Category Archives: Political Science

About: Central Vigilance Commission (CVC)

About: Central Vigilance Commission (CVC)

  • The Central Vigilance Commission was setup by a Government Resolution in 1964, to advise and guide Central Government agencies in the field of vigilance.
  • The Commission was given the status of independent statutory authority through the Central Vigilance Commission Act, 2003.
  • As the apex integrity institution, the Commission is mandated to fight corruption and to ensure integrity in public administration.
  • It has the status of an autonomous body, free of control from any executive authority, charged with monitoring all vigilance activity under the Central Government.


  • To promote integrity in the governance processes by:
    • Creation of a credible deterrence against corruption through enforcement of anti-corruption laws and regulations.
    • Undertaking effective preventive measures to minimize the scope of corruption.
    • Raising public awareness to inculcate ethical values and reduce society’s tolerance towards corruption.

Members of CVC:

  • The CVC is headed by a Central Vigilance Commissioner, who is assisted by two Vigilance Commissioners.
  • They are appointed by the President, on the recommendation of a three member committee.
  • The three-member committee consists of the Prime Minister as its head, The Union Minister of Home Affairs and the Leader of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha.
  • After their tenure, they are not eligible for further appointment under the Central or State government.

Functions of CVC:

  • To inquire or cause an investigation to be made on a reference by the Central Government. The CVC has the powers of a Civil court while conducting any inquiry.
  • Advice the Central Government and its organizations on matters referred to it by them.
  • Exercise superintendence over the vigilance administrations of the various Central Government Ministries, Departments and Organizations of the Central Government.
  • Exercise superintendence over the functioning of the Delhi Special Police Establishment (Central Bureau of Investigation) related to:
    • The investigation of offences under the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988.
    • An offence under the Code of Criminal Procedure for certain categories of public servants.

  • Review the progress of investigations conducted by the DSPE.

Jurisdiction of CVC:

  • Members of All India Service serving in connection with the affairs of the Union and Group A officers of the Central Government.
  • Officers of the rank of Scale V and above in the Public Sector Banks.
  • Officers in Grade D and above in Reserve Bank of India, NABARD and SIDBI.
  • Chief Executives and Executives on the Board and other officers in Schedule ‘A’, ‘B’, ‘C’ and ‘D’ Public Sector Undertakings.
  • Managers and above in General Insurance Companies.
  • Senior Divisional Managers and above in Life Insurance Corporations.

 Polity & Governance

How Supreme Court chooses the Chief Justice of India

How Supreme Court chooses the Chief Justice of India

Why is it in News? 

Chief Justice of India Sharad A. Bobde has recommended Justice N.V. Ramana, the senior-most judge of the Supreme Court, as the next top judge. Justice Ramana is now set to take over as the 48th Chief Justice of India from April 24.

How is CJI Appointed? 

  • The Chief Justice of India is traditionally appointed by the outgoing Chief Justice of India on the day of his (or her) retirement.
  • By convention, the outgoing Chief Justice of India selects the most senior then-sitting Supreme Court judge.

How is Seniority determined?

Seniority at the apex court is determined not by age, but by:

  1. The date a judge was appointed to the Supreme Court.
  2. If two judges are elevated to the Supreme Court on the same day:
  • The one who was sworn in first as a judge would be senior to another.
  • If both were sworn in as judges on the same day, the one with more years of high court service would ‘win’ in the seniority stakes.
  1. An appointment from the bench would ‘higher ’ in seniority an appointee from the bar.

Is it a part of the Constitution?

The Constitution of India does not have any provision for criteria and procedure for appointing the CJI. Article 124(1) of the Indian Constitution says there “shall be a Supreme Court of India consisting of a Chief Justice of India”.

  • The closest mention is in Article 126, which deals with the appointment of an acting CJI.
  1. In the absence of a constitutional provision, the procedure relies on custom and convention.

What is the procedure?

The procedure to appoint the next CJI is laid out in the Memorandum of Procedure (MoP) between the government and the judiciary:

  1. The procedure is initiated by the Law Minister seeking the recommendation of the outgoing CJI at the ‘appropriate time’, which is near to the date of retirement of the incumbent CJI.
  2. The CJI sends his recommendation to the Law Ministry; and in the case of any doubt , the CJI can consult the collegium regarding the fitness of an SC judge to be elevated to the post.
  3. After receiving recommendation from the CJI, the law minister forwards it to the Prime Minister who then advises the President on the same.
  4. The President administers the oath of office to the new CJI.

What is the difference between Appointment of the CJI and the appointment of SC judges?

Key difference:

In the former, the government cannot send the recommendation of the CJI (or the collegium) back to them for reconsideration; while in the latter, the government can do so. However, if the collegium reiterates those names, then the government cannot object any further

Who are the 19 lakh excluded from Assam NRC, and what next for them?

Headline : Who are the 19 lakh excluded from Assam NRC, and what next for them?

Details :

In News:

  • The recently published final list of people in updated National Register of Citizen (NRC) has stripped nearly 19 lakh people in the north-eastern state of Assam of their citizenship.

About: NRC

  • The NRC for a state is the list of Indian citizens of that state.
  • It was created in 1951 to determine who was born in Assam and is therefore Indian, and who might be a migrant from neighbouring Bangladesh.
  • It is a list of people who can prove that they came to Assam before 24 March 1971, a day before India’s neighbouring country Bangladesh declared independence from Pakistan.
  • Objective: to control unabated migration from Bangladesh.
  • The Register is meant to establish the credentials of a bona fide citizen as distinguished from a foreigner.
  • Assam is the country’s only state to create such a document.
  • The NRC has been updated for the first time.

Background of the NRC updation:

  • The NRC updating exercise started in 2013 under the Supreme court’s watch.
  • The process of NRC update in Assam differs from the rest of the country and is governed by Rule 4A and the corresponding Schedule of the Citizenship (Registration of Citizens and Issue of National Identity Cards) Rules, 2003.
  • These rules were framed as per the cut-off date of the midnight of March 24, 1971, enshrined in the Assam Accord of 1985.
  • First draft of Assam NRC:
    • In accordance with the top court’s direction, the Registrar-General of India published the list on the night of 31-December-2017 to distinguish Indian citizens living in Assam from those who illegally entered the State.
    • Names of 1.9 crore people out of the 3.29 crore applicants were incorporated then.
  • Second draft:
    • In July 2018, a draft was published in which 2.89 crore residents were included as Indian citizens, while 40 lakh were left out.
    • Those who were left out were allowed to file claims for inclusion and citizens could object against anyone who they felt was wrongly included.
  • Excluded in additional list:
    • In June 2019, another 1 lakh, originally among the 2.89 crore included in that draft, were removed after subsequent verification.
  • Claims filed against exclusions:
    • As many as 36 lakh of those excluded filed claims against the exclusion, while four lakh residents did not apply.
  • Final NRC:
    • The latest NRC is the result of all those included and excluded.

What will happen to those 19 lakh people excluded from the NRC?

  • The excluded people will have to appeal against it at Foreigners’ Tribunals (FT), a quasi-judicial court and subsequently in the high court or Supreme Court.
  • The government has given 120 days time to appeal in the court.
  • Those excluded from NRC will have to prove that they or their ancestors were living in Assam on or before March 24, 1971.
  • Various other documents such as birth certificates and land records are admissible, as long as these were issued before the cutoff date.
  • However, if a person looses to prove his/her identity in Foreigners’ Tribunal as well as in higher courts, he or she will face a possible arrest and can be sent to a detention centre (However, the prospects sending a large number of people to detention centres is low).
  • If not deported or detained in a camp, such people would officially be entitled as non-citizens.

Foreigners Tribunal: Foreigners Tribunal (FT) was set up in Assam in 1964 through the Foreigners Tribunal Order 1964. The tribunals have been mandated with identifying the legal status of suspected foreigners in Assam.

Key Challenge:

  • The courts , limited in numbers, will be burdened and get exhaustive as the appeal period is short and cases are far too many which may further clog the process.

What makes deportation so uncertain?

  • For a country to be able to deport a mass of individuals to another country, the second country has to accept that they were its citizens who entered the first country illegally.
  • However, Bangladesh has never officially acknowledged that any of its citizens migrated illegally to Assam.
  • Besides, India has no treaty with Bangladesh that would facilitate their deportation.
  • Also, there have been no visible recent efforts by India to push the matter with Bangladesh.

India’s Policy for “stateless” persons:

  • India has no fixed policy for “stateless” persons.
  • The only aspect which is clear is that “stateless” person will not have voting rights.
  • As of now, nothing is clear about their rights to work, housing and government healthcare and education.
  • In India, being “stateless” is not the same as being a refugee.

Refugees in India:

  • India has refugees from Tibet, Sri Lanka (Tamils) and West Pakistan.
  • Among them, only the refugees from West Pakistan has the right to vote in Lok Sabha elections but not in Assembly polls.
  • For Tibetans, the government allows Indian citizenship with a rider that they move out of Tibetan settlements and forgo refugee benefits.
  • Under the Tibetan Rehabilitation Policy, 2014, adopted in part by a few states, refugees are eligible for certain benefits under government schemes for labour, rations, housing and loans.

Road ahead: Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2019

  • The Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2019 provided for granting citizenship to immigrants of six non-Muslim faiths from three countries, including Bangladesh.
  • However, the Bill lapsed, but is expected to be reintroduced.
  • If the Bill passes Parliament, Hindus from Bangladesh would be eligible for citizenship, even if detected as illegal immigrants, while Muslims who illegally entered from Bangladesh would be treated as illegal immigrants.
  • The Bill has faced protests in Assam on the ground that it runs contrary to the NRC’s objective, which is to detect all illegal immigrants.
  • Whatever the fate of the Bill, a very long battle awaits those who are excluded from the NRC but claim to be Indian citizens.

About: Assam Accord, 1985

  • Assam witnessed a range of law and order problems and political turbulence driven by the anti-foreigners movement, in the early 1980s.
  • The Assam Accord (1985) was a Memorandum of Settlement (MoS) signed, signed by the Centre and the All Assam Students’ Union (AASU).
  • Accordingly, those foreigners who had entered Assam between 1951 and 1961 were to be given full citizenship, including the right to vote while the entrants between 1961 and 1971were to be denied voting rights for ten years but would enjoy all other rights of citizenship.
  • In addition to economic development, the Accord also had assured to safeguards the cultural, social, and linguistic identity and heritage of the Assamese people.

Section : Polity & Governance

Can Pakistan get the ICJ to undo India’s decision on J&K’s special status?

Headline : Can Pakistan get the ICJ to undo India’s decision on J&K’s special status?

Details :

In News:

  • Pakistan has decided to approach the International Court of Justice (ICJ) over the recent revocation of Jammu and Kashmir’s special status by India.


Theme of the topic: The topic analysis the ICJ’s Jurisdiction over the Jammu and Kashmir case

About/; International Court of Justice (ICJ)

  • The International Court of Justice (ICJ) is the main judicial organ of the United Nations (UN), established in 1945, after World War II to resolve international disputes.
  • The seat of the Court is in The Hague (Netherlands).
  • Of the six principal organs of the United Nations, it is the only one not located in New York(USA).
  • The Court’s role is to settle, the cases in accordance with international law, legal disputes submitted to it by States.
  • It gives advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it, but is not a criminal court.
  • Composition: The Court is composed of 15 judges, who are elected for terms of office of nine years by the United Nations General Assembly and the Security Council.
  • Official Languages: English and French

Note: Only countries are eligible to appear before the ICJ, and  individuals, non-governmental organisations, corporations or any other private entities are not eligible .

