicted British rule in India and was banned in Britain and India even before it was published.
  • He was able to return to India in 1920 after the end of World War. After his return, Lala Lajpat Rai led the Punjab protests against the Jalianwala Bagh Massacre and the Non-Cooperation Movement. He also became Congress President in 1920.
  •  In 1921, He founded Servants of the People Society, a non-profit welfare organisation, in Lahore, which shifted based to Delhi after partition, and has branches in many parts of India.
  • He disagreed with Gandhiji’s suspension of Non-Cooperation movement due to the Chauri-Chaura incident and formed the Congress Independence Party, which had a pro-Hindu slant.
  • Graduates of the National College, which he founded inside the Bradlaugh Hall at Lahore as an alternative to British institutions, included Bhagat Singh.

Lala Lajpat Rai’s writings:

  • The Story of My Deportation (1908)
  • Arya Samaj (1915)
  • The United States of America: A Hindu’s Impression (1916)
  • Young India (1916)
  • Unhappy India (1928)
  • England’s Debt to India (1917)

Death:

  • In 1928, British Government decided to send Simon Commission to India to discuss constitutional reforms.
  • The Commission had no Indian member and this greatly angered Indians
  • When the Commisssion came to India there were protests all over India. Lala Lajpat Rai himself led one such procession against Simon Commission.
  • While the procession was peaceful, British Government brutally lathicharged the procession.
  • Lala Lajpat Rai received severe head injuries and died on November17, 1928.

Aftermath:

  • Although Bhagat Singh did not witness the event, he decided to take revenge, and joined other revolutionaries- Shivaram Rajguru, Sukhdev Thapar and Chandrashekhar Azad, in a plot to kill Scott.
  • In a case of mistaken identity, Bhagat Singh shot John P. Saunders, an Assistant Superintendent of Police.
  • He was shot by Rajguru and Bhagat Singh while leaving the District Police Headquarters in Lahore on 17 December 1928.

Jyotiba Phule

  • Born: 11 April, 1827
  • Passed Away: 28 November, 1890
  • Originally Jyotirao’s family belonged to ‘mali’ caste, considered as inferior by the Brahmins.
  • Jyotiba Phule devoted his entire life for the liberation of untouchables from the exploitation of Brahmins.
  • He revolted against the tyranny of the upper castes.

 Contributions 

  • Jyotiba Phule was one of the prominent social reformers of the nineteenth century India.
  • He led the movement against the prevailing caste-restrictions in India.
  • He revolted against the domination of the Brahmins and for the rights of peasants and other low-caste fellow.
  • Jyotiba Phule was believed to be the first Hindu to start an orphanage for the unfortunate children.

 Movement

  • In 1848, Jyotirao was insulted at a wedding as he belonged to inferior caste and then he made up his mind to defy the prevailing caste-system and social restrictions.
  • He then started his campaign of serving the people of lower caste who were deprived of all their rights as human beings.
  • The orthodox Brahmins of the society blamed him for vitiating the norms and regulations of the society.
  • Jyotirao attacked the orthodox Brahmins and other upper castes and termed them as “hypocrites”.
  • He campaigned against the authoritarianism of the upper caste people. He urged the “peasants” and “proletariat” to defy the restrictions imposed upon them.
  • Jyotiba established a girls’ school and asked his wife to teach the girls in the school.
  • Jyotirao, later, opened two more schools for the girls and an indigenous school for the lower castes, especially the Mahars and Mangs.
  • Viewing the pathetic condition of widows and unfortunate children Jyotirao established an orphanage in 1854.

 Satya Shodhak Samaj 

  • Jyotirao blamed the Brahmins for framing the weird and inhuman laws. He concluded that the laws were made to suppress the “shudras” and rule over them.
  • In 1873, Jyotiba Phule formed the Satya Shodhak Samaj (Society of Seekers of Truth).
  • The purpose of the organization was to liberate the people of lower-castes from the suppression of the Brahmins.

