Category Archives: Mains Answers

Explained: The Reclining Buddha and his various other depictions in art

In News: On Wednesday, May 26 — Buddha Jayanti, Buddha Purnima, or Vesak — India’s largest statue of the Reclining Buddha was to have been installed at the Buddha International Welfare Mission temple in Bodh Gaya, Bihar. The ceremony has been postponed due to Covid-19 restrictions. About the Reclining Buddha: A reclining Buddha is an image that represents Buddha lying

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Q. In spite of having several achievements, the green revolution has several defects. Examine

Model Answer The Green Revolution in India began in the mid-1960s marking a transition from traditional agriculture in India and the introduction of high-yielding varieties of seeds and the associated agricultural techniques. The Main achievements of the Green Revolution are: Increase in Agricultural Production and productivity: The production and productivity of wheat, rice, maize and bajra has substantially increased. Less Dependence

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Q. Forest Fires pose a threat not only to the forest wealth but also to the entire regime. In view of this statement discuss the various adverse impacts of Forest Fires.

Model Answer Fires are a major cause of forest degradation and have wide ranging adverse ecological, economic and social impacts including: Effects of forest fire: Loss of valuable timber resources: Forest fires cause indispensable loss to timber and deteriorate its quality. Valuable timber species like teak, sal, chir, deodar, sheesam, rosewood etc. are adversely affected by fire. However, the adhesive impact

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Q. “Artificial intelligence is going to change every industry, but we have to understand its limits”. In light of this, discuss the benefits and challenges associated with AI in Indian context.

Model Answer Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the ability of machines to learn and reason through analogy, analyze, interpret information, recognize speech, visual perception and take decisions. In other words, AI is application of human intelligence by the machines. Benefits of AI Contribution to Economy: The NITI Aayog estimates that AI could potentially give 15% boost to the gross value added (GVA)

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Q. What is Budget Transparency? Scratching its genesis, discuss the benefits associated with budget transparency as well as the ways through which it can be promoted in functioning of a government?

Model Answer Budgets are key documents since they lay out a government’s priorities in terms of policies and programs. Opening up budgets and democratizing the budget process gives citizens a say in policy formulation and resource allocation. Budget transparency refers to the extent and ease with which citizens can access information about and provide feedback on government revenues, allocations, and

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Q. If Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) wants to remain as relevant and look toward a new phase of Asia-Pacific economic integration, it must include India as its member. Comment.

Model Answer APEC was established in 1989 as an intergovernmental platform for 21 Pacific Rim member economies to promote free-trade in the region. The grouping is facing the heat of unilateralism and protectionism. Competition and divergence in the form of US-China tensions was on full display at the 2018 APEC summit As a result, a debate pertaining to the question of the forum’s

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Q. Comment upon the role of women in the Indian freedom struggle. How did the arrival of Gandhiji affect their participation in the political sphere?

Model Answer Indian freedom struggle was not only a political agitation for freedom but also an inclusive movement that included various sections of the society. The process of inclusion only intensified with the multidimensional role of women with renewed vigour after the arrival of Mahatma Gandhi. Role of Women in Indian Freedom Struggle – Earliest examples – Right from the revolt

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Globalization has proved to be double-edged sword for women workers by simultaneously creating opportunities as well as new set of challenges. Discuss. (15 marks)

Approach:   Introduce with globalization List the multifaceted opportunities craeted for working women as a result of globalization. Mention the new challenges as well the women workers had to face. Conclude with measures to overcome the challenges Model Answer Globalization is the process of the cultural, social and economic integration of a country with the rest of the world through

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Q. Discuss the mechanism of volcano formation and eruption. Also mention the distribution of volcano around the world.

Model Answer Structure of the answer: Meaning of volcano Mechanism and causes for its formation Distribution of volcano (with the help of data) Conclusion Volcanos or vulcanism comprises of all phenomena connected with movement of heated material from interior/mantle towards the earth surface. The volcano may be “active volcano” like Mount Etna or “dormant volcano” like Mount Vesuvius or Extinct volcano that have no indication of future eruption. Volcanos are

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Q. India is a “indestructible union of destructible state”. Explain this statement in light of the reorganization of the state under Article 3 of the Constitution.