ICJ’s jurisdiction:

  • The nature of the ICJ’s jurisdiction is twofold:
    • Jurisdiction in contentious Cases: Contentious jurisdiction involves States that submit the dispute by consent to the Court for a binding decision. It decides, in accordance with international law, disputes of a legal nature that are submitted to it by States.
    • Advisory Jurisdiction: It gives advisory opinions on legal questions at the request of the organs of the United Nations, specialized agencies or one related organization authorized to make such a request.

Basis of ICJ’s Jurisdiction:

  • The ICJ’s jurisdiction takes three forms: compulsory, special agreement, and treaty-based.
    • Compulsory Jurisdiction: Any international legal dispute involving the UN Member States that have accepted the ICJ’s compulsory jurisdiction may be submitted to the Court, provided that all the States party to the dispute before the ICJ have accepted its compulsory jurisdiction.
    • Special Agreement Jurisdiction: States may also submit a dispute to the ICJ by special agreement, accepting the ICJ’s jurisdiction only with regard to the specific dispute at issue.
    • Treaty-based Jurisdiction: States may accept the ICJ’s jurisdiction with regard to particular areas of international law when they join a treaty that specifically provides that disputes will be submitted to the ICJ for resolution, such as the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.

Is the ICJ’s Jurisdiction compulsory in Jammu and Kashmir case?

  • India and Pakistan have filed compulsory declarations in 1974 and 2017, respectively.
  • Filing such a declaration means that the concerned country (which acknowledges the compulsory jurisdiction of the ICJ) has the right to move the ICJ against any other country, which also accepts the same obligation, by filing an application instituting proceedings with the ICJ.
  • However, it is not clear if the jurisdiction of the ICJ will be compulsory in the J&K case since India has repeatedly said that it is an “internal matter”.

Procedure for filing a case in the ICJ:

  • In case of a unilateral application, the applicant state (Pakistan, in this case) will have to specify the legal grounds for ICJ’s jurisdiction.
  • In addition, it will need to state the precise nature of the claim, “together with a succinct statement of the facts and grounds on which the claim is based”.
  • However, Proceedings cannot begin until the country, against whom the application has been made (India. in this case), consents to the ICJ’s jurisdiction over the matter.
  • Furthermore, to determine its jurisdiction in the early stages of the proceedings, the ICJ can request the parties concerned to “argue all questions of law and fact” and cite evidence about the issue.
  • The proceedings can be instituted by way of a special agreement as well, which is bilateral in nature and in which the application can be filed by either party.

What happens when the jurisdiction of the ICJ is disputed?

  • In case there is a dispute related to the ICJ’s jurisdiction, the matter is settled by the decision of the ICJ itself guided by provisions given under Article 36 of the statute.
  • The purpose of the statute is to “organise the composition and functioning of the court”.

Can the ICJ’s judgments be revised?

  • A judgment can be revised only if there is discovery of a fact important to the matter which was not known to the ICJ and the party claiming revision when the judgment was first delivered.
  • The party asking for a revised ruling needs to assure the ICJ that the presence of the fact wasn’t simply neglected.

Section : International Relation

Polity: Federalism- Debate, landmark cases, Types of Federalism, J&K and more

Headline : The forms of federalism in India

Details :

Why in News?

  • The Union government has withdrawn the special status conferred on Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) under Article 370 of the Constitution. It has also divided the State into two regions and declared them as Union Territories.


The debate concerning with federalism:

Nations are described as ‘federal’ or ‘unitary’, depending on the way in which governance is organized.

  • In a unitary set-up, the Centre has plenary powers of administration and legislation, with its constituent units having little autonomy.
  • In a federal arrangement, the constituent units are identified on the basis of region or ethnicity, and conferred varying forms of autonomy or some level of administrative and legislative powers.

As the current political status of J&K — as two Union Territories — is a form of demotion from the sort of autonomy it enjoyed, it becomes an issue concerning federalism.

Is India a federal state?

Article 1 of the Constitution states, “India, that is Bharat, shall be a Union of States”. While the Constitution doesn’t mention the term “federal”, it does provide for a governance structure primarily federal in nature. It provides for separate governments at the Union and in the states. Further, it specifies and demarcates the powers, functions and jurisdictions of the two governments. Last, it details the legislative, administrative and financial relations between the Union and the states.

S.R. Bommai v. Union of India, it has been held that “Democracy and federalism are essential features of our constitution and are part of its basic structure”. With increased political decentralization, India was ripe to evolve from a “union of states” to a “federation of states”.

There exist certain provisions in the Constitution which are considered to be going against the principle of federalism.

  • For example, article 200 of the constitution in which it is said that certain bills passed by state legislatures may be reserved by the governors for the consideration of the president of India.
  • The another article which is considered to be a deviation from the principle of federalism is Articles 356, 352 and 360 which gives the power to the president to declare emergency, which can transform federal system into a unitary system.
  • There are many circumstances in which the central government has used this power to dissolve the state governments of the opposite parties and to remain in power at the centre.

A disconcerting trend has been observed since 1950. While the Union and Concurrent Lists have expanded, the State List seems to have shrunk. This has led many to question the structure of Indian federalism and to propose its remodeling.

Why India is called ‘quasi-federal’:

The Supreme Court has commented on the nature of the Indian Union in several judgments. It has noted that the essence of a ‘federation’ is the existence of the Union of the States, and the distribution of powers between them.

  • In India, on the other hand, Parliament has the power to admit new States, create new States, alter their boundaries and their names, and unite or divide the States. The concurrence of States is not needed for the formation and unmaking of States and Union Territories.
  • Several provisions of the Constitution allow the Centre to override the powers of the States. For example existence of Concurrent List in Legislature.
  • In India, the residuary powers of legislation, that is the power to make law in a field not specified in the Constitution, is vested in Parliament, whereas in the U.S., residuary powers are with the States.
  • Further, in fiscal matters, the power of the States to raise their own resources is limited, and there is a good deal of dependency on the Centre for financial assistance.

Even though the States are sovereign in their prescribed legislative field, and their executive power is co-extensive with their legislative powers, it is clear that “the powers of the States are not coordinate with the Union”. This is why the Constitution is often described as ‘quasi-federal’.

Why is it said that India has asymmetric federalism:

  • The main forms of administrative units in India are the Centre and the States. But there are other forms, too, all set up to address specific local, historical and geographical contexts.
  • Besides the Centre and the States, the country has Union Territories with a legislature and Union Territories without a legislature. Parliament has overriding powers over any law made by the Assembly in the Union Territories.
  • Just as the Centre and the States do not have matching powers in all matters, there are some differences in the way some States and other constituent units of the Indian Union relate to the Centre. This creates a notable asymmetry in the way Indian federalism works.

Special status for J&K and how it worked:

The foremost example of asymmetry among Centre-State ties was in the way J&K related to India until August 6, 2019.

  • Under Article 370, the State was allowed to have its own Constitution, its own definition of ‘permanent residents’, the right to bar outsiders from holding property, and the privilege of not having any Indian law automatically applicable to its territory.
  • Indian laws had to be specifically permitted by its Assembly before it could operate there. It was allowed to have its’ own Penal and Criminal Procedure Codes.
  • The President was empowered to notify, from time to time, the provisions of the Constitution that could be extended to the State, with or without modifications.

What does Article 371 provide?

Special status is not unique to Kashmir. However, the sort of asymmetry seen in J&K’s relationship to the Centre is not seen in other States. The ‘special provisions’ applicable to some other States are mainly in the form of empowering the Governors to discharge some special responsibilities. These States are Maharashtra, Gujarat, Manipur, Nagaland, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh.

  • Article 371 says the Governor of Maharashtra has a special responsibility to establish separate development boards for Vidarbha, Marathwada, and the rest of the State, while the Governor of Gujarat has a similar responsibility towards Saurashtra, Kutch and the rest of Gujarat. The responsibilities cover equitable allocation of funds for development expenditure, and providing facilities for technical education and vocational training.
  • Article 371A confers special status on Nagaland. Under this provision, no law made by Parliament in relation to Naga customary law and procedure, including civil and criminal justice matters, and ownership or transfer of land and resources will apply to Nagaland, unless the Legislative Assembly of Nagaland decides so. Further, the Governor of Nagaland has a ‘special responsibility’ regarding law and order in the State.
  • Article 371B contained a special provision for Assam under which a committee of legislators from the tribal areas was formed to look after their interest. The tribal areas later became Meghalaya State.
  • Under Article 371C, the Hill Areas of Manipur ought to have a committee of legislators. The Governor has a special responsibility to make an annual report to the President on the administration of the Hill Areas. The Centre is empowered to give directions to the State as far as these areas were concerned.
  • Article 371D is a detailed provision under which the President can pass an order to provide equitable opportunities and facilities to people belonging to different parts of Andhra Pradesh in public employment and education. In particular, the President can create local cadres in various classes of employment and allot civil posts to specified local cadres only.
  • Article 371F incorporated special provisions after the addition of Sikkim to India. One major objective was to grant protection to existing laws in Sikkim so that they are not declared unconstitutional after being brought under the Constitution of India.
  • Article 371G contains special provisions to preserve the religious and social practices of Mizos in Mizoram and their customary law and procedure and administration of criminal and civil justice, besides ownership of land.
  • Article 371H vests a special responsibility on the Governor of Arunachal Pradesh with respect to law and order. It makes clear that the Governor shall discharge this function after consulting the Council of Ministers, but exercise his individual judgment as to the action taken.

Other examples of decentralization of power:

There is another significant tier of administration under the larger framework of asymmetric federalism.

  • The Sixth Schedule to the Constitution contains provisions for the administration of tribal areas in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram. These create autonomous districts and autonomous regions administered by District Councils and Regional Councils respectively. These Councils can make laws with respect to allotment, occupation and use of land, management of forests other than reserve forests and water courses. Besides they can regulate social customs, marriage and divorce and property issues.
  • In Assam, the Karbi-Anglong Autonomous Council, Dima Hasao Autonomous District Council and the Bodoland Territorial Council have been set up under the Sixth Schedule. Another six autonomous councils have been formed by Acts of the legislature.
  • Ladakh has two autonomous hill development councils (Leh and Kargil).
  • The Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council is in West Bengal.

Recent Developments:

Typically, two opposite forces seem to operate: cooperative federalism and competitive federalism. Promoting both cooperative and competitive federalism has been an overarching theme of the government.

  • Cooperative federalism implies the Centre and states share a horizontal relationship, where they “cooperate” in the larger public interest.
  • Competitive federalism gained significance in India post the 1990s economic reforms.
  • The disbandment of the Planning Commission (PC) and its replacement by the NITI Aayog is specifically designed to promote cooperative federalism.
  • Institutional innovations such as the NITI Aayog and the GST council that now dominate Centre-state deliberations, and India today has a new framework for negotiating Centre-state relations.

Way Forward:

  • Cooperative and competitive federalism may be two sides of the same coin. Their complementarities are contingent on many affirmative steps.
  • Efforts at cooperative federalism have commenced but need to be strengthened.
  • An institutional mechanism like Inter-State Council must be reactivated where important issues are appropriately discussed with states for better policy coordination.

