In News: On Wednesday, May 26 — Buddha Jayanti, Buddha Purnima, or Vesak — India’s largest statue of the Reclining Buddha was to have been installed at the Buddha International Welfare Mission temple in Bodh Gaya, Bihar. The ceremony has been postponed due to Covid-19 restrictions. About the Reclining Buddha: A reclining Buddha is an image that represents Buddha lyingRead more
Category Archives: History
Describe any four cultural elements of diversity in India and rate their relative significance in building a national identity. (UPSC – 2015) [150 Words]
Ans.: Diversity connotes collective differences among people that differentiates one group of people from another.India is considered as a mega culturally diverse country due to the existence of various groups that provide a unique blend to India’s diversity. These culturally diverse elements have given India an identity that is heterogeneous compared to any such large countries. Cultural elements of diversity inRead more
Q. Comment upon the role of women in the Indian freedom struggle. How did the arrival of Gandhiji affect their participation in the political sphere?
Model Answer Indian freedom struggle was not only a political agitation for freedom but also an inclusive movement that included various sections of the society. The process of inclusion only intensified with the multidimensional role of women with renewed vigour after the arrival of Mahatma Gandhi. Role of Women in Indian Freedom Struggle – Earliest examples – Right from the revoltRead more
Q. Since the Press was a powerful weapon in the development of Indian Nationalism, it was subjected to restrictions by the British Government. In this regard, discuss the major regulations enacted by the British rulers to curb the freedom of Press in India.
Model Answer The press was fiercely involved in rallying the masses and newspapers acted as the life breath of nationalistic rebellion. Inevitably, the British government became increasingly apprehensive and several acts were passed to curb the freedom of press. Major regulations enacted by the British rulers were: The Press Act of 1799: It imposed war time press restrictions. Which included pre-censorship,Read more
Q. The town planning in Harappan Civilisation shows the high level of sophistication. In this light discuss the significant features of Harappan town planning. Also mention the various theories in relation to decline of the Civilisation.
Structure of the answer: Introduction Significant features High level of sophistication Decline of Harappan civilisation Model Answer The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC), also known as Harappan Civilization flourished around 2,500 BC in the western part of South Asia. The Harappan culture was distinguished by its system of town planning. Significant features of the Harappan town planning are as follows: Division of city into the Citadel e. mound builtRead more
Q. The British rule has been often been described as the reason for drain of Indian wealth to Britain. In this light discuss constituent of economic drain and consequences of the same.
Structure of the answer: Introduction (drain of wealth) Estimate of drain of wealth Constituent of economic drain Consequences Final analysis Model Answer The constant flow of wealth from India to England for which India did not get an adequate economic, commercial or material return has been described as drain of wealth from India. Dadabhai Naoroji gave ‘drain of wealth theory’ in his book ‘PovertyRead more
Q. The British rule was marked by various Peasants movement. In this background discuss the impact of these movement on freedom struggle.
Structure of the answer: Introduction Various peasant movement in British era Impact of peasant movement on freedom struggle Conclusion Model Answer Peasant movement in India arose due to Britishers economic policies that resulted in the change of ownership of agrarian land, massive debt burden and impoverishment of peasantry. Thus, the peasants rose in revolt against this injustice on many occasions. Some ofRead more
Q. Explain how the American War of Independence had transformed the Europe and other parts of the world?
Model Answer The American Revolution of 1776 had transformed not only the America but also the Europe and other parts of the world. Its direct and indirect influences were felt worldwide in the time to come. The impact of the American Revolution was as follows: Ideological impact: The ideas of liberty, equality, fraternity were popularized all over the world as a resultRead more
Q. In the context of the world history, discuss the achievements of the Bolshevik Revolution of Russia.
Model Answer The Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 were the two phases of a single revolution where due to the prevailing widespread discontent, Lenin overthrew Kerensky’s government with the help of his revolutionary Red Guard on the night of 6th and 7th November 1917 and declared Russia as a communist nation. Other significant achievements of the Bolshevik revolution are as follows:Read more
Q. Women’s movement post-independence has covered a wide array of topics. In this background mention the issues covered by these movement and government response to the same.