Structure of the answer: Introduction (India being indestructible but State destructible) Background Reorganization of the state under Article 3 Final analysis Model Answer India has been called as “indestructible union” by Dr.B.R. Ambedkar as no Indian state can secede from the Indian union as in the case of confederation or loosely held federation. But on the other hand there is situation of destructible nature of

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Q. Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) has become a major savior for the banking sector. In this light discuss the impact of new Code on loan recovery and also suggest remedial measures for better implementation of the Code.

Structure of the answer: Background Introduction (about IBC) Positive impact of IBC Lacunas Suggestion and way forward Model Answer Before the passing of IBC it took an average of 4.3 years to resolve insolvency and recovery rate was 25.9% as compared to developed countries where recovery rate was 72%. The salient features are: Consolidation of various laws on insolvency. The resolution process has to be

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Q. Since the Press was a powerful weapon in the development of Indian Nationalism, it was subjected to restrictions by the British Government. In this regard, discuss the major regulations enacted by the British rulers to curb the freedom of Press in India.

Model Answer The press was fiercely involved in rallying the masses and newspapers acted as the life breath of nationalistic rebellion. Inevitably, the British government became increasingly apprehensive and several acts were passed to curb the freedom of press. Major regulations enacted by the British rulers were:  The Press Act of 1799: It imposed war time press restrictions.  Which included pre-censorship,

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Q. Foreign direct investment (FDI) is a like double edged sword. In this light discuss the positive and negative impact of FDI in India. Also suggest suitable measures to improve FDI in India.

Structure of the answer: Introduction (using data) Positive impact of FDI Negative impact of FDI Measures to increase FDI in India Model Answer FDI is an investment made by a firm or an individual into business interest located in other countries. Unlike, portfolio investment the investor in FDI acquire foreign business asset, ownership or controlling interest in foreign company. FDI equity inflow

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Q. What are the different types of ecological succession? In this light also discuss the significance of ecological succession?

Structure of the answer: Introduction Types of ecological succession Significance of ecological succession Way forward Model Answer Ecological succession is the steady and gradual change in a species of a given area with respect to the changing environment. The ultimate aim of this process is to reach equilibrium in the ecosystem. The community that achieves this aim is called a climax community. Further, in

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Q. Regionalism in India is a result of various interconnected factors. In this light discuss the various types regionalism in India and also suggest suitable measures to curtail negative impact of regionalism.

Structure of the answer: Introduction (regionalism) Factors responsible for regionalism Types of regionalism Conclusion/ way forward Model Answer Regionalism is a strong attachment to one’s own region. Thus, it is an ideology that seek to advance cause of a region. The rise of regionalism in India is a result of various factors: Historically, formation of various regional kingdoms and frequent regional wars

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Q. Discuss the various features of tropical cyclones. While mentioning the factors contributing in formation of tropical cyclone differentiate them from extra-tropical cyclones.

Structure of the answer: Introduction Features of tropical cyclone Factors contributing in formation of cyclones Difference between tropical and extra tropical cyclones Conclusion Model Answer Cyclone is an intense vortex or a whirl in the atmosphere with very strong winds circulating around it in anti-clockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere and in clockwise direction in the Southern Hemisphere.  For Ex- Cyclone Titli Some of the special characteristics of

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Q. Oceans are the major sources for multiple living and non-living resources that are useful for the growth of blue economy. In this light discuss the concept of Blue economy and its importance for India.

Structure of the answer: Introduction (Blue economy) Ocean as the source for various resources Importance of blue economy Final analysis Model Answer The concept of blue economy was given by Gunter Pauli. It is the sustainable use of ocean resources for economic growth, improved livelihoods and jobs and ocean ecosystem health. Thus, it advocates the greening of ocean development for purposes of higher

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Q. The amendment procedure under Indian Constitution is a curious mixture of rigidity and flexibility. In this light discuss the different procedure for amendment reflecting such blend.

Structure of the answer:    Introduction (Article 368) Different types of amendment process Reflection of rigidity and flexibility Way forward Model Answer The nature of the amending process envisaged by the makers of our Constitution has been explained by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru as reconciliation of a written Constitution with Parliamentary Sovereignty. Article 368 (Part XX) of the Constitution deals with the power of Parliament to

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Q. World trade organisation (WTO) as a multilateral body is facing challenges on various counts. In this light discuss the relevance of WTO and also suggest suitable reform in its functioning.