Pulikkali festival – Kerala

Pulikkali festival

  • Pulikkali is a colorful recreational folk art from the state of Kerala.
  • It is performed by trained artists to entertain people on the occasion of Onam, an annual harvest festival, celebrated mainly in Kerala.
  • On the fourth day of Onam celebrations (Nalaam Onam), performers painted like tigers and hunters in bright yellow, red, and black dance to the beats of instruments like Udukku and Thakil.
  • Literal meaning of Pulikkali is the ‘play of the tigers’ hence the performance revolve around the theme of tiger hunting.
  • The folk art is mainly practiced in Thrissur district of Kerala.
  • The origin of Pulikkali dates back to over 200 years, when the Maharaja Rama Varma Sakthan Thampuran, the then Maharaja of Cochin, is said to have introduced the folk art, who wanted to celebrate Onam with a dance that reflected the wild and macho spirit of the force.

Navroz festival : Parsi People

  • It is a Parsi New Year festival.
  • While the Balkans, the Caucasus, the Middle Easterns celebrate the festival on March 21, the first day of the Zoroastrian calendar, in India there is another version of the festival that is followed according to the Shahanshahi calendar and falls during the later months of the year.
  • The dates change every year since the calendar doesn’t account for leap years.
  •  Also known as Pateti, Navroz will be celebrated on August 17th this year in India.
  • The festivities on this day symbolize happiness, harmony and amity for the Parsi community.
  • The time of the festival is decided in Iran and then it is passed on to the entire Zoroastrian population in the world.

UNESCO : Yoga in the representative list of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity

Yoga, India’s one of the ancient practices has now been inscribed as an element in the UNESCO’s list of Intangible Cultural Heritage of humanity.

  • Yoga has become the 13th intangible cultural heritage that has been listed from India so far with UNESCO.
  • Previous ones includes the Chhau dance (Inscribed in 2010), the Buddhist chanting of Ladakh, Sankirtana –the ritual singing, drumming, and dancing of Manipur, the traditional brass and copper craft of utensil making among the Thatheras of Jandiala Guru, Punjab and Ramlila- the traditional performance of the Ramayana.
  • The list of intangible cultural treasures was created 10 years ago, mainly to increase awareness about them, while UNESCO also sometimes offers financial or technical support to countries struggling to protect them.

Jallikattu

  • Jallikattu is a bull taming sport played in Tamil Nadu as a part of Pongal celebrations on Mattu Pongal day. It is a Tamil tradition called ‘Yeru thazhuvatha’ in Sangam literature(meaning, to embrace bulls), popular amongst warriors during the Tamil classical period.
  • Jallikattu is based on the concept of “flight or fight”. All castes participate in the event. The majority of jallikattu bulls belong to the pulikulam breed of cattle.

Muziris project

  • Muziris is the largest heritage conservation project in India and is a Kerala government’s initiative involving renovation of ancient places of worship, old markets, forts and the construction of museums.
  • The ancient world’s greatest trading centre in the East, this legendary seaport traded in everything from spices to precious stones with the Greeks, Romans and the rest of the world.
  • The Muziris Heritage Project will revive that lost legacy to conserve and showcase a culture of 3000 years or more for posterity.
  • Once the doorway to India for varied cultures and races including Buddhists, Arabs, Chinese, Jews, Romans, Portuguese, Dutch and even the British, Muziris has stood witness to civilisations being born, wars being waged and history being written.

Dwight D. Eisenhower Quotes

​Dwight D. Eisenhower

Leadership is the art of getting someone else to do something you want done because he wants to do it.

A people that values its privileges above its principles soon loses both.

You do not lead by hitting people over the head – that’s assault, not leadership.

In preparing for battle I have always found that plans are useless, but planning is indispensable.

Plans are nothing; planning is everything.

I hate war as only a soldier who has lived it can, only as one who has seen its brutality, its futility, its stupidity.

What counts is not necessarily the size of the dog in the fight – it’s the size of the fight in the dog.

We must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex.

History does not long entrust the care of freedom to the weak or the timid.

If you want total security, go to prison. There you’re fed, clothed, given medical care and so on. The only thing lacking… is freedom.

May we never confuse honest dissent with disloyal subversion.

Farming looks mighty easy when your plow is a pencil and you’re a thousand miles from the corn field.

Neither a wise man nor a brave man lies down on the tracks of history to wait for the train of the future to run over him.

