Category Archives: IR

In Focus: Smog @UpscExpress

In Focus: Smog Very simply, smogis a type of air pollution that reduces visibility. The term “smog” was first used in the early 1900s to describe a mix of smoke and fog, when smoke came from burning of fossil fuels like coal in thermal power plants. Sulphurous Smog It is also called “London smog”. It results from a high concentration of sulphur oxidesin the air and is caused

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Distrust towards Chinese interference in Arctic an opportunity for India Editorial 21st Oct’19 FinancialExpress

Headline : Distrust towards Chinese interference in Arctic an opportunity for India Editorial 21st Oct’19 FinancialExpress Details : Significance of Arctic: Arctic is a resource-rich area. With the melting of the sea ice, proposed sea and land routes are strategically emerging in the region. The Arctic Circle (Organization): As the Arctic has suffered from a lack of global awareness and a lack

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For Naya Kashmir Editorial 6th Aug’19 IndianExpress

Headline : For Naya Kashmir Editorial 6th Aug’19 IndianExpress Details : Telegram: https://t.me/UpscExpress Kashmiri leaders also sought progress: Naya Kashmir was a memorandum that Kashmiri leader Sheikh Abdullah submitted to the King of erstwhile Kashmir kingdom Maharaja Hari Singh in 1944. It outlined a plan to convert J&K from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional democracy, called for universal franchise, freedom

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Jammu and Kashmir: Article 370, Article 35(A), Resolutions, Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Bill and all other developments

Headline : J&K loses its special status, divided into two UTs Details : Telegram: https://t.me/UpscExpress The News: In a historic decision, the Indian government has changed the terms of engagement with Jammu and Kashmir by doing away with the special status enjoyed by the state under Article 370, scrapping Article 35A and splitting the state into two UTs of J&K and Ladakh.   Background: Special status to

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International Organisations and Reports: Annual report of the Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict.

Headline : India protests over UN chief’s report Details : In News: The United Nation has recently released its Annual report of the Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict. India is disappointed with the UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres for including in the report situations in India that are neither armed conflicts nor a threat to international security.   About Annual report of

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About Consular access, Vienna Convention on Consular Relations (VCCR)

Headline : Consular access to Kulbhushan Jadhav: What ICJ ordered; Pakistan has ‘offered’ to India Details : In News: Pakistan has offered India consular access to Kulbhushan Jadhav, the India who’s been in jail in Pakistan since 2016. India is “evaluating” the Pakistani proposal which comes with some strict conditions. Background: Kulbhushan Jadhav is a former Indian Navy officer, who was arrested

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Significance of US Federal Reserves rate cut and its impact on India

Headline : Significance of US Federal Reserves rate cut and its impact on India Details : In News: The US Federal Reserve has recently announced a quarter-percentage-point cut in interest rates, the first rate cut by the US central bank in 11 years. About US Federal Reserves rate: The fed funds rate is critical in determining the U.S. economic outlook. It

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India and Pak Relation: In Brief : Cross-LoC trade, Intra Kashmir Trade Report

Headline : Explained: LoC trade, in perspective Details : Context of the topic: Last week, the government of India suspended the cross-LoC trade, alleging misuse of the facility by individuals linked to terrorist groups   Theme of the topic: The topic gives a brief account of information about the History of the cross-LoC trade and its objective.   Historical background of

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Pakistan’s economy and IMF’s help

Headline : Either way, the news is bad Editorial 20th Apr’19 TheHindu Pakistan’s economy in free-fall: Pakistan’s economy is in ruins, with almost every indicator deteriorating substantially. Inflation: Inflation, at 9.4%, is at its highest level in five-and-a-half years and is likely to rise to double digits for the months ahead. Currency depreciation: The Pakistani rupee continues to lose value regularly, which adds

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In Brief: Indo-Pacific wing, Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA), Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (Quad), India and Asean

Headline : External affairs ministry sets up Indo-Pacific wing Details : The News: In a recent move, India has just set up an Indo-Pacific division in the foreign office, which will integrate the Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA), Asean region and the Quad to the Indo-Pacific table.   Background: The US has recently renamed its Pacific Command to the Indo-Pacific Command

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How Election Commission draws manpower for polls, and what disciplinary control it exercises over these officers

Headline : How Election Commission runs poll machinery? Details : Theme: The article analysis how Election Commission draws manpower for polls, and what disciplinary control it exercises over these officers.   Election Commission of India: The Election Commission of India (ECI) is an autonomous constitutional body responsible for administering election processes in India. It was established on January 25, 1950. Elections administrated by