Structure of the answer: Introduction Issues covered by women’s movement Government response to the same Final analysis Model Answer Women’s movement is an important variant of social movement that aimed to bring changes in the institutional arrangements, customs and beliefs in the society that subjugated women. The aim of theses movement changed over a period of time and the same isRead more
Q. Reform movements in religion were largely responsible for social reform movements in India. In this context, discuss the contribution of various socio-cultural reformers in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Approach: Briefly discuss about the social reform movements in India. Discuss the contribution of various socio-cultural reformers in the 19th and 20th centuries. Model Answer Indian Society in the 19th century was caught in a vicious web created by religious superstitions and dogmas. All religions in general and Hinduism in particular had become a compound of magic, animism, and superstitions.Read more
Q. Describe briefly the features of bronze sculpture art that reached its zenith during the Chola era.
Approach: Introduce the Chola bronze art – why it is considered as the high stage of development Divide the answer into subparts – patronage, religious purpose, technology, and iconography Also mention various examples to substantiate the points Within the subparts, try to trace the chronological development. Model Answer The Chola period is well known for the aesthetic and technical finesseRead more
Q. What was the immediate trigger of the World War-I? What were the reasons for the breakout of the war? Comment
Model Answer World War-I has its roots in the assassination of a prince. On 28 June 1914, Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary was assassinated by a Serbian terrorist at Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia. Austria saw the hands of Serbia behind this and served Serbia an ultimatum. Serbia refused to accept one of the demandsRead more
Q. The Britishers formed Indian National Congress (INC) to act as a safety valve. However, the Indians used the forum as a lightning conductor much to the whammy of Britishers. In this light the purpose behind formation of INC and the intention of Indians in respect of the same.
Structure of the answer: Introduction Safety valve theory/ Britisher’s intention on formation of INC Use of INC by Indians for propagating nationalist interest Conclusion Model Answer There is wide spread belief that reason behind the formation of INC was safety valve theory i.e. Britishers wanted to pacify the raising discontent among Indian masses through INC. The discontent among Indians was due to issues likeRead more
Q. Post- Independence, integration and unification of India demonstrated to be a long process plagued with challenges. In this context, examine the early challenges that India faced as a newly independent country.
Approach: Write about the prevailing conditions after independence in the introduction. Mention how it created challenges for India- both external and internal. Conclude by mentioning India’s democratic credentials which helped India to survive as a nation. Model Answer 15th August 1947 marked the end of colonial rule in India and the country found itself standing on the threshold of aRead more
Ugadi/ Losar/ Gudi Padawa Ugadi is celebrated as New Year’s Day in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. The name Ugadi is derived from the name “Yuga Adi”, which means ‘the beginning of a new age’. It is celebrated on the first day of the Hindu month Chaitra, which marks the onset of spring. The festival of Losar marks the beginning of NewRead more
Headline : Languages and civilisation Editorial 5th Apr’19 IndianExpress Details : Importance of language: Language is a tool for intellectual and emotional expression. Language is a vehicle for the transmission of culture, scientific knowledge and a worldview across generations. It is the vital, unseen thread that links the past with the present. The great Indian poet Acharya Dandi had said that ifRead more
Ramappa Temple for world heritage site: Telangana is expected to get its first site, the Ramappa Temple at Palampet, included in UNESCO World Heritage Site in the 43rd session of the World Heritage Committee. Background India has already got 37 sites inscribed in the World Heritage List. There are total 29 cultural sites, 7 Natural sites and 1 mixed siteRead more
Headline : What role did Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel play in the Dandi march of 1930? Details : Context of the topic: On the occasion of the 89th anniversary of the Dandi March, tributes have also been paid to the contributions made by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel to the movement. About Dandi March Dandi March or Salt Satyagraha was a non-violentRead more