An intellectual is a man who takes more words than necessary to tell more than he knows.

Don’t join the book burners. Do not think you are going to conceal thoughts by concealing evidence that they ever existed.

I think that people want peace so much that one of these days government had better get out of their way and let them have it.

Peace and justice are two sides of the same coin.

The history of free men is never really written by chance but by choice; their choice!

The problem in defense is how far you can go without destroying from within what you are trying to defend from without.

Humility must always be the portion of any man who receives acclaim earned in the blood of his followers and the sacrifices of his friends.

Though force can protect in emergency, only justice, fairness, consideration and cooperation can finally lead men to the dawn of eternal peace.

Benjamin Franklin Quotes

Benjamin Franklin Quotes

 They who can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety.

An investment in knowledge pays the best interest.

Our new Constitution is now established, everything seems to promise it will be durable; but, in this world, nothing is certain except death and taxes.

You may delay, but time will not.

Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise.

Tell me and I forget, teach me and I may remember, involve me and I learn.

Well done is better than well said.

By failing to prepare, you are preparing to fail.

Either write something worth reading or do something worth writing.

Dost thou love life? Then do not squander time, for that is the stuff life is made of.

Wine is constant proof that God loves us and loves to see us happy.

We must, indeed, all hang together or, most assuredly, we shall all hang separately.

There never was a good war or a bad peace.

Never leave that till tomorrow which you can do today.

We are all born ignorant, but one must work hard to remain stupid.

Do not anticipate trouble, or worry about what may never happen. Keep in the sunlight.

Hide not your talents. They for use were made. What’s a sundial in the shade?

If you would not be forgotten as soon as you are dead, either write something worth reading or do things worth writing.

Beware of little expenses. A small leak will sink a great ship.

He that is good for making excuses is seldom good for anything else.

Any fool can criticize, condemn and complain and most fools do.

Rudyard Kipling Quotes

Rudyard Kipling Quotes

Words are, of course, the most powerful drug used by mankind.

We have forty million reasons for failure, but not a single excuse.

A woman’s guess is much more accurate than a man’s certainty.

I always prefer to believe the best of everybody, it saves so much trouble.

For the strength of the Pack is the Wolf, and the strength of the Wolf is the Pack.

I keep six honest serving men (they taught me all i knew); Theirs names are What and Why and When And How And Where and Who.

Gardens are not made by singing ‘Oh, how beautiful,’ and sitting in the shade.

Fill the unforgiving minute with sixty seconds worth of distance run.

He travels the fastest who travels alone.

All the people like us are we, and everyone else is They.

If history were taught in the form of stories, it would never be forgotten.

He wrapped himself in quotations – as a beggar would enfold himself in the purple of Emperors.

The silliest woman can manage a clever man; but it needs a very clever woman to manage a fool!

Everyone is more or less mad on one point.

The female of the species is more deadly than the male.

And a woman is only a woman, but a good cigar is a smoke.

Of all the liars in the world, sometimes the worst are your own fears.

And the first rude sketch that the world had seen was joy to his mighty heart, till the Devil whispered behind the leaves ’It’s pretty, but is it Art?’

Borrow trouble for yourself, if that’s your nature, but don’t lend it to your neighbours.

A people always ends by resembling its shadow.

The first condition of understanding a foreign country is to smell it.

For the sin they do by two and two they must pay for one by one.

If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster And treat those two impostors just the same.

Take everything you like seriously, except yourselves.

If any question why we died, tell them, because our fathers lied.

A man’s mind is wont to tell him more than seven watchmen sitting in a tower.

Heaven grant us patience with a man in love.

When the moon gets up and night comes, he is the Cat that walks by himself, and all places are alike to him.

Take up the White Man’s burden, Send forth the best ye breed— Go, bind your sons to exile To serve your captives’ need.

Asia is not going to be civilized after the methods of the West. There is too much Asia and she is too old.

And the end of the fight is a tombstone white with the name of the late deceased, And the epitaph drear: “A Fool lies here who tried to hustle the East.”

And that is called paying the Dane-geld; but we’ve proved it again and again, that if once you have paid him the Dane-geld you never get rid of the Dane.