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Everything about UNESCAP’s ‘Ambition beyond Growth’ Report , SDG progress of Asia Pacific, Investment Plan, Policy Interventions to achieve SDG by 2030

Headline : To achieve development goals, Asia-Pacific countries need to spend USD 1.5 tn/yr, says UN report Details : The News UNESCAP’s report ‘ambitions beyond growth’ has projected $1.5trillion as the additional annual cost of meeting the targets set in SDG by 2030 for the countries in the Asia Pacific region.   In focus: UNESCAP’s ‘Ambition beyond Growth’ Report Introduction The

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India and China : Trade- Areas of concern

India’s imports from China decelerating: Report News Context: Recently PHD chamber of Commerce has reported that there has been deceleration of demand for China’s products in India, during the April-January period of 2018-19 financial years. Indo- China Trade China is India’s 3rd largest export destination and largest sources of imports to India. There was a tremendous jump in total trade

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Every about Sino- India Border Dispute

China destroys maps showing ‘wrong’ border The news Chinese Customs officials have destroyed 30,000 world maps printed in the country for not mentioning Arunachal Pradesh and Taiwan as part of its territory. Background China claims the north-eastern Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh as part of South Tibet and persistently objects to Indian leaders visiting Arunachal Pradesh. However, India maintains that

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Headline : Prelims Program: Map- Argentina

Headline : Prelims Program: Map- Argentina Details : Why it is important? Argentina hosted the recent G20 summit in 2018. In Feb 2019, Argentina’s President paid a state visit to India. 2019 is the 70th year of establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries.   Argentina Argentina is located mostly in the southern half of the South America. Argentina derives

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Guatemala drags India to WTO’s dispute mechanism over sugar subsidies

Guatemala drags India to WTO’s dispute mechanism over sugar subsidies Details : The News Guatemala has dragged India into the World Trade Organisation (WTO) dispute settlement mechanism. The dispute has been filed against the domestic support measures maintained by India in favour of producers of sugarcane and sugar, and export subsidies for sugarcane and sugar.   Where is Guatemala? Guatemala

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Economic ties are one of the biggest positive drivers of India-China relationship but the high imbalance of trade in favour of China remains a matter of concern. Discuss along with measures to reduce trade deficit for India. (15 marks)

Economic ties are one of the biggest positive drivers of India-China relationship but the high imbalance of trade in favour of China remains a matter of concern. Discuss along with measures to reduce trade deficit for India. (15 marks) Approach: Introduce with India-China relationship Make a note on facts about trade imbalance Explain the reasons for trade deficit Suggest measures to improve

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India, Russia sign deal on nuclear submarine

Headline : India, Russia sign deal on nuclear submarine Details : In News India and Russia signed an Inter-governmental agreement for leasing of Akula class nuclear-powered submarine Chakra III. The $3-billion deal requires Russia to lease Chakra III to India for at least 10 years starting 2025.   Chakra III:  Akula Class Nuclear-powered submarine Features Chakra III is an Akula-II class advanced nuclear-powered attack

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Prelims Program: Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

Headline : Prelims Program: Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Details : About Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) OPEC is a permanent intergovernmental organization of 14 oil-exporting nations. It coordinates and unifies the petroleum policies of its Member Countries. The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was founded in Baghdad, Iraq, in 1960 by five countries (Founder Members

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U.S. ends waiver for India on Iran oil

Headline : U.S. ends waiver for India on Iran oil Details : The News Recently, the United States has decided not to issue any additional Significant Reduction Exceptions (SREs) to existing importers of Iranian oil.   Background Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) was signed between Iran and the P5, plus Germany and the EU in 2015, which aimed at curbing

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Question : India needs a sound and sustainable policy towards Russia. Suggest measures in this regard.

Question : India needs a sound and sustainable policy towards Russia. Suggest measures in this regard. Answer : Briefly describe India’s relation with Russia According to Nilova Roy Chaudhury, relations with Russia are a key pillar of India’s foreign policy. Under the special and privileged partnership the two countries share, several institutionalized dialogue mechanisms operate at both political and official

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Everything about US shutdown

Onestop IAS: What is a government shutdown? A US government shutdown happens if lawmakers in Congress do not pass enough funding to run government operations and agencies. The federal government shuts down when spending bill lapse and Congress and the President are unable to break the deadlock.The government workforce is placed on an unpaid leave of absence, known as a

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China Myanmar Economic Corridor

China and Myanmar have moved a step closer on negotiating the China-Myanmar economic corridor. This initiative is being given a high priority on account of the stalled Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar (BCIM) connectivity proposal. The negotiations for the formation of the BCIM corridor have virtually been stalled after Beijing went ahead with its plans to establish the China-Pakistan economic corridor. Y- shaped corridor

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Everything about INDIA- SINGAPORE Relations.