Details : Why it is important? In view of the Pulwama attack, India is weighing its options for retaliation against Pakistan, who sponsored the attack.Out of many options, one big move that India can take is to abrogate the Indus Waters Treaty (which deals with river Indus and its five tributaries). Join Telegram: https://t.me/SimplifiedIAS Indus River System It is oneRead more
Consider the below statements with regard to Nagara and Dravidian Style of Temple Architecture: Images such as Mithunas and the river goddesses as door keepers guarding the temple are common sight in the Dravida style of temple architecture. The north Indian idea of multiple shikharas rising together as a cluster was not popular in dravida style. A large water reservoirRead more
Consider the following pairs: Committee Objective 1. Butler committee: to clarify the relationship between the British crown and the Princely states. 2. Hunter Committee: to involve more Indians in Civil Service 3. Hartog Committee: spreading English learning and female education in India Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched? A. 1 only B. 1 and 3 only C.Read more
Which of the following decisions was/were taken at the Lucknow Session of Congress, 1916? 1. The extremists were readmitted into the Indian National Congress. 2. Indian National Congress accepted the demand of separate electorates by Muslim League. 3. The Home Rule League movement was to be discontinued. Select the correct answer using the code given below: A. 1 and 2Read more
With regard to philosophy of Advaitavada, consider the following statements: 1. It believed in dualism. 2. It rejected the path of Bhakti. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? A. 1 only B. 2 only C. Both 1 and 2 D. Neither 1 nor 2 Explanation : Advaitavada philosophy propounded by Adi Shankara also called the doctrine of non-dualism,Read more
With reference to Indian classical music, consider the following statements: 1. While there exist various styles of singing in Hindustani music, Carnatic music is sung only in one style. 2. The number of ragas in Hindustani music is more than those in Carnatic music. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? A. 1 only B. 2 only C. BothRead more
Which of the following can be said to be the major reasons behind the decline of the Vijaynagara Empire? 1. Strain in the imperial structure following the death of Krishnadeva Raya. 2. The Battle of Talikota. 3. Invasion by the Mughals. Select the correct answer using the code given below: A. 1 and 2 only B. 2 and 3 onlyRead more
With reference to Buddhist text, Tripitaka, consider the following: 1. Vinay Pitaka mentions the rules and regulations for those who joined the Sangha or monastic order. 2. Sutta Pitaka contains the philosophy of Buddhism. 3. Abhidhamma Pitaka contains the teachings of the Buddha. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? A. 1 only B. 2 and 3 only C.Read more
Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding the Indian Parliamentary Committee of 1893? 1. It was organised in London by Sir William Wedderburn. 2. Its aim was to agitate for Indian political reforms in the British Parliament. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? A. 1 only B. 2 only C. Both 1 and 2 D. Neither 1Read more
Consider the following statements: 1. The subject matter of Ajanta paintings is mostly Buddhism. 2. Buddhist literature refers to paintings of various types and techniques. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? A. 1 only B. 2 only C. Both 1 and 2 D. Neither 1 nor 2 Explanation : The Ajanta Caves are 29 (approximately) rock-cut Buddhist caveRead more
Madhubani which means ‘forest of honey’, is a style of folk painting old enough to find mention in some of the ancient Indian texts like the holy Ramayana. It is also known as Mithila, for its origin is said to be the Mithila region in Bihar. Traditionally, the Madhubani paintings are created using fingers and twigs, and items like matchsticksRead more
Taratarini Temple is located in which of the following states? a Madhya Pradesh b Odisha c Andhra Pradesh d Kerala Explanation: Solution (b) Taratarini Temple on the Kumari hills at the bank of the River Rushikulya near Brahmapur city in Ganjam District, Odisha, India is worshiped as the Breast Shrine (Sthana Peetha) and manifestations of AdiRead more
Q18. Consider the following statements regarding the literary work Akbar Nama: 1. Ain-i-Akbari was written by Abul Fazl as part of Akbar Nama. 2. The first and third parts of Akbar Nama provide a historical narrative like birth of Akbar, the history of Timur’s family and the reigns of Babur and Humayun and the Suri Sultans of Delhi. 3. Ain-iRead more
Q14. In the Stupas of Mauryan period many inscriptional evidences are found. Which of the following was/were inscribed in those Stupas?