I never made a mistake in my life; at least, never one that I couldn’t explain away afterwards.

All we have of freedom — all we use or know — This our fathers bought for us, long and long ago.

Four things greater than all things are,— Women and Horses and Power and War.

If I were dammed of body and soul, I know whose prayers would make me whole, mother o’ mine o mother o’ mine.

If I were hanged on the highest hill, Mother o’ mine, O mother o’ mine! I know whose love would follow me still Mother o’ mine, O mother o’ mine!

More men are killed by overwork than the importance of the world justifies.

San Francisco is a mad city – inhabited for the most part by perfectly insane people whose women are of a remarkable beauty.

We be of one blood, ye and I.

Winds of the World, give answer! They are whimpering to and fro— And what should they know of England who only England know? The English Flag, Stanza

For it’s Tommy this, an’ Tommy that, an’ “Chuck ’im out, the brute!” But it’s “Savior of ’is country” when the guns begin to shoot.

Ave you ‘eard o’ the Widow at Windsor With a hairy gold crown on ‘er ‘ead? She ‘as ships on the foam—she ‘as millions at ‘ome, An’ she pays us poor beggars in red.

That’s the secret. ‘Tisn’t beauty, so to speak, nor good talk necessarily. It’s just It. Some women’ll stay in a man’s memory if they once walked down a street.

Too much work and too much energy kill a man just as effectively as too much assorted vice or too much drink

Bite on the bullet, old man, and don’t let them think you’re afraid.

Brothers and Sisters, I bid you beware Of giving your heart to a dog to tear.

Funny how the new things are the old things.

There’s no jealousy in the grave.

It takes a great deal of Christianity to wipe out uncivilized Eastern instincts, such as falling in love at first sight.

Gardens are not made by sitting in the shade.

​leon trotsky – Quotes- Russian Revolutionary

​leon trotsky

The end may justify the means as long as there is something that justifies the end.

Old age is the most unexpected of all the things that can happen to a man.

Learning carries within itself certain dangers because out of necessity one has to learn from one’s enemies.

You may not be interested in strategy, but strategy is interested in you.

In a serious struggle there is no worse cruelty than to be magnanimous at an inopportune time.

Fascism is nothing but capitalist reaction; from the point of view of the proletariat the difference between the types of reaction is meaningless.

If we had had more time for discussion we should probably have made a great many more mistakes.

Ideas that enter the mind under fire remain there securely and for ever.

Not believing in force is the same as not believing in gravity.

Revolutions are always verbose.

Technique is noticed most markedly in the case of those who have not mastered it.

Insurrection is an art, and like all arts has its own laws.

There are no absolute rules of conduct, either in peace or war. Everything depends on circumstances.

You are pitiful isolated individuals; you are bankrupts; your role is played out. Go where you belong from now on – into the dustbin of history!

​Che Guevara

​Che Guevara

The revolution is not an apple that falls when it is ripe. You have to make it fall.

Silence is argument carried out by other means.

I know you are here to kill me. Shoot, coward, you are only going to kill a man.

If you tremble with indignation at every injustice, then you are a comrade of mine.

Many will call me an adventurer – and that I am, only one of a different sort: one of those who risks his skin to prove his platitudes.

Cruel leaders are replaced only to have new leaders turn cruel.

I am not a liberator. Liberators do not exist. The people liberate themselves.

Whenever death may surprise us, let it be welcome if our battle cry has reached even one receptive ear and another hand reaches out to take up our arms.

We cannot be sure of having something to live for unless we are willing to die for it.

The true revolutionary is guided by a great feeling of love. It is impossible to think of a genuine revolutionary lacking this quality.

I don’t care if I fall as long as someone else picks up my gun and keeps on shooting.

​Fidel Castro – Quotes to support Socialism and Communism 

​Fidel Castro Quotes

A revolution is a struggle to the death between the future and the past.

They talk about the failure of socialism but where is the success of capitalism in Africa, Asia and Latin America?

I find capitalism repugnant. It is filthy, it is gross, it is alienating… because it causes war, hypocrisy and competition.

The revolution is a dictatorship of the exploited against the exploiters.