Section : Polity & Governance

Jammu and Kashmir: Article 370, Article 35(A), Resolutions, Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Bill and all other developments

Headline : J&K loses its special status, divided into two UTs

Details :


The News:

  • In a historic decision, the Indian government has changed the terms of engagement with Jammu and Kashmir by doing away with the special status enjoyed by the state under Article 370scrapping Article 35A and splitting the state into two UTs of J&K and Ladakh.


Background: Special status to Jammu and Kashmir

  • Following an invasion from tribesmen and Army men from Pakistan, Raja of J&K Hari Singh signed the Instrument of Accession (IoA) with India on October 26, 1947.
  • Governor General Lord Mountbatten accepted it with following conditions:
    • Powers to the parliament to legislate in respect of J&K only on Defence, External Affairs and Communications.
    • Clause 5 of IoA: It cannot be varied by any amendment of the Act or of Indian Independence Act unless such accepted by the king by a supplementary Instrument.
    • Clause 6 of IoA: It disallowed the making of laws to acquire land in the state for any purpose but permitted the king to do so for the Dominion of India for a law applicable to the state.
    • Clause 7of IoA: No future Constitution of India (which was still to be written) could be imposed on the state.
  • In 1950, in the original Constitution of India, J&K was listed as a Part B state, along with theother princely states that had merged by Instruments of Accession, and Hyderabad and Mysore.
  • Party B states were then abolished and J&K was by an amendment of the Constitution put into Article 1 as India’s 15th state and irrevocably part of the “territory of India”.
  • India’s stated policy regarding IoA was that wherever there was a dispute on accession, it should be settled in accordance with the wishes of people (Plebiscite).
  • In 1975, Sheikh Abdullah came to an agreement with Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. As per the agreement, in return for giving up his demand for a plebiscite, special status for J&K was allowed to continue and Sheikh Abdullah became chief minister.
  • Jammu and Kashmir enjoyed special status under Article 370 of the Constitution of India.

Article 370:

  • Article 370 was incorporated in Part XXI (temporary provisions with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir) of the Constitution.
  • As a result of Article 370, Jammu and Kashmir had its own Constitution, and all laws passed by Parliament will not be applicable to the State, unless the State government gives its concurrence.
  • It lays down that only two Articles would apply to J&K: Article 1, which defines India, and Article 370 itself.
  • The President is empowered to decide what provisions of the Constitution of India would be applicable to the State and what are the exceptions, but with the State government’s concurrence.
  • The Union of India could legislate/act only in defence, foreign affairs and communications.

Procedure for removal of Article 370:

  • This Article describes it as a temporary provision .
  • Article 370(3) permits deletion by a Presidential Order, which has to be preceded by the concurrence of J&K’s Constituent Assembly.
  • However, the J&K constituent Assembly was dissolved on January 26, 1957.
  • In the absence of the assembly, the governor’s consent is considered to fulfil the requirement.

Article 35A:

  • Article 35A stems from Article 370 and was incorporated in the constitution by a presidential order under article 370 in 1954 on the advice of the Cabinet.
  • Article 35-A provides special rights and privileges to permanent residents of Jammu & Kashmir.
  • Article 35A gives the J&K Legislature, full freedom to decide the ‘permanent residents’ of the State and grant them special rights and privileges in:
    • State public sector jobs
    • Acquisition of property in the State
    • Scholarships and other public aid and welfare programs
  • The provision also provides that any act of the State legislature coming under the ambit of Article 35A cannot be challenged for violating the Indian Constitution or any other law of the land.

Note: Article does not figure in the text of the Constitution of India, but figures only in the J&K’s Constitution.


News Summary:

  • The Union Home Minister introduced, two special resolutions and a Bill creating the Union Territories of Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh through the Rajya Sabha.


Resolution 1: Constitution (Application to Jammu & Kashmir) Order, 2019

  • The President used his powers under Article 370 to issue the 2019 Order, which will supersede the previous Presidential Order of 1954.
  • The new order makes the entire Constitution of India applicable to the state of Jammu and Kashmir. This means it effectively ends the special status that had been granted to J&K by stating that all the provisions of the Indian Constitution, as also its amendments, shall now apply to the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Article 35A, making distinction between the permanent residents of Jammu and Kashmir and the outsiders, will also cease to have any effect.
  • Under Clause 1 of Article 370, President made all provisions of the Constitution effectively applicable to J&K.

Resolution 2: Repeal of Article 370 of the Constitution of India {Ref. Article 370 (3)}

  • Under article 370(3), there is a provision that President, on recommendation of the Parliament, has the power to amend or cease the implementation of article 370, through a public notification.
  • Rather than abrogating or repealing Article 370, govt has essentially read down its provisions.
  • The provisions of Article 370 will cease to exist from the date the President of India issues a notification after the Lok Sabha passes the resolution.

Changes under Article 367:

  • All references to the ‘Sadar-i-Riyasat’, acting on the aid and advice of the Council of Ministers, will be construed as references to the Governor of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • All references to the State government shall mean “the Governor”.
  • The reference to the “Constituent Assembly” in a proviso to Article 370 (3) has been amended to read “Legislative Assembly of the State”.


Bill: The Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Bill

  • The Jammu and Kashmir Reorganization Bill, 2019, will bring about the following changes:
  • Two Union Territories to be formed out of the State of Jammu and Kashmir:
    • UT of Ladakh (Kargil and Leh district)
    • UT of Jammu and Kashmir (all other districts of the state of J&K).
  • Both UTs to have Lieutenant Governor, for now Governor will act as both.
  • While the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir will have a legislature, the one in Ladakh will not.
    • Four sitting Rajya Sabha members of the state will become MPs of UT of J&K.
    • Five Lok Sabha seats to go to the UT of J&K.
    • Legislative Assembly of UT of J&K will have 107 seats to be chosen through a direct election.
    • One Lok Sabha seat to go to the UT of Ladakh.
    • 24 seats in PoK will be vacant.

Note: This is the first time after the 1956 states’ reorganisation that a full-fledged state has been relegated to a UT (or two).


Changes after the development:

  • All the provisions that formed the basis of a separate “Constitution” for Jammu and Kashmir stand abrogated.
  • All the provisions of the Constitution of India, shall apply to Jammu and Kashmir too.
  • J&K will now have no separate flag or Constitution.
  • Tenure of assembly will be for 5 years, not 6.
  • Indian Penal Code will replace Ranbir Penal Code (that is currently applicable there).
  • People from other states are now eligible to purchase land and properties.
  • Non-permanent residents can permanently settle in state.
  • Outsiders can now be employed in state govt and companies and be eligible for scholarships in state-run educational institutions.
  • RTI Act will be applicable in J&K.


The decision on J&K expected to be challenged in SC

  • The Indian government passed a resolution seeking to undo J&K’s special status with a simple majority, even as it was widely believed that Article 370 could be “scrapped” only by a Constitution amendment bill needing a two-thirds majority.
  • It did so by using a provision in Article 370 itself even as it fully anticipates that the presidential notification will be challenged in the Supreme Court.
Section : Polity & Governance

Quotes for Essays:

Quotes for Essays:

1) Gandhi:

2) Marx:

3) Aristotle:

4) Buddha:

5) Plato:

6) Ambedkar:

7) Kautilya:

8) Aurobindo Ghosh:

9) Socrates:

10) Machiaveli :

11) Hobbes:

12) Rousseau:

!3) John Locke:

14) J.S. Mill:

15) Gramsci :

16) Vivekananda :

17) Montesquieu:

18) Bentham:

19) Voltaire :

20) Hannah Ardent:

21) Simone de Beauvoir:

22) Immanuel Kant

23) Mother Teresa:

24) F riedrich Nietzsche :

25) Edmund Burke :

26) Jean-Paul Satre:

27) Sigmund Freud:

28) Friedrich Hegel:

29) Henry David Thoreau :

In Focus: Presidential System of Government

In Focus: Presidential System of Government

  • The Presidential system of government is one where the Executive is constitutionally independent of the Legislature, and is not responsible to the legislature.
  • The Presidential form of government, unlike the Parliamentary system, is based on separation of powers, not on the fusion of Legislature and the Executive. 
  • The Presidential system is found, besides the United States of America, in several Latin American countries.
  • The Executive:
    • The executive branch includes the president, vice president, the cabinet, executive departments, independent agencies, and other boards, commissions, and committees.
    • The President is the Head of the Government, as is directly elected by the people. The President is also the Head of the State.
    • The vice president supports the president, and is elected along with the president.
      • If the president is unable to serve, the vice president becomes president.
      • The vice president can be elected and serve an unlimited number of four-year terms as vice president, even under a different president.
    • Cabinet members are nominated by the president and must be approved by a simple majority of the Senate (51 votes if all 100 Senators vote).
  • The Legislature:
    • The American Legislature is called the Congress. Its two chambers are:
      • The House of Representatives (Lower House)
      • The Senate (Upper House)
  • The Judiciary:
    • The judicial branch interprets the meaning of laws, applies laws to individual cases, and decides if laws violate the Constitution.
    • It is comprised of the Supreme Court and other federal courts.
    • The Justices of the Supreme Court are nominated by the president and confirmed by the Senate.  

Checks and Balances between the three organs:

  • Each branch of government can change acts of the other branches:
  • The president can veto legislation created by Congress and nominates heads of federal agencies.
  • Congress confirms or rejects the president’s nominees to federal agencies and can remove the president from office in exceptional circumstances.
  • The Justices of the Supreme Court can overturn unconstitutional laws, while their appointment is made by the president (after the nominee is confirmed by the Senate).
  • This ability of each branch to respond to the actions of the other branches is called the system of checks and balances.

Essential features of this system of government:

  • President as the real Executive:
    • All the Executive powers are vested in the hands of the President. The President is free to choose his Ministers (called Secretaries) from anywhere.
  • Separation of powers:
    • The Executive and the Legislature are independent of each other.
  • Non-responsible Executive:
    • The President and his Ministers are not members of Legislature. They are not responsible to Legislature.
  • Fixed tenures:
    • The tenure of office cannot be lessened or increased under any circumstances. The President can be removed by the Legislature only by a process of impeachment.
    • The Legislature too cannot be dissolved before the expiry of its fixed tenure.

SC reserves verdict on changes to SC/ST law

Headline : SC reserves verdict on changes to SC/ST law

Details :

The News

  • Recently, the Supreme Court has reserved its judgment on a batch of petitions challenging the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Act of 2018.


The Scheduled Castes and Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989

  • Objective: to prevent atrocities against scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.
  • A person accused of such a crime cannot get anticipatory bail, but soon after his arrest, he can get regular bail even in offences where the punishment is just six months.



  • On 20 March 2018, Supreme Court gave its judgment banning registration of criminal cases and automatic arrests under the SC/ST Act and allowing anticipatory bail to those booked for committing atrocities against the SCs and the STs
  • The verdict triggered a nationwide protest by the Dalit community costing loss of lives and property.
  • The government filed a review petition and subsequently amended the 1989 Act back to its original form through the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Act of 2018.
  • Several petitions were filed last year challenging the amendments. However, the Supreme Court had refused to stay the implementation of the amendments.


