Category Archives: History

About: The Somnath or the Deo Patan Temple

About: The Somnath or the Deo Patan Temple About: It is located in Veraval (Saurashtra) on the western coast of Gujarat, India. It is believed to be the first among the twelve Jyotirlinga shrines of Lord Shiva, and is an important pilgrimage and tourist spot of Gujarat. It was reconstructed several times in the past after repeated destruction by several Muslim invaders and rulers, including

Read more

About: Kakatiya Rudreshwara (Ramappa) Temple

Telangana’s Ramappa temple inscribed as a World Heritage Site https://amzn.to/3zTfLhH In News: In a major diplomatic triumph for India, the 13th century Ramappa temple in Palampet, Telangana, was inscribed as a United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Site About: Kakatiya Rudreshwara (Ramappa) Temple Rudreshwara, popularly known as Ramappa Temple, is located in the village of Palampur approximately

Read more

Explained: The Reclining Buddha and his various other depictions in art

In News: On Wednesday, May 26 — Buddha Jayanti, Buddha Purnima, or Vesak — India’s largest statue of the Reclining Buddha was to have been installed at the Buddha International Welfare Mission temple in Bodh Gaya, Bihar. The ceremony has been postponed due to Covid-19 restrictions. About the Reclining Buddha: A reclining Buddha is an image that represents Buddha lying

Read more

Describe any four cultural elements of diversity in India and rate their relative significance in building a national identity. (UPSC – 2015) [150 Words]

Ans.: Diversity connotes collective differences among people that differentiates one group of people from another.India is considered as a mega culturally diverse country due to the existence of various groups that provide a unique blend to India’s diversity. These culturally diverse elements have given India an identity that is heterogeneous compared to any such large countries. Cultural elements of diversity in

Read more

Q. Comment upon the role of women in the Indian freedom struggle. How did the arrival of Gandhiji affect their participation in the political sphere?

Model Answer Indian freedom struggle was not only a political agitation for freedom but also an inclusive movement that included various sections of the society. The process of inclusion only intensified with the multidimensional role of women with renewed vigour after the arrival of Mahatma Gandhi. Role of Women in Indian Freedom Struggle – Earliest examples – Right from the revolt

Read more

Q. Since the Press was a powerful weapon in the development of Indian Nationalism, it was subjected to restrictions by the British Government. In this regard, discuss the major regulations enacted by the British rulers to curb the freedom of Press in India.

Model Answer The press was fiercely involved in rallying the masses and newspapers acted as the life breath of nationalistic rebellion. Inevitably, the British government became increasingly apprehensive and several acts were passed to curb the freedom of press. Major regulations enacted by the British rulers were:  The Press Act of 1799: It imposed war time press restrictions.  Which included pre-censorship,

Read more

Q. The town planning in Harappan Civilisation shows the high level of sophistication. In this light discuss the significant features of Harappan town planning. Also mention the various theories in relation to decline of the Civilisation.

Structure of the answer: Introduction Significant features High level of sophistication Decline of Harappan civilisation Model Answer The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC), also known as Harappan Civilization flourished around 2,500 BC in the western part of South Asia. The Harappan culture was distinguished by its system of town planning. Significant features of the Harappan town planning are as follows: Division of city into the Citadel e. mound built

Read more

Q. The British rule has been often been described as the reason for drain of Indian wealth to Britain. In this light discuss constituent of economic drain and consequences of the same.

Structure of the answer: Introduction (drain of wealth) Estimate of drain of wealth Constituent of economic drain Consequences Final analysis Model Answer The constant flow of wealth from India to England for which India did not get an adequate economic, commercial or material return has been described as drain of wealth from India. Dadabhai Naoroji gave ‘drain of wealth theory’ in his book ‘Poverty

Read more

Q. The British rule was marked by various Peasants movement. In this background discuss the impact of these movement on freedom struggle.

Structure of the answer: Introduction Various peasant movement in British era Impact of peasant movement on freedom struggle Conclusion Model Answer Peasant movement in India arose due to Britishers economic policies that resulted in the change of ownership of agrarian land, massive debt burden and impoverishment of peasantry. Thus, the peasants rose in revolt against this injustice on many occasions. Some of

Read more

Q. Explain how the American War of Independence had transformed the Europe and other parts of the world?

Model Answer The American Revolution of 1776 had transformed not only the America but also the Europe and other parts of the world. Its direct and indirect influences were felt worldwide in the time to come. The impact of the American Revolution was as follows: Ideological impact: The ideas of liberty, equality, fraternity were popularized all over the world as a result

Read more

Q. In the context of the world history, discuss the achievements of the Bolshevik Revolution of Russia.

Model Answer The Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 were the two phases of a single revolution where due to the prevailing widespread discontent, Lenin overthrew Kerensky’s government with the help of his revolutionary Red Guard on the night of 6th and 7th November 1917 and declared Russia as a communist nation. Other significant achievements of the Bolshevik revolution are as follows:

Read more

Q. Women’s movement post-independence has covered a wide array of topics. In this background mention the issues covered by these movement and government response to the same.