I think that a man should not live beyond the age when he begins to deteriorate, when the flame that lighted the brightest moment of his life has weakened.

Men do not shape destiny, Destiny produces the man for the hour.

Capitalism is using its money; we socialists throw it away.

The revenues of Cuban state-run companies are used exclusively for the benefit of the people, to whom they belong.

No thieves, no traitors, no interventionists! This time the revolution is for real!

Mao Zedong – Quotes to support socialism, communism 

Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun.

War can only be abolished through war, and in order to get rid of the gun it is necessary to take up the gun.

Politics is war without bloodshed, while war is politics with bloodshed.

An army without culture is a dull-witted army, and a dull-witted army cannot defeat the enemy.

Classes struggle, some classes triumph, others are eliminated. Such is history; such is the history of civilization for thousands of years.

To read too many books is harmful.

All reactionaries are paper tigers.

The people, and the people alone, are the motive force in the making of world history.

Communism is not love. Communism is a hammer which we use to crush the enemy.

Women hold up half the sky.

Let a hundred flowers bloom, let a hundred schools of thought contend.

I have witnessed the tremendous energy of the masses. On this foundation it is possible to accomplish any task whatsoever.

In waking a tiger, use a long stick.

Once all struggle is grasped, miracles are possible.

Weapons are an important factor in war, but not the decisive one; it is man and not materials that counts.

Genuine equality between the sexes can only be realized in the process of the socialist transformation of society as a whole.

Despise the enemy strategically, but take him seriously tactically.

The differences between friends cannot but reinforce their friendship.

Passivity is fatal to us. Our goal is to make the enemy passive.

In general, any form of exercise, if pursued continuously, will help train us in perseverance. Long-distance running is particularly good training in perseverance.

Benito Mussolini Quotes : Use for demerits of Socialism, Democracy 

Benito Mussolini

Democracy is beautiful in theory; in practice it is a fallacy. You in America will see that some day.

Socialism is a fraud, a comedy, a phantom, a blackmail.

The truth is that men are tired of liberty.

Every anarchist is a baffled dictator.

Let us have a dagger between our teeth, a bomb in our hands, and an infinite scorn in our hearts.

Fascism should more appropriately be called Corporatism because it is a merger of state and corporate power.

War alone brings up to their highest tension all human energies and imposes the stamp of nobility upon the peoples who have the courage to make it.

It’s good to trust others but, not to do so is much better.

We become strong, I feel, when we have no friends upon whom to lean, or to look to for moral guidance.

The history of saints is mainly the history of insane people.

War is to man what maternity is to a woman. From a philosophical and doctrinal viewpoint, I do not believe in perpetual peace.

Fascism is a religion. The twentieth century will be known in history as the century of Fascism.

Fascism is a religious concept.

The Liberal State is a mask behind which there is no face; it is a scaffolding behind which there is no building.

The League is very well when sparrows shout, but no good at all when eagles fall out.

Nelson Mandela Quotes

​Nelson Mandela

Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.

I learned that courage was not the absence of fear, but the triumph over it. The brave man is not he who does not feel afraid, but he who conquers that fear.

It always seems impossible until it’s done.

For to be free is not merely to cast off one’s chains, but to live in a way that respects and enhances the freedom of others.

After climbing a great hill, one only finds that there are many more hills to climb.

A good head and a good heart are always a formidable combination.

There is nothing like returning to a place that remains unchanged to find the ways in which you yourself have altered.

The greatest glory in living lies not in never falling, but in rising every time we fall.

There is no passion to be found playing small – in settling for a life that is less than the one you are capable of living.

If you want to make peace with your enemy, you have to work with your enemy. Then he becomes your partner.

If you talk to a man in a language he understands, that goes to his head. If you talk to him in his language, that goes to his heart.

We must use time wisely and forever realize that the time is always ripe to do right.

Let there be work, bread, water and salt for all.

And as we let our own light shine, we unconsciously give other people permission to do the same

Money won’t create success, the freedom to make it will.

There can be no keener revelation of a society’s soul than the way in which it treats its children.

When a man is denied the right to live the life he believes in, he has no choice but to become an outlaw.

In my country we go to prison first and then become President.