INDIA- SINGAPORE RELATIONS • India’s connection with Singapore dates back to the Cholas who are credited with naming the island and establishing a permanent settlement. • The close relationship shared by India and Singapore is based on convergence of economic and political interests. • The process of economic reforms in India since the early 1990s created a strong basis for

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Asian Nature Conservation Foundation:

Asian Nature Conservation Foundation: It was established in 1997 as a charitable trust. It has its headquarters at the Innovation Centre office of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. It is a small group of conservation scientists, planners, information managers and administrators working together to support the conservation of biological diversity in India. It is actively involved in the conservation

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Global Entrepreneurship Summit (GES):

Global Entrepreneurship Summit (GES): It is the preeminent annual entrepreneurship gathering that convenes emerging entrepreneurs, investors and supporters from around the world. It was started by U.S. government in 2010. It serves as a vital link between governments and the private sector, and convenes global participants to showcase projects, network, exchange ideas, and champion new opportunities for investment. Its aims

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Important Commitees

N.K.Singh committee To review the FRBM Act of 2003 Ratan Watal Committee On digital payments Anil Kakodkar Committee On railway safety A.K.Bhargava Net Neutrality Madhukar Gupta committee India Pakistan Border issue Aravind Subramanian Tackle shortage of pulses in India Bibek Debroy committee Railways and privatization of railways Shekatkar committee Defense Shyam Benegal committee Film certification Shankar Acharya committee To pre

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WTO- Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA)

Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA) Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA) envisages faster clearances and reduction of red tapism at the borders and would thereby help in the ease of doing business. TFA is bound to change the Indian trade and would bring more transparency in trade process. after TFA ratification, the world wide best trade practices would be shared among the member

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United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) was established in 1964 as a permanent intergovernmental body. UNCTAD is the principal organ of the United Nations General Assembly dealing with trade, investment, and development issues.  The organization’s goals are to: “maximize the trade, investment and development opportunities of developing countries and assist them in their efforts to integrate into

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UN Secretary General

The charter is vague in defining the duties of the secretary-general, the United Nations’ top official. He or she is expected to show no favoritism to any particular country, but the office is largely dependent on the funding and goodwill of the most powerful nations. The Security Council — notably the P5 — chooses the secretary-general, by secret ballot, to

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World Economic Forum – WEF

It is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva. The forum was founded in 1971 by Klaus Schwab, a German-born business professor at the University of Geneva. Recognized by the Swiss authorities as the international institution for public-private cooperation, its mission is cited as “committed to improving the state of the world by engaging business, political, academic, and other

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BIMSTEC

It is a regional organization comprising seven Member States lying in the littoral and adjacent areas of the Bay of Bengal constituting a contiguous regional unity. This sub-regional organization came into being on 6 June 1997 through the Bangkok Declaration.  The regional group constitutes a bridge between South and South East Asia and represents a reinforcement of relations among these countries.

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East Asia Summit – EAS

East Asia Summit is a unique Leaders-led forum of 18 countries of the Asia-Pacific region formed to further the objectives of regional peace, security and prosperity. It has evolved as a forum for strategic dialogue and cooperation on political, security and economic issues of common regional concern and plays an important role in the regional architecture. Established in 2005, EAS

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G-20

G20 was initiated in 1999 and consists of Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Republic of Korea, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union (EU). Before the outbreak of global financial crisis in 2008, G20 meetings of Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors were held

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Asian Development Bank (ADB)

The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established on 19 December 1966. which is headquartered in Ortigas Center located in Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, Philippines, and maintains. It promote social and economic development in Asia. The bank admits the members of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP, formerly the Economic Commission

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United Nations – UN

The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization that promotes international cooperation and peace building. The United Nations was established after the end of WWII on the 24th of October 1945 in order to prevent a similar global conflict from ever reoccurring. The United Nations replaced the ineffective League of Nations, which was created after the end of WWI. The United

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