Structure of the answer:         Introduction Issues covered by women’s movement Government response to the same Final analysis Model Answer Women’s movement is an important variant of social movement that aimed to bring changes in the institutional arrangements, customs and beliefs in the society that subjugated women. The aim of theses movement changed over a period of time and the same is

Read more

Q. Reform movements in religion were largely responsible for social reform movements in India. In this context, discuss the contribution of various socio-cultural reformers in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Approach: Briefly discuss about the social reform movements in India. Discuss the contribution of various socio-cultural reformers in the 19th and 20th centuries. Model Answer Indian Society in the 19th century was caught in a vicious web created by religious superstitions and dogmas. All religions in general and Hinduism in particular had become a compound of magic, animism, and superstitions.

Read more

Q. Describe briefly the features of bronze sculpture art that reached its zenith during the Chola era.

Approach: Introduce the Chola bronze art – why it is considered as the high stage of development Divide the answer into subparts – patronage, religious purpose, technology, and iconography Also mention various examples to substantiate the points Within the subparts, try to trace the chronological development. Model Answer The Chola period is well known for the aesthetic and technical finesse

Read more

Q. What was the immediate trigger of the World War-I? What were the reasons for the breakout of the war? Comment

Model Answer World War-I has its roots in the assassination of a prince. On 28 June 1914, Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary was assassinated by a Serbian terrorist at Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia. Austria saw the hands of Serbia behind this and served Serbia an ultimatum. Serbia refused to accept one of the demands

Read more

Q. The Britishers formed Indian National Congress (INC) to act as a safety valve. However, the Indians used the forum as a lightning conductor much to the whammy of Britishers. In this light the purpose behind formation of INC and the intention of Indians in respect of the same.

Structure of the answer: Introduction Safety valve theory/ Britisher’s intention on formation of INC Use of INC by Indians for propagating nationalist interest Conclusion Model Answer There is wide spread belief that reason behind the formation of INC was safety valve theory i.e. Britishers wanted to pacify the raising discontent among Indian masses through INC. The discontent among Indians was due to issues like

Read more

Q. Post- Independence, integration and unification of India demonstrated to be a long process plagued with challenges. In this context, examine the early challenges that India faced as a newly independent country.

Approach: Write about the prevailing conditions after independence in the introduction. Mention how it created challenges for India- both external and internal. Conclude by mentioning India’s democratic credentials which helped India to survive as a nation. Model Answer 15th August 1947 marked the end of colonial rule in India and the country found itself standing on the threshold of a

Read more

Culture:- Brief for Prelims

Ugadi/ Losar/ Gudi Padawa Ugadi is celebrated as New Year’s Day in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. The name Ugadi is derived from the name “Yuga Adi”, which means ‘the beginning of a new age’. It is celebrated on the first day of the Hindu month Chaitra, which marks the onset of spring. The festival of Losar marks the beginning of New

Read more

Languages and civilisation Editorial 5th Apr’19 IndianExpress

Headline : Languages and civilisation Editorial 5th Apr’19 IndianExpress  Details :  Importance of language: Language is a tool for intellectual and emotional expression. Language is a vehicle for the transmission of culture, scientific knowledge and a worldview across generations. It is the vital, unseen thread that links the past with the present. The great Indian poet Acharya Dandi had said that if

Read more

Prelims Program: Indus River System

Details : Why it is important? In view of the Pulwama attack, India is weighing its options for retaliation against Pakistan, who sponsored the attack.Out of many options, one big move that India can take is to abrogate the Indus Waters Treaty (which deals with river Indus and its five tributaries).  Join Telegram: https://t.me/SimplifiedIAS Indus River System It is one

Read more

Comparison between Nagara and Dravidian style of temple architecture

Consider the below statements with regard to Nagara and Dravidian Style of Temple Architecture: Images such as Mithunas and the river goddesses as door keepers guarding the temple are common sight in the Dravida style of temple architecture. The north Indian idea of multiple shikharas rising together as a cluster was not popular in dravida style. A large water reservoir

Read more

Prelims 326

Consider the following pairs: Committee Objective 1. Butler committee: to clarify the relationship between the British crown and the Princely states. 2. Hunter Committee: to involve more Indians in Civil Service 3. Hartog Committee: spreading English learning and female education in India Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched? A. 1 only B. 1 and 3 only C.