Never, never and never again shall it be that this beautiful land will again experience the oppression of one by another.

I am not a saint, unless you think of a saint as a sinner who keeps on trying.

Only free men can negotiate; prisoners cannot enter into contracts. Your freedom and mine cannot be separated.

If there are dreams about a beautiful South Africa, there are also roads that lead to their goal. Two of these roads could be named Goodness and Forgiveness.

I detest racialism, because I regard it as a barbaric thing, whether it comes from a black man or a white man.

There is no such thing as part freedom.

A good head and good heart are always a formidable combination. But when you add to that a literate tongue or pen, then you have something very special.

Sometimes it falls upon a generation to be great. You can be that great generation.

Let freedom reign. The sun never set on so glorious a human achievement.

Courageous people do not fear forgiving, for the sake of peace.

I dream of an Africa which is in peace with itself.

When the water starts boiling it is foolish to turn off the heat.

Does anybody really think that they didn’t get what they had because they didn’t have the talent or the strength or the endurance or the commitment?

I cannot conceive of Israel withdrawing if Arab states do not recognize Israel, within secure borders.

Nonviolence is a good policy when the conditions permit.

John F Kennedy Quotes

​John F Kennedy Quotes –

ask not what your country can do for you — ask what you can do for your country.

Forgive your enemies, but never forget their names.

Change is the law of life. And those who look only to the past or present are certain to miss the future.

Those who make peaceful revolution impossible will make violent revolution inevitable.

Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to negotiate.

A man may die, nations may rise and fall, but an idea lives on.

If a free society cannot help the many who are poor, it cannot save the few who are rich.

If we cannot now end our differences, at least we can help make the world safe for diversity.

As we express our gratitude, we must never forget that the highest appreciation is not to utter words, but to live by them.

Mankind must put an end to war before war puts an end to mankind.

The time to repair the roof is when the sun is shining.

We cannot expect that all nations will adopt like systems, for conformity is the jailer of freedom and the enemy of growth.

Leadership and learning are indispensable to each other.

Our most basic common link is that we all inhabit this planet. We all breathe the same air. We all cherish our children’s future. And we are all mortal.

The cost of freedom is always high, but Americans have always paid it. And one path we shall never choose, and that is the path of surrender, or submission.

Efforts and courage are not enough without purpose and direction.

There are risks and costs to a program of action. But they are far less than the long-range risks and costs of comfortable inaction.

Too often we… enjoy the comfort of opinion without the discomfort of thought.

A nation that is afraid to let its people judge the truth and falsehood in an open market is a nation that is afraid of its people.

We must use time as a tool, not as a crutch.

Victory has a thousand fathers, but defeat is an orphan.

Why Quit India Movement (August Revolution)is most UnGandhian?

Why Quit India Movement (August Revolution)is most UnGandhian?

It was most militant and UnGandhian because of following reasons.

  • Movement was clear rebellion, least controlled and most spontaneous
  • Gandhi allowed use of arms in self-defense
  • Justified armed resistance against stronger and well-equipped aggressor
  • Called for Do or Die
  • Asked not to remain alive to see country in state of bondage of slavery
  • Held that nation survives when people are ready to die for nation
  • Refused to condemn violence by people rather justified as reaction to bigger violence
  • Congress asked not to bow heads and receive strokes but pull stick and defend.
  • Nehru clarified that there is no restriction on any sorts like previous restrictions.
  • Congress clarified that everyone is free to use his or her own weapon
  • Gandhi called it as last struggle of his life
  • Gandhi held that further delay in freedom in injurious and Humiliating
  • He also clarified that there’s no plan to call off movement
  • He even permitted people to take control of police-station whenever necessary.

Revolutionary Movement in India – Contribution, Source of Influence, Strategy, Achievement

Revolutionary Movement in India

Telegram : https://t.me/SimplifiedIAS

  1. Contributions

Revolutionary term is used for section of Indian Nationalists who believed in “Cult of Bomb”.

  1. Difference between Revolutionary and Terrorist

Revolutionaries used violence against those whom they considered as exploiters.

Terrorist go for indiscriminate use of violence and Killing of innocent people can not be justified.