Quiz- Q14. In the Stupas of Mauryan period many inscriptional evidences are found. Which of the following was/were inscribed in those Stupas? 1. Name and profession of donors 2. Donations by the guilds 3. Name of the artisans Select the correct answer using the code given below: A. 1 only B. 1 and 2 only C. 3 only D. 1,Read more
“In the late eighteenth century, Calcutta, Bombay and Madras rose in importance as Presidency cities. They became the centres of British power in the different regions of India. At the same time, a host of smaller cities declined. Many towns manufacturing specialised goods declined due to a drop in the demand for what they produced. Old trading centres and portsRead more
Ramakrishna Mission • It is an embodiment of the synthesis of ancient Indian and modern western cultures. • Ramakrishna Paramahamsa (1836-86) was the founder of this socio-religious movement. • Formally, the Mission was founded in May 1897 by Paramahamsa’s disciple, Narendranath Dutta, who was later on known as Swami Vivekananda (1863-1902). Objectives of the Mission • To bring into existence aRead more
Khadi and Freedom movement Khadi owes its revival to the Father of the Nation, Mahatma Gandhi who saw it as a tool to become self-reliant and independent. Britishers bought raw materials at cheaper rate from India and sold their costly finished products in India. This unfavourable balance of trade was first brought to the mainstream by Dada Bhai Nairoji. DadaRead more
Lala Lajpat Rai Details : Lala Lajpat Rai was one of the foremost leaders who fought against British rule in India. He was popularly known as Punjab Kesari (Lion of the Punjab). Lala Lajpat Rai was born in January 1865 and got martyrdom on November, 17, 1928. Lala Lajpat Rai joined the Government College at Lahore in 1880 to studyRead more
Born: 11 April, 1827 Passed Away: 28 November, 1890 Originally Jyotirao’s family belonged to ‘mali’ caste, considered as inferior by the Brahmins. Jyotiba Phule devoted his entire life for the liberation of untouchables from the exploitation of Brahmins. He revolted against the tyranny of the upper castes. Contributions Jyotiba Phule was one of the prominent social reformers of the nineteenth century India.Read more
Pulikkali festival Pulikkali is a colorful recreational folk art from the state of Kerala. It is performed by trained artists to entertain people on the occasion of Onam, an annual harvest festival, celebrated mainly in Kerala. On the fourth day of Onam celebrations (Nalaam Onam), performers painted like tigers and hunters in bright yellow, red, and black dance to the beatsRead more
It is a Parsi New Year festival. While the Balkans, the Caucasus, the Middle Easterns celebrate the festival on March 21, the first day of the Zoroastrian calendar, in India there is another version of the festival that is followed according to the Shahanshahi calendar and falls during the later months of the year. The dates change every year since the calendar doesn’t accountRead more
Yoga, India’s one of the ancient practices has now been inscribed as an element in the UNESCO’s list of Intangible Cultural Heritage of humanity. Yoga has become the 13th intangible cultural heritage that has been listed from India so far with UNESCO. Previous ones includes the Chhau dance (Inscribed in 2010), the Buddhist chanting of Ladakh, Sankirtana –the ritual singing,Read more
Jallikattu is a bull taming sport played in Tamil Nadu as a part of Pongal celebrations on Mattu Pongal day. It is a Tamil tradition called ‘Yeru thazhuvatha’ in Sangam literature(meaning, to embrace bulls), popular amongst warriors during the Tamil classical period. Jallikattu is based on the concept of “flight or fight”. All castes participate in the event. The majority of jallikattu bulls belongRead more
Muziris is the largest heritage conservation project in India and is a Kerala government’s initiative involving renovation of ancient places of worship, old markets, forts and the construction of museums. The ancient world’s greatest trading centre in the East, this legendary seaport traded in everything from spices to precious stones with the Greeks, Romans and the rest of the world.Read more
Dwight D. Eisenhower Leadership is the art of getting someone else to do something you want done because he wants to do it. A people that values its privileges above its principles soon loses both. You do not lead by hitting people over the head – that’s assault, not leadership. In preparing for battle I have always found that plansRead more
Benjamin Franklin Quotes They who can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety. An investment in knowledge pays the best interest. Our new Constitution is now established, everything seems to promise it will be durable; but, in this world, nothing is certain except death and taxes. You may delay, but time willRead more