Read more

Prelims 309

Which of the following decisions was/were taken at the Lucknow Session of Congress, 1916? 1. The extremists were readmitted into the Indian National Congress. 2. Indian National Congress accepted the demand of separate electorates by Muslim League. 3. The Home Rule League movement was to be discontinued. Select the correct answer using the code given below: A. 1 and 2

Read more

Prelims 306

With regard to philosophy of Advaitavada, consider the following statements: 1. It believed in dualism. 2. It rejected the path of Bhakti. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? A. 1 only B. 2 only C. Both 1 and 2 D. Neither 1 nor 2 Explanation : Advaitavada philosophy propounded by Adi Shankara also called the doctrine of non-dualism,

Read more

Prelims 305

With reference to Indian classical music, consider the following statements: 1. While there exist various styles of singing in Hindustani music, Carnatic music is sung only in one style. 2. The number of ragas in Hindustani music is more than those in Carnatic music. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? A. 1 only B. 2 only C. Both

Read more

Prelims 304

Which of the following can be said to be the major reasons behind the decline of the Vijaynagara Empire? 1. Strain in the imperial structure following the death of Krishnadeva Raya. 2. The Battle of Talikota. 3. Invasion by the Mughals. Select the correct answer using the code given below: A. 1 and 2 only B. 2 and 3 only

Read more

Prelims 303

With reference to Buddhist text, Tripitaka, consider the following: 1. Vinay Pitaka mentions the rules and regulations for those who joined the Sangha or monastic order. 2. Sutta Pitaka contains the philosophy of Buddhism. 3. Abhidhamma Pitaka contains the teachings of the Buddha. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? A. 1 only B. 2 and 3 only C.

Read more

Prelims 302

Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding the Indian Parliamentary Committee of 1893? 1. It was organised in London by Sir William Wedderburn. 2. Its aim was to agitate for Indian political reforms in the British Parliament. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? A. 1 only B. 2 only C. Both 1 and 2 D. Neither 1

Read more

Prelims 301

Consider the following statements: 1. The subject matter of Ajanta paintings is mostly Buddhism. 2. Buddhist literature refers to paintings of various types and techniques. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? A. 1 only B. 2 only C. Both 1 and 2 D. Neither 1 nor 2 Explanation : The Ajanta Caves are 29 (approximately) rock-cut Buddhist cave

Read more

Everything about Madhubani Painting

Madhubani which means ‘forest of honey’, is a style of folk painting old enough to find mention in some of the ancient Indian texts like the holy Ramayana. It is also known as Mithila, for its origin is said to be the Mithila region in Bihar. Traditionally, the Madhubani paintings are created using fingers and twigs, and items like matchsticks

Read more

TataTarini Temple

Taratarini Temple is located in which of the following states? a     Madhya Pradesh b     Odisha c      Andhra Pradesh d     Kerala Explanation: Solution (b) Taratarini Temple on the Kumari hills at the bank of the River Rushikulya near Brahmapur city in Ganjam District, Odisha, India is worshiped as the Breast Shrine (Sthana Peetha) and manifestations of Adi

Read more

Quiz- Q18. Consider the following statements regarding the literary work Akbar Nama:

Q18. Consider the following statements regarding the literary work Akbar Nama: 1. Ain-i-Akbari was written by Abul Fazl as part of Akbar Nama. 2. The first and third parts of Akbar Nama provide a historical narrative like birth of Akbar, the history of Timur’s family and the reigns of Babur and Humayun and the Suri Sultans of Delhi. 3. Ain-i

Read more

Q14. In the Stupas of Mauryan period many inscriptional evidences are found. Which of the following was/were inscribed in those Stupas?

Quiz- Q14. In the Stupas of Mauryan period many inscriptional evidences are found. Which of the following was/were inscribed in those Stupas? 1. Name and profession of donors 2. Donations by the guilds 3. Name of the artisans Select the correct answer using the code given below: A. 1 only B. 1 and 2 only C. 3 only D. 1,

Read more

Everything about Ramkrishna Mission

Ramakrishna Mission • It is an embodiment of the synthesis of ancient Indian and modern western cultures. • Ramakrishna Paramahamsa (1836-86) was the founder of this socio-religious movement. • Formally, the Mission was founded in May 1897 by Paramahamsa’s disciple, Narendranath Dutta, who was later on known as Swami Vivekananda (1863-1902). Objectives of the Mission • To bring into existence a

Read more

Khadi and Freedom movement

Khadi and Freedom movement Khadi owes its revival to the Father of the Nation, Mahatma Gandhi who saw it as a tool to become self-reliant and independent. Britishers bought raw materials at cheaper rate from India and sold their costly finished products in India. This unfavourable balance of trade was first brought to the mainstream by Dada Bhai Nairoji.  Dada

Read more

Everything about Lala Lajpat Rai

Lala Lajpat Rai Details : Lala Lajpat Rai was one of the foremost leaders who fought against British rule in India. He was popularly known as Punjab Kesari (Lion of the Punjab). Lala Lajpat Rai was born in January 1865 and got martyrdom on November, 17, 1928. Lala Lajpat Rai joined the Government College at Lahore in 1880 to study

Read more

Jyotiba Phule

Born: 11 April, 1827 Passed Away: 28 November, 1890 Originally Jyotirao’s family belonged to ‘mali’ caste, considered as inferior by the Brahmins. Jyotiba Phule devoted his entire life for the liberation of untouchables from the exploitation of Brahmins. He revolted against the tyranny of the upper castes.  Contributions  Jyotiba Phule was one of the prominent social reformers of the nineteenth century India.