Changes in Scheduled Castes and Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 after the March 20 Supreme Court Judgement

  • The top court banned registration of criminal cases and automatic arrests under the SC/ST Act.
  • The public servants cannot be prosecuted without the approval of the appointing authority and private citizens can be arrested only after an inquiry under the law.
  • A preliminary inquiry under the Act would be conducted by the Deputy Superintendent of Police to be certain that the allegations are not superficial.
  • The amendment in the law was a bid to protect honest public servants discharging bona fide duties from being blackmailed with false cases under the Act.
  • Earlier provisions in the Act provided for taking immediate action in respect of any complaint relating to harassment of a victim, informant or witness, etc. Any such complaint shall be tried separately from the main case and be concluded within two months.


The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Act of 2018

  • The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Act of 2018 nullified a controversial March 20 Supreme Court judgment.

For amendment Act : There had been no decrease in the atrocities committed on the SCs/STs despite the laws meant to protect their civil rights and they continue to face the same social stigma, poverty and humiliation. Thus it is necessary to safeguard their rights by restoring original act.

Against amendment act: Article 21, the fundamental right of an individual cannot be protected if an innocent is jailed on a complaint without its prior scrutiny.



Section : Polity & Governance

Pak launches guidelines to implement UNSC 1267 Sanctions in country

Headline : Pak launches guidelines to implement UNSC 1267 Sanctions in country 

Details : 

The news

  • Pakistan has launched guidelines for implementing the UNSC 1267 Sanctions targeting UN-proscribed individuals and entities in the country.



  • After Pulwama attach and India’s counter airstrikes, tensions escalated between India and Pakistan.
  • Since then, Pakistan is under intense global pressure to take action against terrorist outfits operating from its soil.
  • The launch of latest guidelines has come against this backdrop of global intensified pressure.


Summary of the news

  • Pakistan has launched guidelines for implementing the UNSC 1267 Sanctions targeting the UN prescribed individuals and entities in the country.
  • The guidelines were prepared by the National Committee for overseeing implementation of Sanctions against individuals and entities designated by the UN Security Council 1267 regime, which includes-
    • Al Qaida/Da’esh Sanctions regime
    • Taliban Sanctions regime (Security Council 1988)
  • They have been formulated in compliance with international standards as required by the UNSC 1267 Sanctions Committee and the Financial Action Task Force (FATF).


Significance of the guidelines

  • International obligations: It will help Pakistan meet international obligations against people and groups targeted by the UN.
  • Improve understanding: The guidelines would help officials to better understand the provisions of the UN 1267 sanctions regime.
  • Better compliance: It is expected to improve the understanding of the concerned domestic legislations among the officials and also make them realise their obligationsand hence, facilitate compliance.
  • Effective implementation: The guidelines would assist all the stakeholders in better discharging their responsibilities for the effective implementation of the UN Sanctions.
  • Global demonstration: Launch of guidelines also helps Pakistan to show the world that it is serious about countering terrorism.
  • Prevent downgrading of its economy: By demonstrating itself as resolved and serious about countering terrorism, Pakistan is trying to prevent itself from blacklisting by FATF, which may lead to downgrading of the country by lenders like the International Monetary Fund, World Bank and Asian Development Bank, etc.



About UNSC 1267 resolution

  • The UNSC resolution 1267 was adoptedin 1999.
  • It is a consolidated list of people and entities it has determined as being associated with Al Qaeda or the Taliban, and laws which must be passed within each member nation to implement the sanctions.
  • Over time, the regime evolved and the measures became a targeted assets freeze, travel ban and arms embargo against designated individuals and entities.
  • The sanction extended with inclusion of Al Qaida and ISIL.
  • The measures to counter terrorism under the UN 1267 regime includes:
    • Assets Freeze: All states are required to freeze without delay the funds and other financial assets or economic resources of designated individuals and entities.
    • Travel Ban: All states are required to prevent the entry into or transit through their territories by designated individuals.
    • Arms Embargo:All states are required to prevent the direct or indirect supply, sale and transfer from their territories or by their nationals outside their territories, or using their flag vessels or aircraft, of arms and related materiel of all types, spare parts, and technical advice, assistance, or training related to military activities, to designated individuals and entities
  • All UN member states are required to take these above measures with respect to ISIL (Da’esh), Al-Qaida and Taliban and other individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with them.

Section : International Relation

 Mahatma Gandhi gave a new dimension to the women question in the freedom struggle . Discuss.

• The women’s question like the untouchability or the communal question emerged  during the nationalist movement that had to be solved to give shape to the vision of a
free India. From the 19th century, the women’s question has formed one of the major
issues in socio-political debate.
• In the Indian society, the coming of British rule led to the usage of women’s question’,
which figured prominently in their colonial discourses. The British rule used the
pitiable condition of women in India to their role of civilizing mission’. The colonial
social reforms of the 19th century tried to abolish abuses of social life to usher more
progressive gender relations. This led to the enactment of social legislation by the
colonial government such as abolition of sati(1829), Widow Remarriage Act(1856),
Child Marriage Act(1872) etc.
• Thus, in the early 19th century, the liberal reformers or the revivalists, such as Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Dayanand saraswati, Yidyasagar etc, made women as the recipient of
social change. However, the women’s question and concern for domesticity was far
from being answered by the women themselves. Moreover, despite the fact that these
social reforms were modem, the underlying system of patriarchy wasn’t questioned.
• In the last quarter of the 19th century, the women’s question got increasingly
influenced by the rise of cultural nationalism & revivalism as a counter attack to the
spread of western values in the society. The revivalists, interested in conserving the
indigenous cultural traditions, began to support women’s education on the ground that
it would help to strengthen the hold of indigenous culture through the institution of the
family. Lack of education to women created communication gap, which eroded the
women’s ability to influence men in their family. Thus, the cultural nationalists
projected women as the custodians of traditions & cultural values.
• The advent of the 20th century witnessed the interlinking of women’s question with the
trends of the nationalist movement women engaged with the nationalist politics despite
constraints of social practices such as Purdah system, backwardness and low level of
female literacy. Women participated in the freedom struggle through 2 parallel
(i) Domestication of public sphere- women participated in the streets without
compromising on their domestic values.
(ii) Politicization of the domestic sphere- women handled situations in their
families when nationalism entered household through the activities of the male.
However, despite women s participation, the women’s question & consciousness was
caught in the vertex of political emotions of national movement and still remained
within the subordination of patriarchal structures.
• The women’s question got a new dimension with the advent of Gandhi and growth of
popular politics. Gandhi’s call led to the large scale participation of women in the
freedom struggle. He held that women were ideally suited for the satyagraha’ as
they’re filled with qualities appropriate for non-violent struggle and social uplift
programmer of the congress. A/q to Gandhi, women possess qualities of self-sacrifice
and tolerance and an ability to endure sufferings which are sine-qua-non for the non¬
violent struggle.
• Mahatma Gandhi consciously feminized India’s freedom struggle with a dual aim of
fighting against the colonial rule and benefit the cause of women’s liberation in the
country. He evolved the strategy in such a way that not only each activity in civil
disobedience, such as picketing of shop’s, was possible for women to do , but each act
of the constructive action was especially suited to women. Thus, Gandhian satyagraha’
swept aside old taboos & customs and , in this way, proved to be instrumental in
providing a vigor & strength to both the national movement and women’s question in
the country.

5 provisions under which Parliament can legislate on a subject.

There are 5 provisions under which Parliament can legislate on a subject included in state list:

Article 249  if the Council of States has declared by resolution supported by not less than two thirds of the members present and voting that it is necessary or expedient in the national interest that Parliament should make laws with respect to any matter enumerated in the State List specified in the resolution, it shall be lawful for Parliament to make laws for the whole or any part of the territory of India with respect to that matter while the resolution remains in force.
Article 250 Parliament shall, while a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation, have power to make laws for the whole or any part of the territory of India with respect to any of the matters enumerated in the State List.
Article 252 If legislatures of two or more states pass a resolution, it shall be lawful for the parliament to legislate on that subject enumerated in state list for the states that passed the resolution.
Article 253  Parliament has power to make any law for the whole or any part of the territory of India for implementing any treaty, agreement or convention with any other country or countries or any decision made at any international conference, association or other body
Article 356 (b) the President may by Proclamation declare that the powers of the Legislature of the State shall be exercisable by or under the authority of Parliament.

Indian Parliamentary Group – Brief

The Indian Parliamentary Group is an autonomous body formed in the year 1949 in pursuance of a Motion adopted by the Constituent Assembly (Legislative) in 1948.

A Member of Parliament can become a life Member of the Group on payment of life subscription of only Rs. Five Hundred. The aims and objects of the Indian Parliamentary Group are:—

  • to promote personal contacts between Members of Parliament;
  • to study questions of public importance that are likely to come up before Parliament and arrange Seminars and discussions and orientation courses and bring out publications for the dissemination of information to the Members of the Indian Parliamentary Group;
  • to arrange lectures on political, defence, economic, social and educational problems by Members of Parliament and distinguished persons;
  • to arrange visits to foreign countries with a view to develop contacts with Members of other Parliaments.

The position with respect to lapsing of bills

The position with respect to lapsing of bills is as follows:

A bill pending in the Lok Sabha lapses (whether originating in the Lok Sabha or transmitted to it by the Rajya Sabha).

A bill passed by the Lok Sabha but pending in the Rajya Sabha lapses.

A bill not passed by the two Houses due to disagreement and if the president has notified the holding of a joint sitting before the dissolution of Lok Sabha, does not lapse.

A bill pending in the Rajya Sabha but not passed by the Lok Sabha does not lapse.

A bill passed by both Houses but pending assent of the president does not lapse.

A bill passed by both Houses but returned by the president for reconsideration of Houses does not lapse.

Everything about Finance Commission

Finance Commission of India

  • It is set up every five years by the President under Article 280 of the Constitution.
  • It first came into existence in 1951.


  • It was formed to define the financial relations between the centre and the state.
  • These recommendations cover a period of five years.
  • The commission also lays down rules by which the centre should provide grants-in-aid to states out of the Consolidated Fund of India.
  • It is also required to suggest measures to augment the resources of states and ways to supplement the resources of panchayats and municipalities.

Qualification of members

  • The Chairman of the Finance Commission is selected among people who have had the experience of public affairs.
  • The other four members are selected from people who:
  1. Are or have been or are qualified, as judges of High Court
  2. Have knowledge of Government finances or accounts
  3. Have had experience in administration and financial expertise
  4. Have special knowledge of economics.

Powers of the commission

  • The Commission can determine its own procedure.
  • It has all powers of the civil court as per the Court of Civil Procedure, 1908.
  • It can summon and enforce the attendance of any witness or ask any person to deliver information or produce a document, which it deems relevant.
  • It can ask for the production of any public record or document from any court or office.
  • It shall be deemed to be a civil court for purposes of Sections 480 and 482 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898.

Safeguard for Minorities in India

Currently there are 6 minorities in India viz. Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, Parsis and Jains.

The Constitution does not define a minority or provide details relating to the geographical and numerical specification of the concept.