Structure of the answer: Introduction (about WTO) Challenges faced by WTO Relevance of WTO Reform in functioning of WTO Model Answer WTO was set up under Marrakesh Treaty (1994) and as an organization aim to improve living standards, generate employment, and expand global trade. However, in recent years WTO is facing challenges on various counts such as: Consensus based rule making has become a

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Q. The town planning in Harappan Civilisation shows the high level of sophistication. In this light discuss the significant features of Harappan town planning. Also mention the various theories in relation to decline of the Civilisation.

Structure of the answer: Introduction Significant features High level of sophistication Decline of Harappan civilisation Model Answer The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC), also known as Harappan Civilization flourished around 2,500 BC in the western part of South Asia. The Harappan culture was distinguished by its system of town planning. Significant features of the Harappan town planning are as follows: Division of city into the Citadel e. mound built

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Q. The British rule has been often been described as the reason for drain of Indian wealth to Britain. In this light discuss constituent of economic drain and consequences of the same.

Structure of the answer: Introduction (drain of wealth) Estimate of drain of wealth Constituent of economic drain Consequences Final analysis Model Answer The constant flow of wealth from India to England for which India did not get an adequate economic, commercial or material return has been described as drain of wealth from India. Dadabhai Naoroji gave ‘drain of wealth theory’ in his book ‘Poverty

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Q. The British rule was marked by various Peasants movement. In this background discuss the impact of these movement on freedom struggle.

Structure of the answer: Introduction Various peasant movement in British era Impact of peasant movement on freedom struggle Conclusion Model Answer Peasant movement in India arose due to Britishers economic policies that resulted in the change of ownership of agrarian land, massive debt burden and impoverishment of peasantry. Thus, the peasants rose in revolt against this injustice on many occasions. Some of

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Q. India is currently facing the issue of rising tsunami of e-waste. In this light discuss the challenges being posed by increasing e-waste and also suggest the suitable measures to tackle these challenges.

Structure of the answer: Introduction Rise of e-waste and issues relating to it Challenges posed by it Measures to handle such an issue Final analysis Model Answer Electronic waste/ e-waste is a term used for electronic products that have become unwanted, obsolete and have reached the end of their useful life. India generates near about 2 million metric tonne of e-waste annually and

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Q. In recent years there has been number of farmer protest around India demanding increase in Minimum support price (MSP). In this light discuss the effectiveness of MSP and need for replacing it with Price deficiency payment system.

Structure of the answer: Introduction Deficiencies in the MSP system Importance of price deficiency payment system Final analysis Model Answer MSP is the base price set by the Government and whenever the market prices fall below the announced MSPs, procurement agencies step in to procure the crop at the support price. In India, the MSP are recommended by the Commission for Agricultural Cost and

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Q. Explain how the American War of Independence had transformed the Europe and other parts of the world?

Model Answer The American Revolution of 1776 had transformed not only the America but also the Europe and other parts of the world. Its direct and indirect influences were felt worldwide in the time to come. The impact of the American Revolution was as follows: Ideological impact: The ideas of liberty, equality, fraternity were popularized all over the world as a result

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Q. Recent international trend has been averse to the use of nuclear energy. In this light, discuss the reason inhibiting use of nuclear use energy. Also bring out the positive externalities arising from use of nuclear energy.

Structure of the answer:   Introduction Reason for averseness to the use of nuclear energy Positive things in relation to use of nuclear energy Conclusion Model Answer Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam described nuclear power as a gateway to a prosperous future.  However, World Nuclear Association has reported that nuclear electricity generation in 2017 was at its lowest level since 1999. Even, Germany has decided to close

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Q. What do you understand by Emotional Intelligence(EI)? Highlight its significance, discuss the ways to develop EI among civil servants.

Approach: Explain the concept of Emotional Intelligence(EI) and discuss its components Highlight the significance and importance of EI for civil servants. Discuss the ways to develop EI among civil servants. Model Answer Emotional Intelligence (EI) refers to the capability of a person to recognize, understand and manage own emotions, as well as to understand, manage and influence emotions of others.

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Q. In the context of the world history, discuss the achievements of the Bolshevik Revolution of Russia.

Model Answer The Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 were the two phases of a single revolution where due to the prevailing widespread discontent, Lenin overthrew Kerensky’s government with the help of his revolutionary Red Guard on the night of 6th and 7th November 1917 and declared Russia as a communist nation. Other significant achievements of the Bolshevik revolution are as follows:

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Q. Government has promised to double farmer’s income by 2022, in this light discuss the measures taken by government to implement the same. Also suggest suitable strategies to timely and sustainable achievement of this target.