Read more

Pulikkali festival – Kerala

Pulikkali festival Pulikkali is a colorful recreational folk art from the state of Kerala. It is performed by trained artists to entertain people on the occasion of Onam, an annual harvest festival, celebrated mainly in Kerala. On the fourth day of Onam celebrations (Nalaam Onam), performers painted like tigers and hunters in bright yellow, red, and black dance to the beats

Read more

Navroz festival : Parsi People

It is a Parsi New Year festival. While the Balkans, the Caucasus, the Middle Easterns celebrate the festival on March 21, the first day of the Zoroastrian calendar, in India there is another version of the festival that is followed according to the Shahanshahi calendar and falls during the later months of the year. The dates change every year since the calendar doesn’t account

Read more

UNESCO : Yoga in the representative list of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity

Yoga, India’s one of the ancient practices has now been inscribed as an element in the UNESCO’s list of Intangible Cultural Heritage of humanity. Yoga has become the 13th intangible cultural heritage that has been listed from India so far with UNESCO. Previous ones includes the Chhau dance (Inscribed in 2010), the Buddhist chanting of Ladakh, Sankirtana –the ritual singing,

Read more

Jallikattu

Jallikattu is a bull taming sport played in Tamil Nadu as a part of Pongal celebrations on Mattu Pongal day. It is a Tamil tradition called ‘Yeru thazhuvatha’ in Sangam literature(meaning, to embrace bulls), popular amongst warriors during the Tamil classical period. Jallikattu is based on the concept of “flight or fight”. All castes participate in the event. The majority of jallikattu bulls belong

Read more

Muziris project

Muziris is the largest heritage conservation project in India and is a Kerala government’s initiative involving renovation of ancient places of worship, old markets, forts and the construction of museums. The ancient world’s greatest trading centre in the East, this legendary seaport traded in everything from spices to precious stones with the Greeks, Romans and the rest of the world.

Read more

Benjamin Franklin Quotes

Benjamin Franklin Quotes  They who can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety. An investment in knowledge pays the best interest. Our new Constitution is now established, everything seems to promise it will be durable; but, in this world, nothing is certain except death and taxes. You may delay, but time will

Read more

Rudyard Kipling Quotes

Rudyard Kipling Quotes Words are, of course, the most powerful drug used by mankind. We have forty million reasons for failure, but not a single excuse. A woman’s guess is much more accurate than a man’s certainty. I always prefer to believe the best of everybody, it saves so much trouble. For the strength of the Pack is the Wolf,

Read more

​Che Guevara

​Che Guevara The revolution is not an apple that falls when it is ripe. You have to make it fall. Silence is argument carried out by other means. I know you are here to kill me. Shoot, coward, you are only going to kill a man. If you tremble with indignation at every injustice, then you are a comrade of

Read more

​Fidel Castro – Quotes to support Socialism and Communism 

​Fidel Castro Quotes A revolution is a struggle to the death between the future and the past. They talk about the failure of socialism but where is the success of capitalism in Africa, Asia and Latin America? I find capitalism repugnant. It is filthy, it is gross, it is alienating… because it causes war, hypocrisy and competition. The revolution is

Read more

Why Quit India Movement (August Revolution)is most UnGandhian?

Why Quit India Movement (August Revolution)is most UnGandhian? It was most militant and UnGandhian because of following reasons. Movement was clear rebellion, least controlled and most spontaneous Gandhi allowed use of arms in self-defense Justified armed resistance against stronger and well-equipped aggressor Called for Do or Die Asked not to remain alive to see country in state of bondage of

Read more

Revolutionary Movement in India – Contribution, Source of Influence, Strategy, Achievement

Revolutionary Movement in India Telegram : https://t.me/SimplifiedIAS Contributions Revolutionary term is used for section of Indian Nationalists who believed in “Cult of Bomb”. Difference between Revolutionary and Terrorist Revolutionaries used violence against those whom they considered as exploiters. Terrorist go for indiscriminate use of violence and Killing of innocent people can not be justified. Sources of Influences on Revolutionaries Bankim

Read more