However, it talks about ‘Minorities’ and speaks of those ‘based on religion or language and provides for special domain rights for them such as:

• Article 29(1): Right of ‘any section of the citizens’ to ‘conserve’ its ‘distinct language, script or culture’

• Article 29(2): Restriction on denial of admission to any citizen, to any educational institution maintained or aided by the State, ‘on grounds only of religion, race, caste, language or any of them’

• Article 30(1): Right of all Religious and Linguistic Minorities to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice.

• Article 30(2): Freedom of Minority-managed educational institutions from discrimination in the matter of receiving aid from the State.

• Article 347: Special provision relating to the language spoken by a section of the population of any State.

• Article 350 A: Provision for facilities for instruction in mother-tongue at primary stage.

• Article 350 B: Special Officer for Linguistic Minorities and his duties.

The Naga insurgency has been a major threat to India’s security and integrity and can destabilize multiple states in north-eastern India. Elaborate. Also discuss various measures taken by the governments in handling the issue.


Introduce the issue of Naga insurgency.

Explain its impact on security of India as well as that in northeastern states.

Provide measures undertaken by Government especially Naga peace accord.

Conclude appropriately.

Model Answer :

Ever since Indian Independence, the Naga Insurgency has taken many forms, including the demands for secessionism to wanton violence. The Naga Insurgency at present is driven by demand for Independent Nation – Greater Nagaland or Nagalim.

Impact on India’s security:

Violence: Thousands of lives have been lost due to violence in the region.

Secessionism: It also influences other Secessionist movements like Kuki insurgents, Bodo rebels and ULFA (Assam), HNLC (Meghalaya), NLFT (Tripura) etc in many states

Collaboration with hostile nations – There has been international collaboration with hostile countries like China, Pakistan, and Myanmar.

Extortion industry is thriving leading to loss of confidence in law and order situation.

Impact on other NE states:

Those demanding Naga nation seek to assert claims to the Naga inhabited areas of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam and Manipur and even in Myanmar. The violence and secessionist movements influenced similar groups and tactics in other NE states, destabilizing them.

Measures taken by governments at various levels:

1. Security related measures:

oUAPA: Many militant/insurgent groups declared as terrorist organization under UAPA – Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967.

oAFSPA: Most of NE declared as ‘Disturbed Areas’ under the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958.

oCAPF: Deployment of Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs).

Surrender and Rehabilitation Policy: Onetime payment and vocational training.

2. Center’s assistance to States:

Assistance for additional battalions: Sanction of India Reserve (IR) battalions, setting up of Counter Insurgency and Anti Terrorism (CIAT) schools;

Scheme for Modernization of State Police Forces (MPF scheme).

3. Border Management:

Deployment of Assam Rifles along the Myanmar border and strengthening border fencing.

4. Development related measures:

Infrastructure creation- Road, Rail, Telecom, Power and Waterways sectors

Agriculture – Horticulture promotion, Organic Farming etc.

Employment – Capacity building, Tourism, Skills training and industrial development.

Act East Policy- to link ASEAN with our North East.

5. Attempts for political solution:

Tripartite Naga Accord signed in 2015

Greater autonomy and decentralization

Special provisions like VI Schedule, Article 371 C for Manipur, Hill Councils etc.

Naga Accord has given opportunity for peace and stability in region, which can be utilized for development so that people can be weaned away from insurgency and illegal activities. At the same time more clarity can be brought regarding Naga peace accord to allay fears of neighboring states.

In Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan is fighting a hybrid war, and Indian response should also be in the hybrid domain”. Discuss.


Introduce with Hybrid conflict

Talk about how Pakistan indulges in regular and hybrid wars against India and India’s response

Discuss why India needs to engage in hybrid war and what it involves

Conclude appropriately

Model Answer :

Hybrid war is one fought through a combination of conventional, irregular (efforts to win legitimacy and influence over the populations), and asymmetric (for example, terrorism, insurgency, guerrilla warfare etc.) means. It can include the combination of special operations and conventional military forces, intelligence agents, political provocateurs, media representatives, economic intimidation, cyber-attacks, and proxies and surrogates, terrorist, and criminal elements.

Pakistan’s hybrid war against India:

For the last 70 years, India’s response to Pakistan’s efforts at direct war have been professional and effective (1947, 1965 etc).

As a result, Pakistan has indulged in a hybrid conflict with India which extends to multiple domains, including promotion of radical ideology, creation of alienation among people, intimidation, and importantly, maintaining financial conduits for the unimpeded flow of money into the conflict system. Their cause is being furthered by the separatists in India.

Need for India to engage in Hybrid war:

In this conflict, India’s approach has been defensive, reactive and tentative. Fighting the adversary in a hybrid conflict, like the one in Jammu & Kashmir, through the military route has been ineffective.

There is an increasing body of opinion in India that the response to Pakistan’s hybrid war in Kashmir should be through hybrid warfare.


There is a need of for the national strategy to incorporate all elements of national power i.e. intellectual, economic, intelligence, cyber capabilities, scientific, business, trade and diplomatic.

Hybrid warfare has a strong espionage element and India needs an aggressive intelligence posture with an expertise and specialists from diverse fields like technology, economy, finance, culture, arts and politics.

Indian security community needs to indulge in information warfare and adopt proactive ways of bringing information operations to the fore while dealing with hybrid conflict.

Agencies, led by NIA, have recently been successful in targeting the financial support to radicalism and terrorism in Kashmir.

India also needs to develop the ability to conduct covert strikes in Pakistan to take out high value terrorist targets.

Hybrid warfare is not a new strategy. Since times immemorial, such tactics have been the essential instrument of the statecraft. India also has the capabilities, but not the experience. To deal with an enemy like Pakistan, hybrid war is the need of the hour. To this end, fault-lines in Pakistan need to be identified and effectively utilised for our geo-political ends.

Everything about Cauvery Verdict

• A three-judge Bench, led by Chief Justice of India, gave verdict on Cauvery river water dispute.

CWDT’s verdict:

The Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal (CWDT) verdict in 2007: Of the 740 thousand million cubic feet (TMC) of water available for utilisation,

• 419 TMC was awarded to Tamil Nadu,

• 270 TMC to Karnataka,

• 30 TMC to Kerala and

• 7 TMC to Puducherry.

• The remaining 14 TMC was reserved for environmental protection.

Supreme Court verdict:

On Water distribution:

• Increase in Karnataka share: The Supreme Court awarded Karnataka 14.75 tmc (thousand million cubic feet) of Cauvery water from Tamil Nadu’s share, reasoning that Karnataka has historically suffered “limited access to and use” of the river water.

• The 14.75 tmc for Karnataka would be taken from the 192 tmc Cauvery water supplied by Karnataka from its Biligundlu site to Mettur dam in Tamil Nadu. This means that Karnataka would now supply 177.25 tmc.

• Total distribution: So, out of a total of 740 tmc available in the 802-km long Cauvery, the Supreme Court determined that:

• Karnataka would now get 284.75 (270 + 14.75) tmc,

• Tamil Nadu’s share has been reduced from 419 tmc to 404.25,

• Kerala and Puducherry would continue to be allocated 30 tmc and 7 tmc, respectively.

• Of remaining 14 TMC, the 10 tmc were allocated for environmental protection and spared another 4 tmc for “inevitable escapages” of Cauvery water into the sea.

• Special provision to Bengaluru: The 4.75 tmc of the 14.75 tmc would be diverted to the people of Bengaluru for their domestic and drinking purposes.

Reason for increase in Karnataka’s share:

• Drought: Compared to Tamil Nadu, the court found that Karnataka, despite being the upper riparian State on the Cauvery basin, has 28 districts still reeling under drought.

• Deprivation: The court found that Karnataka has been deprived of its legitimate share and unable to use of the water of Cauvery to develop its land for irrigation.

• Bengaluru’s demand was ignored: The judgment said the drinking water needs of Karnataka, especially the burgeoning and global Bengaluru city, was somehow ignored in the water-sharing agreement reached by the Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal (CWDT) in 2007.

Tamil Nadu to tap ground water:

• The court said there is confirmatory empirical data that Tamil Nadu has 20 tmc groundwater.

• The court asked Tamil Nadu to draw out at least 10 tmc groundwater instead of banking on Cauvery water from Karnataka.

Centre to form scheme and CMB:

• The court gave the Centre six weeks’ time to frame a Cauvery water-sharing scheme under Section 6A of the Inter-State Water Disputes Act of 1956. No extension shall be granted for framing of the scheme on any ground.

• The scheme has to be in consonance with the CWDT’s award and the changes introduced by the Supreme Court though this judgment.

• The tribunal had said the scheme will include the specialist body called the ‘Cauvery Management Board’ (CMB) to supervise the reservoir operations and regulate releases.

• The CMB will be an inter-State forum of technical experts with three whole time members appointed by the centre and representatives of the riparian States.

On plea of each States:

• Puducherry: The court allowed Puducherry’s request to grow a second crop. However, cultivation should be limited to 43,000 acres.

• Kerala: The judgment rejected Kerala’s request for a diversion of the Cauvery water for its hydro-power projects.

• Tamil Nadu:

Tamil Nadu’s plea: Ever since the Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal (CWDT) verdict, the State had sought the creation of a body to ensure effective implementation of the order.

Establishment of the Cauvery Management Board: From the State’s point of view, the most important aspect of the court order is the recognition of the plea for the establishment of the Cauvery Management Board.

Schedule of release of water: The court has appreciated the position of the Tamil Nadu government which had, over the years, complained that Karnataka was not adhering to the schedule of water release, as worked out by the tribunal in the interim order or final order.

On the issue of irrigated area: It not only left intact the extent of irrigated area (24.71 lakh acres), as permitted by the tribunal in the final order, but also emphatically made it clear that the final determination of irrigated area arrived at by the Tribunal for Tamil Nadu cannot be declared incorrect or fallacious.

River as National Asset:

• An inter-State river like Cauvery is a ‘national asset’, and being in a state of flow, no State can claim exclusive ownership of its waters or assert a prescriptive right so as to deprive other States of their equitable share, the Supreme Court held.

• Basing its judgment on the equitable utilisation of inter-State river waters, the court said the precious right should be equally and reasonable shared by all States concerned.

• The court referred to the National Water Policy, which had reiterated time and again that water is a scarce and precious national asset.

Fair share:

• The Court said that, while river is common and equal to all through whose land it runs and no one can obstruct or divert it, yet as one of the beneficial gifts of nature, each beneficiary has a right to just and reasonable use of it.

• However, the court said the “principle of equality” among the riparian States does not imply equal division of water within an arithmetical formula.

• The apex court said, equality here means “equal consideration and equal economic opportunity of the co-basin States.”

• The court compared the sharing of inter-State river waters in India to the practices of sharing of international rivers among nations.


• The Supreme Court referred to the Helsinki Rules of 1966, which recognise equitable use of water by each basin State taking into consideration the geography and hydrology of the basin, the climate, past utilisation of waters, economic and social needs, dependent population and availability of resources.

• The judgment also refers to the Campione Rules in the context of the Cauvery dispute. These Rules hold that basin States would in their respective territories manage the waters of an international drainage basin in an equitable and reasonable manner.


• The judgment however does not provide for distress years when water in Cauvery basin depletes from the 740 tmc available during a normal year.

• It widened the rift between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu with the the former welcoming the apex court’s ruling and the latter, of course, expressing deep anger at it.