Structure of the answer:    Introduction Measures taken by government Suggestion Way forward Model Answer The government has set a target of doubling farmers’ income by 2022 to overcome the distressed situation of agriculture. The situation was evident after large scale farmer’s protest in various parts of India. The reorientation of strategy was needed due to following reasons: Earlier strategy focused primarily

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Q. Reform movements in religion were largely responsible for social reform movements in India. In this context, discuss the contribution of various socio-cultural reformers in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Approach: Briefly discuss about the social reform movements in India. Discuss the contribution of various socio-cultural reformers in the 19th and 20th centuries. Model Answer Indian Society in the 19th century was caught in a vicious web created by religious superstitions and dogmas. All religions in general and Hinduism in particular had become a compound of magic, animism, and superstitions.

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Q. India has moved forward by providing fundamental rights of basic education through Right to Education (RTE) Act 2009. Analyse the challenges faced at primary level of Education in India. Also discuss the major reforms suggested at primary level in the recent draft education policy 2019.

Approach: Briefly write about Right to Education (RTE) Act 2009 and its current status. Discuss the challenges faced at primary level of Education in India. Discuss the major reforms suggested at primary level in the recent draft education policy 2019. Model Answer With 86th amendment, education was made fundamental rights of the citizen under Article 21(a). Right to education act 2009

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Q. The Government of India, through the Department of Science and Technology (DST), has released a draft of the new Scientific Social Responsibility (SSR) Policy. Discuss the objective of introducing SSR Policy and the benefits associated with it.

Model Answer India is going to be possibly the first country in the world to implement a SSR Policy on the lines of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Under the proposed policy, individual scientists or knowledge workers will be required to devote at least 10 person-days of SSR per year for exchanging scientific knowledge to society. Objectives The main objective of

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Q. “Upper House of the Indian Parliament has lost its relevance in contemporary times”. Comment.

Model Answer India adopted federal form of governance where the states are represented through the Upper House. Except Money Bills, Upper House plays an important role in the law making process in the country. It also plays the role of counsel to states; however, some experts are of the view that this House should be abolished as it is not serving

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Q. Civil Servant occupy important position in the government in terms of dealing with large amount of public funds and their decisions have wide repercussions. Thus there is a need for creating ethical competent Civil Servants. In this light, suggest ways to promote ethical competence among Civil Servants.

Structure of the answer: Introduction Justifying the statement Steps to improve ethical competence among civil servant Conclusion Model Answer With great power comes great responsibility. Civil servants have to ensure proper utilisation, appropriation and allocation of funds. The decisions undertaken by the Civil Servant impact large number of individuals and society as a whole. Moreover, it also has an impact on

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Q. Describe briefly the features of bronze sculpture art that reached its zenith during the Chola era.

Approach: Introduce the Chola bronze art – why it is considered as the high stage of development Divide the answer into subparts – patronage, religious purpose, technology, and iconography Also mention various examples to substantiate the points Within the subparts, try to trace the chronological development. Model Answer The Chola period is well known for the aesthetic and technical finesse

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Q. The large-scale occurrence of floods is a result of multitude of factors. In this background discuss the causes of floods and steps to minimise the vulnerability to floods.

Structure of the answer: Introduction Causes of floods Steps to mitigate vulnerability Conclusion Model Answer Flood is a state of higher water level along a river channel or on coast leading to inundation of land that is not normally submerge. In India, 40 million hectares out of a geographical area of 3290 lakh hectares is prone to floods. Moreover, every year, 1600 lives are lost

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Q. What was the immediate trigger of the World War-I? What were the reasons for the breakout of the war? Comment

Model Answer World War-I has its roots in the assassination of a prince. On 28 June 1914, Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary was assassinated by a Serbian terrorist at Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia. Austria saw the hands of Serbia behind this and served Serbia an ultimatum. Serbia refused to accept one of the demands

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Q. The Citizen’s Charter is an ideal instrument of organisational transparency and accountability. Identify the importance and components of Citizen’s Charter. Tracing out its limitations, suggest measures for its greater effectiveness.