  1. Sources of Influences on Revolutionaries
    • Bankim Chandra Chatterjee’s “Anandmath”
    • Sachindranath Sanyal’s  “Bandijeevan”
    • Bhagvati Chandra Vohra’s “Philospohy of Bomb”
    • Irish Nationalist
    • Russian Nihilists and Revolutionaries
  1. Strategy of Revolutionaries

  • To strike terror in hearts of rulers
  • Assassin British officers whom they consider very exploitative
  • Arose patriotic feelings among masses.
  • Inspire youth for Heroism
  • Remove fear of British Authority
  • Initially emphasized on individual acts of heroism but later contemplated possibility of revolution of masses.
  • Operate from outside (Below personalities established societies in England and Europe)
    1. Shyamji Krishna Verma – India House – London
    2. Madam Kama
    3. Ajit Singh
    4. D. Savarkar
  1. Why it was not successful
  • Lacked mass support
  • They also did not get support from Indian National Congress
  • They had to depend on Individual acts of heroism
  1. Achievements of Revolutionaries
  • It filled political vacuum when congress was in INACTIVE Phase.
  • It inspired not only Youths but also Women.
  • By remarkable Heroism they gave pride of manhood in Indians.

 

 

 

Winston Churchill – Quotes which gives hope for optimistic Future

Success consists of going from failure to failure without loss of enthusiasm.

If you’re going through hell, keep going.

You have enemies? Good. That means you’ve stood up for something, sometime in your life.

Courage is what it takes to stand up and speak. Courage is also what it takes to sit down and listen

Success is not final, failure is not fatal: it is the courage to continue that counts.

A pessimist sees the difficulty in every opportunity; an optimist sees the opportunity in every difficulty.

To improve is to change; to be perfect is to change often.

Never give in, never give in, never, never, never, never—in nothing, great or small, large or petty—never give in except to convictions of honor and good sense.

History will be kind to me for I intend to write it.

We make a living by what we get, but we make a life by what we give.

I like pigs. Dogs look up to us. Cats look down on us. Pigs treat us as equals.

I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat.

It has been said that democracy is the worst form of government except all the others that have been tried.

An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.

The price of greatness is responsibility.

Attitude is a little thing that makes a big difference.

The inherent vice of capitalism is the unequal sharing of blessings; the inherent virtue of socialism is the equal sharing of miseries.

A lie gets halfway around the world before the truth has a chance to get its pants on.

I am prepared to meet my Maker. Whether my Maker is prepared for the great ordeal of meeting me is another matter.

Never, never, never give up.

For myself I am an optimist – it does not seem to be much use being anything else.

The best argument against democracy is a five-minute conversation with the average voter.

Men occasionally stumble over the truth, but most of them pick themselves up and hurry off as if nothing ever happened.

I am always ready to learn although I do not always like being taught.

Victory at all costs, victory in spite of all terror, victory however long and hard the road may be; for without victory, there is no survival.

Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few.

Continuous effort – not strength or intelligence – is the key to unlocking our potential.

A fanatic is one who can’t change his mind and won’t change the subject.

Now this is not the end. It is not even the beginning of the end. But it is, perhaps, the end of the beginning.

Nothing in life is so exhilarating as to be shot at without result.

It is a good thing for an uneducated man to read books of quotations.

All great things are simple, and many can be expressed in single words: freedom, justice, honor, duty, mercy, hope.

Broadly speaking, the short words are the best, and the old words best of all.

The truth is incontrovertible. Malice may attack it, ignorance may deride it, but in the end, there it is.

We are masters of the unsaid words, but slaves of those we let slip out.

The farther backward you can look, the farther forward you are likely to see.

I am easily satisfied with the very best.

There are a terrible lot of lies going around the world, and the worst of it is half of them are true.

The empires of the future are the empires of the mind.

In the course of my life, I have often had to eat my words, and I must confess that I have always found it a wholesome diet.

I may be drunk, Miss, but in the morning I will be sober and you will still be ugly.

When the eagles are silent, the parrots begin to jabber.