Everything about Seventh Schedule

The Union List or List-I is a list of 100 items (the last item is numbered 97) given in Seventh Schedule in the Constitution of India on which Parliament has exclusive power to legislate. The legislative section is divided into three lists: Union List, State List and Concurrent List. Unlike the federal governments of the United States, Switzerland or Australia, residual powers remain with the Union Government, as with the Canadian federal government.

The main subjects of the Union List are: Defence, Foreign Affairs, Currency and Coinage, War and Peace, Atomic Energy, National Resources, Railways, Post and Telegraph, Citizenship, Navigation and Shipping, Foreign Trade, Inter-State Trade and Commerce, Banking, Insurance, National Highways, Census, Election, Institutions of higher education and others.

State List (66 Subjects): State List enumerates the subjects on which each State Legislature can legislate and such laws operate within the territory of each state. The main subjects of the State List are : public order, police, state court fees, prisons, local government, public health and sanitation, hospitals and dispensaries, pilgrimages within India, intoxicating liquors, relief of disabled and unemployable, libraries, communications, agriculture, animal husbandry, water supply, irrigation and canals, fisheries, road passenger tax and goods tax, capitation tax and others.

Concurrent List (47 Subjects): The Union Parliament as well as the State Legislatures have the power to legislate over the subjects listed in List III (Concurrent List). The main subjects listed in this list are : criminal law, criminal procedure, preventive detention for reasons concerned with the security of state, marriage and divorce, transfer of property other than agricultural land, contract, actionable wrongs, bankruptcy and insolvency, trust and trustees, administration of justice, evidence and oaths, civil procedure, contempt of court, lunacy, prevention of cruelty to animals, forests, protection of wild animals and birds, population control and family planning, trade unions, education, labour welfare, inland shipping and navigation, food stuffs, price control, stamp duties, and others. The actual strength of the Concurrent List is 52 as five more entries were inserted by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment.

China Myanmar Economic Corridor

  • China and Myanmar have moved a step closer on negotiating the China-Myanmar economic corridor.
  • This initiative is being given a high priority on account of the stalled Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar (BCIM) connectivity proposal.
  • The negotiations for the formation of the BCIM corridor have virtually been stalled after Beijing went ahead with its plans to establish the China-Pakistan economic corridor.

Y- shaped corridor

  • China-Myanmar economic corridor will be a Y- shaped corridor.
  • It will start from China’s Yunnan province and head towards Mandalay in Myanmar.
  • From Mandalay, it will extend towards Yangon New City in the East and Kyaukphyu special economic zone (in the Rakhine province) in the West.

Importance of the corridor

The corridor is important for both China and Myanmar in the following ways:

  1. It will enhance the connectivity between the two countries.
  2. It will connect Beijing with the Indian Ocean.
  3. It will accelerate the transfer of China’s industries to Myanmar (Due to the rising cost of labour, overcapacity and industrial development, China has begun to transfer some of its industries abroad).
  4. It will turn Myanmar into an important destination for China and other East Asian countries.
  5. It will create more jobs and bolster development.

Myanmar’s approach

  • Despite a flurry of diplomatic interaction between China and Myanmar in the aftermath of the Rohingya crisis, the Myanmar side is shedding a zero-sum approach and is also actively engaging with India.
  • Myanmar is seeking Indian investments in the central Myanmar region.
  • Myanmar has backed India’s Act East Policy and Neighbourhood First approach that promoted India’s relationship with the ASEAN countries including Myanmar.
  • Recently, India-Myanmar Bilateral Military Exercise (IMBAX-2017) was concluded at the Joint Training Node in Umroi, Meghalaya.

Everything about INDIA- SINGAPORE Relations.


• India’s connection with Singapore dates back to the Cholas who are credited with naming the island and establishing a permanent settlement.

• The close relationship shared by India and Singapore is based on convergence of economic and political interests.

• The process of economic reforms in India since the early 1990s created a strong basis for cooperation with Singapore, opening up possibilities for significant presence in each other’s economies.

• Singapore has played an important role in reconnecting us to the countries of South East Asia since the inception of our Look East Policy in the early 1990s.

Political relations

• India was among the first countries to set up diplomatic relations after the independence of Singapore on 24 August 1965.

• Singapore’s Foreign and Law Minister was the first minster from any ASEAN nation to  meet the new government.

• Former Singapore’s PM was awarded Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International understanding in 2004.

Economic relations

• Bilateral Trade has expanded significantly from $ 12.4 million in 1980-81 to $2.18 billion in 2013-14.

• Singapore has emerged as the 2nd largest source of FDI amounting to US$ 31.9 billion (April 2000 – Feb 2015), which is 13% of total FDI inflow.

• Singapore was the largest source of FDI into India for the year 2013-14 overtaking Mauritius.

• Outward Indian FDI to Singapore increased from US $351 million in 2004-05 to US $37.4 billion (April 2015), making Singapore one of the top destinations for Indian investments.

• In June 2005, the Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA) was signed by India with Singapore.

• Singapore has largest air connections to India with 6 airlines flying 232 weekly services.

Cultural Relations 

• To promote inter-governmental cooperation in culture, a Memorandum of Understanding for Cooperation in Arts, Archives and Heritage was concluded in 1993.

• Given the large and diverse Indian community in Singapore, cultural activities receive considerable support from community organizations.

• A number of cultural societies, namely Temple of Fine Arts, Singapore Indian Fine Arts Society, Nrityalaya, Kalamandir, among others, promote Indian classical dance and arts.

• Deepawali is regarded as the premier Indian cultural celebration.

Visa & Consular 

• India introduced a visa requirement for Singapore citizens in 1984 while Singapore introduced it in 1985.

• Tourists from Singapore are allowed ‘eTourist Visa (eTV)’ in select airports in India since 2010 on unilateral basis.

Indian Community 

• Ethnic Indians constitute about 9.1 per cent or around 3.5 lakhs of the resident population of 3.9 million in Singapore.

• Tamil is one of the four official languages of Singapore.

• Approximately two-thirds of the Indian community in Singapore are of Tamil origin. Punjabis, Malayalis and Sindhis are the other major Indian communities

Naval Agreements

• The bilateral agreement for naval cooperation includes:

1 Maritime security

2 Joint exercises

3 Temporary deployments from the naval facilities of each other

4 Mutual logistical support

Logistic Support

• Indian Navy will have a full-fledged logistics facility that is 2,177 km east from its nearest base at Port Blair in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal.

• This is the first such military logistics agreement with a country east of Malacca indicating a shift eastwards for the Indian Navy.

Lanes of communication

• Both Strait of Malacca and Andaman Sea are the key sea lanes of communication.

• India and Singapore should increase their participation and activity in these regions.

• Indian Navy has started its Malacca patrol in June this year to protect the sea lanes of communication (SLOCs).

Choke point of commerce

• The Strait of Malacca is considered a critical choke point for global commerce.

• It is critical for the transportation of natural gas and oil.

• It is seen by China as vulnerable for its energy security.

Strait of Malacca

• It is waterway connecting the Andaman Sea (Indian Ocean) and South China Sea (Pacific Ocean).

• It runs between the Indonesian island of Sumatra to the west and peninsular Malaysia and extreme southern Thailand to the east.

• It has an area of about 25,000 square miles (65,000 square km).

• The Strait derived its name from the trading port of Melaka (formerly Malacca) which was of importance in the 16th and 17th centuries on the Malay coast.

India Japan Strategic Relationship

Strategic partnership:

Defence ties

  • Both the countries have agreed to enhance exchanges between their forces with more bilateral exercises and exchanges in the field of technology at a time when India wants to increase domestic defence production.
  • The Armies of both nations will hold a joint exercise on anti-terrorism in 2018 for the first time.
  • The talks are on to include bilateral training between the two navies and Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) training to expand cooperation.
  • Both the countries seek to strengthen cooperation between their Air Forces.

Cooperation in Defence and technology

  • There will be collaboration between Acquisition, Technology and Logistic Agency (ATLA) and Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) for research in the areas of Unmanned Ground Vehicles and Robotics.

Malabar 2017

  • India-US-Japan successfully undertook this trilateral naval exercise in the Bay of Bengal. This is necessary to maintain freedom of navigation in the South China sea to counter Chinese hegemony.

Disaster relief

  • Japan has invited India to participate in a Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) exercise held by Japan Ground Self Defence Force as an observer.


  • 2+2 dialogue between the Foreign Ministries and Defence ministries of both the nations will take place in 2018.


  • Japan funds many road projects in the Northeast India to help bridge the gap between the strategically important Northeastern states. This would provide trade routes in the region and give it economic-push.
  • Bullet train: Japan is helping India in building bullet trains. It has invested $12 billion for India’s first bullet train from Ahmedabad to Mumbai.

Cooperation in Africa:

  • Japan and its banks are cooperating with India for investment in Africa. This is very important so as to counter China’s One Belt One Road (OBOR).

How will NSG membership help India? 

How will NSG membership help India? 

Clean energy push:

  • India is a growing country with massive energy needs.
  • It has set for itself an ambitious goal of sourcing 40% of its power from non-fossil sources and here is where nuclear energy comes into play.
  • India will need latest technology and NSG membership will come in handy.
  • Though it got a one-time NSG waiver in 2008, the country needs constant access to global markets and a stable trading framework.
  • Being a member of the NSG will also mean that India will have far greater access to uranium than it does currently under its 2008 agreement with the US. For example, Namibia is the fourth-largest producer of uranium and it agreed to sell the nuclear fuel to India in 2009.
  • However, that hasn’t happened, as Namibia has since cited a 2009 African version of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, the Pelindaba Treaty, which essentially controls the supply of uranium from Africa to the rest of the world.
  • If India joins the NSG, such reservations from Namibia are expected to melt away.

It helps domestic firms:

  • A place on the nuclear trading table will help Indian companies such as the Walchandnar Industries Limited (WIL) and L&T to expand business.
  • India has a robust indigenous nuclear industry that worked mostly in isolation as international sanctions were slapped every time a nuclear test was conducted.
  • An NSG membership will make these companies comply with international norms and make it easier for them to ply their trade abroad.

Make in India:

  • New Delhi and Moscow have announced a plan to build reactors in India to sell them to other countries, a move expected to give a push to the Modi government’s Make in India initiative.
  • It will not only generate jobs but also help in technology development.
  • As an NSG member, India will be better placed to implement the initiative.

End of the nuclear winter:

  • One of the objectives of the 2008 nuclear deal was that the US would help India get into export-control regimes such as the NSG, the MTCR (missile technology control regime), Australia Group and Wassenar Arrangement.
  • As a member of these groupings, India will have access to defence, space and nuclear technologies.
  • The MTCR is done, of the remaining, the NSG is most crucial.
  • Admission to the MTCR will open the way for India to buy high-end missile technology and surveillance drones such as Predator.