Approach: Start introduction mentioning the challenges in public service delivery. Define Citizen’s Charter stating its importance and it components. Discuss the limitation in implementation of Citizen’s Charter. Discuss the measures to ensure its effective implementation. Model Answer The public service delivery of India faced a problem of bureaucratic corruption and delays. The government functioned in a very opaque and unaccountable manner. There existed a

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Q. To resolve the issue of unemployment, there is a need for multi-prong approach. In this light discuss the steps needed to resolve this long-standing issue and also mention the measures taken by the government in this regard.

Structure of the answer: Introduction Steps needed for unemployment Steps taken by the government Way forward Model Answer Unemployment is a situation where person is capable of working both physically and mentally at the existing wage rate, but does not get a job to work. As per the recent statistics unemployment rate in India rose to 7.2% in 2019.  Unemployment represent itself

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Q. Discuss the difference between Himalayas and Peninsular drainage system. Also put forth importance of the river system in India.

Structure of the answer: Introduction Difference between Himalayan and Peninsular river system Importance of river system in India Conclusion Model Answer Rivers are considered as the lifelines of a country as they provide the most valuable thing for the survival i.e. water. The rivers in India can be broadly categorized into two different categories based on their origin: the Himalayan Rivers and the Peninsular

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Q. The reason for malnutrition/ hunger are multidimensional. In this light, discuss the factors contributing to malnutrition and also suggest suitable measures to improve malnutrition in India.

Structure of the answer:    Introduction Causes of malnutrition in India Measures to overcome Conclusion Model Answer Malnutrition is a physical state that includes undernutrition (wasting, stunting, underweight), inadequate vitamins or minerals, overweight, obesity, and resulting diet-related non-communicable diseases. As per Reports 31.4% of children are malnourished. The factors contributing to malnutrition are as follows: Despite increase in food grain production access to rice, wheat

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Q. The Britishers formed Indian National Congress (INC) to act as a safety valve. However, the Indians used the forum as a lightning conductor much to the whammy of Britishers. In this light the purpose behind formation of INC and the intention of Indians in respect of the same.

Structure of the answer: Introduction Safety valve theory/ Britisher’s intention on formation of INC Use of INC by Indians for propagating nationalist interest Conclusion Model Answer There is wide spread belief that reason behind the formation of INC was safety valve theory i.e. Britishers wanted to pacify the raising discontent among Indian masses through INC. The discontent among Indians was due to issues like

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Q. Discuss the difference between the code of ethics and the code of conduct.

Approach: Briefly discuss about the code of ethics and the code of conduct. Differentiate between the given terms. Substantiate your answer with relevant examples. Model Answer Code of ethics and code of conduct specify the ethical standards that a group (e.g., staff or a professional group) should follow in order to continue as a member of the group. They are

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Q. What do you mean by climate forcing? Explain the factors that causes the Earth’s climate to change.

Approach: Explain the meaning of climate forcing  and related phenomenon with relevant examples. Discuss various natural and anthropogenic causes of climate change. Conclude the answer, as per the context. Model Answer Any external factor that originates from outside the climate system and can become a cause of climate change is called Climate Forcing. These factors are specifically known as forcings

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Q. Discuss the relevance of the Legislative Councils in the States in the backdrop of recent demand of certain states to create the second house?

Approach: Briefly write about the constitutional process of formation of Legislative Council. Discuss both the arguments: favour and against the existence of Legislative council. Write the final conclusion mentioning what should be the way forward. Model Answer Legislative councils of state are created under Article 169 of the Constitution. Parliament may by law create or abolish the second chamber in a state if

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Q. The suburbanisation occurring at a relatively early stage of India’s urban development is creating new challenges for Indian cities. Enumerate the reasons and suggest remedies.

Approach: Brief introduction about suburbanisation phenomenon in most urbanising countries. Enumerating the reasons why it is occurring at a relatively early stage of India’s urban development. Highlight the challenges it is creating for Indian cities and suggest ways forward. Model Answer A 2013 World Bank report, “Urbanization beyond Municipal Boundaries”, found that suburban areas (or Suburbs) are generating higher economic

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Q. Post- Independence, integration and unification of India demonstrated to be a long process plagued with challenges. In this context, examine the early challenges that India faced as a newly independent country.