Courage is rightly esteemed the first of human qualities… because it is the quality which guarantees all others.
He has all the virtues I dislike and none of the vices I admire.
We shall not fail or falter; we shall not weaken or tire…Give us the tools and we will finish the job.
If we open a quarrel between past and present, we shall find that we have lost the future.
We contend that for a nation to try to tax itself into prosperity is like a man standing in a bucket and trying to lift himself up by the handle.
However beautiful the strategy, you should occasionally look at the results.
The greatest lesson in life is to know that even fools are right sometimes.
This is no time for ease and comfort. It is time to dare and endure.

Montesquieu Quotes – Use in Political Essays

There is no greater tyranny than that which is perpetrated under the shield of the law and in the name of justice.

Success in the majority of circumstances depends on knowing how long it takes to succeed.

I have always observed that to succeed in the world one should appear like a fool but be wise.

The tyranny of a prince in an oligarchy is not so dangerous to the public welfare as the apathy of a citizen in a democracy.

To become truly great, one has to stand with people, not above them.

If the triangles made a god, they would give him three sides.

Useless laws weaken the necessary laws.

Do you think that God will punish them for not practicing a religion which he did not reveal to them?

There is no nation so powerful, as the one that obeys its laws not from principals of fear or reason, but from passion.

Lunch kills half of Paris, supper the other half.

It is not the young people that degenerate; they are not spoiled till those of mature age are already sunk into corruption.

I’ve never known any trouble that an hour’s reading didn’t assuage.

Liberty is the right of doing whatever the laws permit.

What orators lack in depth they make up for in length.

Friendship is an arrangement by which we undertake to exchange small favors for big ones.

Countries are well cultivated, not as they are fertile, but as they are free.

An author is a fool who, not content with boring those he lives with, insists on boring future generations.

There should be weeping at a man’s birth, not at his death.

Luxury ruins republics; poverty, monarchies.

The severity of the laws prevents their execution.

We should weep for men at their birth, not at their death.

Joseph Stalin Quotes – Can be used for Realist Political Essays.

It is enough that the people know there was an election. The people who cast the votes decide nothing. The people who count the votes decide everything.

A single death is a tragedy; a million deaths is a statistic.

Education is a weapon, whose effect depends on who holds it in his hands and at whom it is aimed.

Ideas are more powerful than guns. We would not let our enemies have guns, why should we let them have ideas.

Death is the solution to all problems. No man – no problem.

Gratitude is a sickness suffered by dogs.

History shows that there are no invincible armies.

In the Soviet army it takes more courage to retreat than advance.

The only real power comes out of a long rifle.

I believe in one thing only, the power of the human will.

The writer is the engineer of the human soul.

I trust no one, not even myself.

You cannot make a revolution with silk gloves.

If the opposition disarms, well and good. If it refuses to disarm, we shall disarm it ourselves.

Print is the sharpest and the strongest weapon of our party.

Gaiety is the most outstanding feature of the Soviet Union.

Sincere diplomacy is no more possible than dry water or wooden iron.

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru – Quotes

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru Quotes

Life is like a game of cards. The hand that is dealt you is determinism; the way you play it is free will.

Culture is the widening of the mind and of the spirit.

Time is not measured by the passing of years but by what one does, what one feels, and what one achieves.

Facts are facts and will not disappear on account of your likes.

Failure comes only when we forget our ideals and objectives and principles.

Every little thing counts in a crisis.

The policy of being too cautious is the greatest risk of all.

Action to be effective must be directed to clearly conceived ends.

A leader or a man of action in a crisis almost always acts subconsciously and then thinks of the reasons for his action.

Democracy is good. I say this because other systems are worse.

Citizenship consists in the service of the country.

Loyal and efficient work in a great cause, even though it may not be immediately recognized, ultimately bears fruit.

The only alternative to coexistence is co-destruction.

There is perhaps nothing so bad and so dangerous in life as fear.

Without peace, all other dreams vanish and are reduced to ashes.

Let us be a little humble; let us think that the truth may not perhaps be entirely with us.

Crises and deadlocks when they occur have at least this advantage, that they force us to think.

The art of a people is a true mirror to their minds.

You don’t change the course of history by turning the faces of portraits to the wall.

Ignorance is always afraid of change.

A theory must be tempered with reality.