Right to Freedom 

Right to Freedom

Art 19(1) – Democratic rights

  1. Speech and expression 
  • Art 19(1)(a) and Art 21 – inalienable disjunct
  • Express your view, right to listen, any communicable medium
  • Express others view
  • Right to know
  • Press freedom
  • Elect/reject candidate based on informed choices
  • Dissent – criticize govt
  • ITA 2000 – Sec 66A – chilling effect
  • Defamation – criminal and civil offense
    • Restrictions
      1. Security of state,
      2. sovereignty and integrity of India
      3. Relations with a foreign country
      4. Public order
      5. Morality And Decency
      6. Contempt of court
      7. Defamation


  1. Assemble
  • Corollary of 19(1)(a)
  • Assemble anywhere without arms – meeting and procession
  1. Association
  • Form association, cooperatives, union
  • Not avail to military, armed forces
  • Strike is illegal, but not hartal
  1. Movement
  • Whenever, wherever , however
  1. Settle/reside
  • Settle anywhere within country
  • Strengthen unity and territorial integrity and promote fraternity
  • ILPS for NE states – Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Nagaland
  1. Property – repealed
  2. Occupation
  • Practice any occupation but with qualification
  • State can take over for public interest
  • Complementary of Art 301 – to anyone – co operative federalism


Art 20: Conviction for offense 

  • Ex post facto
    • No retrospective
    • Only for criminal and not for civil and tax
  • Double jeopardy
    • Only to criminal courts and tribunals and not to civil and exe
    • No punishing twice
    • Cri + civil – two diff punishments
  • Self incrimination
    • No compulsion of self evidence to police
    • Voluntary confession ok to judiciary
    • Specimens can be forced – doesn’t make difference
    • No lie detector, violates privacy

Art 21: Life 

  • Fundamental of all FR
  • Live with dignity
  • Principles of natural justice – basic str, eliminate arbitrariness, fairness
  • Procedure established with law
    • Available only against arbitrary action of exe and not legislative
  • Due process of law (American const)
    • Arbitrary action of both exe and legislature
  • Suicide is criminal offense  – decriminalized (mental health care bill)
  • Die with dignity
  • Euthanasia – passive and active – voluntary, involuntary, non voluntary
    • Passive – prolong life
    • Active – end life
    • Aruna Shanbaug case vs UOI 2014
    • Passive legal with court’s authority
    • Active illegal
  • Advance consent to practise euthanasia
  • Santhara

Art 21A : Education 

  • 6 to 14yrs – free and compulsory edu by state


  • Right to schooling but not RTE
  • Centre State uncertain over financial responsibility
  • Perf based evaluation – teachers not trained and skilled
  • Auto promotion to next std

Art 22: Protection against Detention 

  • Punitive
    • Know grounds
    • Official record
    • No suspicion detention
    • Access to legal dept
    • Court within 24 hrs
    • Not detain any more time than sentenced
  • Preventive
    • 3 months max
    • Need permission for further
  • Under trials
    • Fast track courts
    • Mitigation
    • Grant bail if half term over already

About the Direct Benefit Transfer

  • The program aims to transfer subsidies directly to the people through their bank accounts.
  • Crediting subsidies directly into bank accounts help reduce leakages, delays, etc.
  • DBT has now extended to most of the government schemes.

DBT has two components:

  • Subsidy: When a government meets a part of the cost of providing a good or service to a beneficiary.
  • Income transfer: When a government provides income support to a beneficiary.
  • This is a pure transfer payment unrelated to the cost of providing any good or service.

Pros and Cons of DBT


  • Better targeting of the beneficiary: In case of physical delivery of subsided products there are numerous reports of leakages, diversion of supplies, black marketing etc.
  • By the use of DBT there is an assured transfer of the subsidy to the beneficiary.
  • Also the problems like product adulteration, delay in supplies are eliminated.
  • There is no need to have an elaborate administrative apparatus maintained at huge cost to manage the rationing of subsidized commodities.
  • DBT brings in transparency and efficiency, and enables beneficiaries to get their entitlements directly to them without any delay.
  • Direct transfer increases the circulation of money that will help in increasing the demand in the economy. Thus, keeping the growth cycle viable.


  • DBT is dependent on the banking system, which is backbone of the system.
  • Hence, anyone without a bank account will not be able to avail subsidies.
  •  In India, we still have the rural pockets where bank facilities has not reached yet.
  • Now, the government in its move to provide universal financial inclusion is taking the initiative to provide each household with at least one bank account under Jan Dhan Yojna. Linking of the two systems i.e. DBT and financial inclusion is now actively pursued.

Related Scheme:

PAHAL (PratyakshHanstantritLabh):

  • The Direct Benefit transfer of LPG (DBTL) scheme is PAHAL.
  • Consumers who wish to join the scheme will have to either link their Aadhaar number into their bank account.
  • DBTL is designed to ensure that the benefit meant for the genuine domestic customer reaches them directly and is not diverted.

Right to Freedom of religion

Right to Freedom of religion

Art 25:  P3 -Profess,Practice,Propagate

  • Conscience – inner freedom
  • Profess -declare openly
  • Practice – rituals and use signs
  • Propagate – spread but not force
  • Opinion & belief – no state interference
  • Conduct & practice – state can

Art 26: Religious denomination 

  • Est. institutions for religion and charity
  • Manage its affairs
  • Right to property
  • Administer its property
  • State can take over with compensation

 Art 27: Taxation for religion 

  • No collecting tax to promote religion
  • Fees is ok to provide service like safety
  • State is neither religious nor irreligious nor anti religious  but is non religious
  • Sarva Dharma Sambhav
  • Equidistant from all religion
  • West – don’t patronize
  • India – patronize without discrimination

Art 28: Religious instruction 

  • Religious instruction in schools
  • State wholly owned – strictly no
  • State administered but est. by religious denomination – permitted
  • State recognized – optional
  • State sponsored – optional

Right to equality  

Right to equality  

Art 14 : Law 

  • Equal before law  
    • Negative
    • English const
    • Absence of any privileges
    • Law is supreme authority – govt subjected to law
    • Art 361 (exception for president and governor)
    • Dicey
      • No punishment unless law violated
      • Every one equal before law without discrimination
      • Law is the superior – const is superior in India
    • From Rex Lex to Lex Rex
  • Equal protection of law 
    • Positive
    • American const
    • Equitable treatment
    • reservation to push backward ppl up
    • Treat likes alike, alikes not to be treated like


Art 15: Discrimination 

  • No discrimination on the grounds of RRSCP
  • Equal access to public places
  • Women and children exception – reservation for Women
  • Spc provision for edu and soc backward – SC ST
  • Reservation for BC – edu
  • Transgender rights reserved

Art 16: Employment Opportunity 

  • Equal opportunity in public employment
  • No discrimination on RRSCP + descents + residence
  • Exception for residence and descendants discrimination in some cases
  • Vertical reservation
    • Max reservation to be 50%
    • Additional reservation extended to women, military, sports etc..
  • Horizontal reservation
    • Reservation within reservation
  • Reservation to be state discretion – enabling clause
  • Indra Swahney VS UOI 1992
  • Carry forward policy for SC ST

Art 17: Untouchability 

  • Removed
  • Punishable
  • Renamed to Civil rights Act
  • Read about SC ST atrocities act

Art 18: Titles and rewards 

  • Except awards and edu degrees, nothing to be displayed

Cultural and Educational Rights 

Cultural and Educational Rights

Art 29: Minorities interest 

  • Protect identity
  • Unity in diversity
  • Majority and minority
  • State can’t deny admission in edu on grounds of religion, race, caste or language

 Art 30: Minority education 

  • Linguistics and religious minorities
  • Can have schools of their own – state and ntl recognition
  • BC not part of minority
  • Right to property – state can take over with compensation
  • No reservation for BC
  • Can have own admission process – transparent – no capitation
  • Art 350(A) – teach in mother tongue
  • Art 350(B) – President shall appoint a officer to protect & promote minority

Everything about Ordinance

What is an ordinance and who makes it?

  • Article 123 of the Indian Constitution grants the President of India to Promulgate Ordinances when either of the two Houses of the Parliament is not in session which makes it impossible for a single House to pass and enact a law.
  • Ordinances may relate to any subject that the parliament has the power to make law, and would be having same limitations.

When an ordinance can be issued?

  • When legislature is not in session.
  • When immediate action is needed: Here the Supreme Court has clarified that the legislative power to issue ordinances is ‘in the nature of an emergency power’ given to the executive only ‘to meet an emergent situation’.

How parliament exercises control over ordinance making power of President? 

  • The constitution provides two parliamentary checks vis-a-vis the promulgation of ordinance [Art 123(2) (a)]:
  • The power of parliament to pass resolutions disapproving the provisions of the ordinance.
  • The automatic expiry of the ordinance within six weeks of the reassembly of the houses of the parliament unless passed by the parliament; this gives a chance for the parliament to debate on the ordinance and review it accordingly.

Ordinance making powers of the Governor

  • Just as the President of India is constitutionally mandated to issue Ordinances under Article 123, the Governor of a state can issue Ordinances under Article 213, when the state legislative assembly (or either of the two Houses in states with bicameral legislatures) is not in session.
  • The powers of the President and the Governor are broadly comparable with respect to Ordinance making.
  • However, the Governor cannot issue an Ordinance without instructions from the President in certain cases where the assent of the President would have been required to pass a similar Bill.

Key debates relating to the Ordinance making powers of the Executive.

  • There has been significant debate surrounding the Ordinance making power of the President (and Governor).
  • Constitutionally, important issues that have been raised include:
  • Judicial review of the Ordinance making powers of the executive;
  • The necessity for ‘immediate action’ while promulgating an Ordinance;
  • And the granting of Ordinance making powers to the executive, given the principle of separation of powers.

Important Cases:

  • In 1970, RC Cooper vs.Union of India Case the Supreme Court, held that the President’s decision on Ordinance could be challenged on the grounds that ‘immediate action’ was not required; and the Ordinance had been passed primarily to by-pass debate and discussion in the legislature.
  • In 1980, AK Roy vs.Union of India case the Court argued that the President’s Ordinance making power is not beyond the scope of judicial review.

About the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT):

  • The nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty came into force in 1970, following widespread international concern about the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation and the spiraling nuclear weapon stocks of those states that had developed them.
  • The NPT is a multilateral treaty aimed at limiting the spread of nuclear weapons including three elements: (1) non-proliferation, (2) disarmament, and (3) peaceful use of nuclear energy
  • It says:
  • States without nuclear weapons will not acquire them;
  • States with nuclear weapons will pursue disarmament;
  • All states can access nuclear technology for peaceful purposes, under safeguards.
  • According to the treaty the nuclear weapon states are the United States, UK, Russia, China and France.
  • Three states, Israel, India and Pakistan did not sign the NPT.
  • They stayed outside the treaty framework and have developed nuclear weapons.
  • North Korea signed the treaty but withdrew from it in 2003.

Important Commitees

N.K.Singh committee To review the FRBM Act of 2003
Ratan Watal Committee On digital payments
Anil Kakodkar Committee On railway safety
A.K.Bhargava Net Neutrality
Madhukar Gupta committee India Pakistan Border issue
Aravind Subramanian Tackle shortage of pulses in India
Bibek Debroy committee Railways and privatization of railways
Shekatkar committee Defense
Shyam Benegal committee Film certification
Shankar Acharya committee To pre pone the financial year to Jan from Apr
Sailesh Nayek Committee Coastal Regulation Zone
Harun Rashid Khan Committee Corporate bond market
Kelkar committee PPP
Parthasarthy Shome committee GAAR recommendations
Madhav Chitale committee De-saltation of Ganga
Amitabh Kant committee
  • look at easing the policy regime for e-commerce players, including the rules for foreign direct investment
  • Bottlenecks of digital payments

 Parliamentary vs Presidential System

Does India need a presidential system?