Approach: Write about the prevailing conditions after independence in the introduction. Mention how it created challenges for India- both external and internal. Conclude by mentioning India’s democratic credentials which helped India to survive as a nation. Model Answer 15th August 1947 marked the end of colonial rule in India and the country found itself standing on the threshold of a

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August Week-4, Q&A and CA

1) What is the economics behind e-vehicle batteries? https://upscexpress.com/2019/09/01/what-is-the-economics-behind-e-vehicle-batteries/ 2) Who are the 19 lakh excluded from Assam NRC, and what next for them? https://upscexpress.com/2019/09/01/who-are-the-19-lakh-excluded-from-assam-nrc-and-what-next-for-them/ 3)Science for disaster management Editorial 31st Aug’19 TimesOfIndia https://upscexpress.com/2019/09/01/science-for-disaster-management-editorial-31st-aug19-timesofindia/ 4)hat advantages does 3D printing have over traditional methods of manufacturing? What are its potential applications? https://upscexpress.com/2019/09/01/what-advantages-does-3d-printing-have-over-traditional-methods-of-manufacturing-what-are-its-potential-applications-15-marks/ 5)What are the major problems of agricultural marketing in

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Why the attack in Gadchiroli is significant?

Headline : Why the attack in Gadchiroli is significant? Details : The News The Maoist attack in Maharashtra’s Gadchiroli district led to the death of 15 Police personnel.   Background This attack in Gadchiroli is another significant event in the long history of Maoist violencein Gadchiroli, where the naxal movement began in 1980. This district has been the hot-bed of naxal

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Border management is a complex task due to difficult terrain and long and porous borders with some countries. Elucidate the challenges and strategies for effective management of India-Bangladesh border. (15 marks)

Border management is a complex task due to difficult terrain and long and porous borders with some countries. Elucidate the challenges and strategies for effective management of India-Bangladesh border. (15 marks) Approach Introduce with the India-Bangladesh border Enumerate various issues along the border List steps taken by Government to address them – make sure to highlight the recent CIBMS and BOLD-QIT

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What  do you understand by the term ‘sustainable agriculture’? Suggest strategies to make agriculture in India sustainable. (10 marks)

What  do you understand by the term ‘sustainable agriculture’? Suggest strategies to make agriculture in India sustainable. (10 marks) Approach: Introduce explaining about sustainable agriculture Suggest various strategies like appropriate production systems, ZBNF etc. Conclude appropriately Model Answer : Sustainable agriculture is that form of agriculture which attempts to produce sufficient food to meet the needs of the present without

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Steps to Tackle Maoism

Proactive policing Security forces are no longer reactive. Example of Gariaband region in Chhattisgarh: When the Maoists decided to deepen their roots into Gariaband, the State government notified this division as a new district (in 2012). This gave a fillip to development work. Many new police stations and security camps were set up to prevent any major Maoist attack. The cadre

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What are the various forms in which gender based violence manifests. Discuss the causes that lead to it. Do you agree that it remains biggest impediment to the advancement of women in India?

Approach: ● Introduce with what gender violence is ● Talk about various forms of violence – preferably under different categories ● Talk about the causes – can break it into various categories. ● Discuss aspects of women development that get affected by gender violence ● Conclude by summarizing and giving brief suggestions to end gender violence. Answer: Gender based violence

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Effects of Globalization on Indian Culture and Society

Effects of Globalization on Indian Culture Globalisation has affected what we eat and the way we prepare food (Mcdonaldization), what we wear , purchase etc( Walmartization). There is trend toward homogenization of culture with similar food habits, dressing pattern, music, news , TV programs, movies etc. However, there is also increasing tendency toward Glocalization of Culture. Glocalization refers to mixing

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Everything about Aerial Refueling

Air to air refuelling It is also known as Aerial refuelling, air refuelling, in-flight refuelling and tanking. It is the process of transferring aviation fuel from one military aircraft to another during flight. During air-to-air refuelling, both aircraft must maintain accurate flying parameters. The two main refuelling systems are: Probe-and-drogue: It requires exceptional flying skills as the receiving aircraft has to

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Question on Growth of Naxalism

“Being the centers of concentration of the industrial proletariat, urban areas play an important part within the political strategy of the new Democratic Revolution”. Examine this statement in the light of rising Maoist activity in the urban areas and why is it essential to keep a close watch on Maoist activities in towns and cities? Approach:  Introduce the first

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Internal Security of India

Internal security is the security of country within its borders. Maintenance of peace and law and order. Upholding sovereignty of country within its borders. Responsibility of Police and state government and Ministry of Home affairs. External Security is security against aggression by a foreign country. Responsibility of armed forces and Ministry of Defense . Four Kinds of threats to any state as

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