Rudyard Kipling Quotes Words are, of course, the most powerful drug used by mankind. We have forty million reasons for failure, but not a single excuse. A woman’s guess is much more accurate than a man’s certainty. I always prefer to believe the best of everybody, it saves so much trouble. For the strength of the Pack is the Wolf,Read more
leon trotsky The end may justify the means as long as there is something that justifies the end. Old age is the most unexpected of all the things that can happen to a man. Learning carries within itself certain dangers because out of necessity one has to learn from one’s enemies. You may not be interested in strategy, but strategyRead more
Che Guevara The revolution is not an apple that falls when it is ripe. You have to make it fall. Silence is argument carried out by other means. I know you are here to kill me. Shoot, coward, you are only going to kill a man. If you tremble with indignation at every injustice, then you are a comrade ofRead more
Fidel Castro Quotes A revolution is a struggle to the death between the future and the past. They talk about the failure of socialism but where is the success of capitalism in Africa, Asia and Latin America? I find capitalism repugnant. It is filthy, it is gross, it is alienating… because it causes war, hypocrisy and competition. The revolution isRead more
Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun. War can only be abolished through war, and in order to get rid of the gun it is necessary to take up the gun. Politics is war without bloodshed, while war is politics with bloodshed. An army without culture is a dull-witted army, and a dull-witted army cannot defeat theRead more
Benito Mussolini Democracy is beautiful in theory; in practice it is a fallacy. You in America will see that some day. Socialism is a fraud, a comedy, a phantom, a blackmail. The truth is that men are tired of liberty. Every anarchist is a baffled dictator. Let us have a dagger between our teeth, a bomb in our hands, andRead more
Nelson Mandela Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world. I learned that courage was not the absence of fear, but the triumph over it. The brave man is not he who does not feel afraid, but he who conquers that fear. It always seems impossible until it’s done. For to be free isRead more
John F Kennedy Quotes – ask not what your country can do for you — ask what you can do for your country. Forgive your enemies, but never forget their names. Change is the law of life. And those who look only to the past or present are certain to miss the future. Those who make peaceful revolution impossible willRead more
Why Quit India Movement (August Revolution)is most UnGandhian? It was most militant and UnGandhian because of following reasons. Movement was clear rebellion, least controlled and most spontaneous Gandhi allowed use of arms in self-defense Justified armed resistance against stronger and well-equipped aggressor Called for Do or Die Asked not to remain alive to see country in state of bondage ofRead more
Revolutionary Movement in India Telegram : https://t.me/SimplifiedIAS Contributions Revolutionary term is used for section of Indian Nationalists who believed in “Cult of Bomb”. Difference between Revolutionary and Terrorist Revolutionaries used violence against those whom they considered as exploiters. Terrorist go for indiscriminate use of violence and Killing of innocent people can not be justified. Sources of Influences on Revolutionaries BankimRead more
Success consists of going from failure to failure without loss of enthusiasm. If you’re going through hell, keep going. You have enemies? Good. That means you’ve stood up for something, sometime in your life. Courage is what it takes to stand up and speak. Courage is also what it takes to sit down and listen Success is not final, failureRead more
There is no greater tyranny than that which is perpetrated under the shield of the law and in the name of justice. Success in the majority of circumstances depends on knowing how long it takes to succeed. I have always observed that to succeed in the world one should appear like a fool but be wise. The tyranny of aRead more
It is enough that the people know there was an election. The people who cast the votes decide nothing. The people who count the votes decide everything. A single death is a tragedy; a million deaths is a statistic. Education is a weapon, whose effect depends on who holds it in his hands and at whom it is aimed. IdeasRead more
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru Quotes Life is like a game of cards. The hand that is dealt you is determinism; the way you play it is free will. Culture is the widening of the mind and of the spirit. Time is not measured by the passing of years but by what one does, what one feels, and what one achieves. FactsRead more