Arguments :-

  1. Against

Debate can be divided in to feasibility and desirability

  1. In the existing constitutional scheme, change is not possible. Supreme court of India already held parliamentary form of Government as part of the basic structure of the constitution.
  2. Presidential system centralizes power and chances of it turning in to an authoritative system are high.
  3. If India’s diversity is taken in to consideration, it is not advisable to have a presidential system. Presidential system do not reflect the diversity well.
  4. Presidential system can create a stalemate situation between executive and legislature.

2. Favor

  1. Presidential system allows for quick decision making . Fixed term for executive makes him invulnerable from the politics of the day and provides stability. Decisiveness is necessary for India to deal with its enormous challenges.
  2. Accountability is better in Presidential system. Unlike in parliamentary system where Executive enjoys majority, there is no guarantee for the same in presidential system.
  3. President appoints his officers. It can bring in more talent in to the system.
  4. Parliamentary system have distorted voting preference of voters. It mean that voters are forced to vote for a candidate to have a particular leader as CM or Prime Minister.
  5. India will not have a US style two party grid lock. So issue based coalitions comes in to picture. It helps for greater debate in the houses.
  6. Most of the legislatures coming in to the houses are with little legislative experience and are participating in elections to get hold of executive power. It mean that they can not act as an effective legislative control.

What is Article 35A of Constitution: Jammu and Kashmir 

Article 35A

  • Article 35A gives the Jammu and Kashmir legislature the power to define the “permanent residents” of the state and provide them with special rights and privileges.
  • Article 35A offers special privileges to state subjects of J&K in matters related to employment, acquisition of immovable property, settlements and scholarships in relation to Article 370 of the Constitution.
  • The provision bars citizens from other parts of the country from acquiring immovable property in the state, taking up jobs with the state government, availing of state-sponsored scholarships or settling permanently anywhere in the Valley.

WRITS Under Article 32

Literal Meaning

  • Habeas Corpus – to have the body of
  • Mandamus – command/order to do the duty to public official
  • Prohibition – to forbid higher court to lower court – prevent from exceeding the jurisdiction (in between the trial)
  • Certiorari – to be certified – superior court to inferior court to squash the order or transfer the case (at the end of the trial)
  • Quo Warranto – By what warrant – Authority or claim of a person to office


Writs – Constitutional Meaning

  • Habeas Corpus 
    • Have the body of
    • Produce the detainee
  • Mandamus 
    • Command
    • Against public authority
    • To have him do duty
  • Prohibition
    • Forbid
    • HC to lower court
    • To stop trail
    • Against judicial and quasi judicial
    • preventive
  • Certiorari
    • Certified
    • HC to lower
    • Transfer or squash judgment
    • Preventive and curative
    • Judicial + quasi judicial + administrative
  • Quo Warranto 
    • Authority or warrant
    • Against state – public authority

Everything About the Rajya Sabha


  • Our Parliament comprises of the President and the two Houses—Lok Sabha (House of the People) and Rajya Sabha (Council of States).
  • The origin of the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) can be traced to the Montague-Chelmsford Report of 1918.
  • The Government of India Act, 1919 provided for the creation of a ‘Council of State’ as a second chamber of the then legislature with a restricted franchise which actually came into existence in 1921. The Governor-General was the ex-officio President of the then Council of State.
  • The Government of India Act, 1935, hardly made any changes in its composition.
  • The Constituent Assembly, which first met on 9 December 1946, also acted as the Central Legislature till 1950, when it was converted as ‘Provisional Parliament’.
  • During this period, the Central Legislature which was known as Constituent Assembly (Legislative) and later Provisional Parliament was unicameral till the first elections were held in 1952.
  • Extensive debate took place in the Constituent Assembly regarding the utility or otherwise of a Second Chamber in Independent India and ultimately, it was decided to have a bicameral legislature for independent India mainly because a federal system was considered to be most feasible form of Government for such a vast country with immense diversities.
  • A single directly elected House, in fact, was considered inadequate to meet the challenges before free India.
  • A second chamber known as the ‘Council of States’, therefore, was created with altogether different composition and method of election from that of the directly elected House of the People.
  • It was conceived as another Chamber, with smaller membership than the Lok Sabha (House of the People).
  • It was meant to be the federal chamber i.e., a House elected by the elected members of Assemblies of the States and two Union Territories in which  States were not given equal representation.
  • Apart from the elected members, provision was also made for the nomination of twelve members to the House by the President.
  • The minimum age of thirty years was fixed for membership as against twenty-five years for the Lower House.
  • The element of dignity and prestige was added to the Council of State House by making the Vice-President of India ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha who presides over its sittings.
  • Article 80 of the Constitution lays down the maximum strength of Rajya Sabha as 250, out of which 12 members are nominated by the President and 238 are representatives of the States and of the two Union Territories.
  • The present strength of Rajya Sabha, however, is 245, out of which 233 are representatives of the States and Union territories of Delhi and Puducherry and 12 are nominated by the President.
  • The members nominated by the President are persons having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of such matters as literature, science, art and social service.
  • The Fourth Schedule to the Constitution provides for allocation of seats to the States and Union Territories in Rajya Sabha.
  • The allocation of seats is made on the basis of the population of each State.
  • Consequent on the reorganization of States and formation of new States, the number of elected seats in the Rajya Sabha allotted to States and Union Territories has changed from time to time since 1952.

Most Favoured Nation (MFN) status

What is Most Favoured Nation’ (MFN) status? 

  • The WTO as the trade-promoting body has certain key principles or philosophical themes for its working.
  • One such principle is non-discrimination which is well scripted in Most Favored Nation (MFN) treatment.
  • The MFN is a status or treatment given by one country to another in trade matters.
  • It means that the recipient country of MFN will nominally get equal trade advantage as the ‘most favoured nation’ by the country granting the treatment.
  • Though the MFN status says the receiving country is the most favoured by the issuing country; the meaning is slightly different.

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  • The real meaning is that the receiving country will not be treated disadvantageously by the issuing country in trade matters vis a vis other countries.
  • Under WTO, countries cannot normally discriminate between their trading partners.
  •  If a special favour is granted to a particular country, it should be extended to all other WTO members.
  • In this respect, the MFN is so important that it is the first article of the GATT, which governs trade in goods.
  • The MFN status was accorded to Pakistan by India in 1996 as per India’s commitments as a member of the World Trade Organisation (WTO).
  • Pakistan, a founding member of the WTO like India, is yet to grant the MFN tag to India (and Israel).

Exceptions for MFN: 

  • MFN at the same time allows some exemptions as well.
  • One such exemption is the right to engage in Free Trade Agreements.
  • This means members can participate in regional trade agreements or free trade agreements where there is discrimination between member countries and non member countries.
  • Another exemption is that members can give developing countries special and differential treatment like greater market access.
  • This special concession are in different forms like reduced tariff rates from developing country imports, concessions that allows developing countries to give subsidies to their production sectors etc.
  • All these exceptions are subjected to strict conditions.
  • In general, MFN means that every time a country lowers a trade barrier or opens up a market, it has to do so for the same goods or services from all its trading partners — whether rich or poor, weak or strong.
  • Each member treats all the other members equally as “most-favoured” trading partners.

WTO- Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA)

Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA)

  • Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA) envisages faster clearances and reduction of red tapism at the borders and would thereby help in the ease of doing business.
  • TFA is bound to change the Indian trade and would bring more transparency in trade process.
  • after TFA ratification, the world wide best trade practices would be shared among the member countries.
  • She said while we have made rapid strides in streamlining our processes on the line of International best practices, in several areas, we need to ensure speedy legislation so that there are visible beneficial outcomes through trade facilitation. member countries would seek to simplify trade procedures and help promote cross border trade, bring greater predictability to traders and help improve the overall climate for trade and investment.

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  • TFA is supposed to enable domestic manufacturers, particularly Small and Medium Enterprises, connect more easily to regional and Global Value Chains.
  • TFA contains provisions for expediting the movement, release and clearance of goods, including goods in transit. It also sets-out measures for effective cooperation between customs and other appropriate authorities on trade facilitation and customs compliance issues. Smt. Sitharaman said these objectives of TFA are in consonance with India’s ease of doing business initiative.

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

  • The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) was established in 1964 as a permanent intergovernmental body.
  • UNCTAD is the principal organ of the United Nations General Assembly dealing with trade, investment, and development issues. 
  • The organization’s goals are to: “maximize the trade, investment and development opportunities of developing countries and assist them in their efforts to integrate into the world economy on an equitable basis.”
  • The primary objective of UNCTAD is to formulate policies relating to all aspects of development including trade, aid, transport, finance and technology.
  • The conference ordinarily meets once in four years; the permanent secretariat is in Geneva, Switzerland.

United Nations General Assembly -UNGA

  • It is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation.
  • Its powers are to oversee the budget of the United Nations, appoint the non-permanent members to the Security Council, receive reports from other parts of the United Nations and make recommendations in the form of General Assembly Resolutions.
  • The General Assembly meets under its president or Secretary-General in regular yearly sessions the main part of which lasts from September to December and resumed part from January until all issues are addressed.
  • The General Assembly (GA) is the main deliberative, policymaking and representative organ of the UN.
  • Decisions on important questions, such as those on peace and security, admission of new members and budgetary matters, require a two-thirds majority. Decisions on other questions are by simple majority.
  • Each country has one vote. Some Member States in arrear of payment may be granted the right to vote.  See the list of countries in arrears in the payment of their financial contributions.

UN Secretary General

  • The charter is vague in defining the duties of the secretary-general, the United Nations’ top official.
  • He or she is expected to show no favoritism to any particular country, but the office is largely dependent on the funding and goodwill of the most powerful nations.
  • The Security Council — notably the P5 — chooses the secretary-general, by secret ballot, to serve a maximum of two five-year terms.
  • This process makes it difficult for the role to be independent of the P5’s influence.
  • The secretary-general has no army to deploy, but what the position does enjoy is a bully pulpit.
  • If the officeholder is perceived as being independent, he or she is often the only person in the world who can call warring parties to the peace table.
  • The 10-year tenure of the current secretary-general, Ban Ki-moon, has repeatedly revealed the limits of the office’s authority.

United Nations Security Council – UNSC

  • The 15-member Security Council is by far the most powerful arm of the United Nations.
  • It can impose sanctions, as it did against Iran over its nuclear program, and authorize military intervention, as it did against Libya in 2011.
  • Its five permanent members are the victors of World War II: the United States, Britain, China, France and Russia.
  • The other 10 members are elected for two-year terms, with seats set aside for different regions of the world.
  • Efforts to expand the permanent membership of the council to include powers that have emerged since 1945 — such as India, Japan and Germany — have been stymied.
  • For every country that vies for a seat, rivals seek to block it.
  • Any member of the permanent five — or the P5, for short — can veto any measure, and each has regularly used this power to protect either itself or allies.
  • Since 1990, the United States has cast a veto on council resolutions 16 times, many concerning Israeli-Palestinian relations. Russia has done so 13 times, including four times over Syria.
  • The charter does allow the General Assembly to act if, because of a veto, international peace and security are threatened. But in reality, it is rarely done.

International Court of Justice – ICJ

  • ICJ is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).
  • It was established in June 1945 by the Charter of the United Nations and began work in April 1946.
  • The seat of the Court is at the Peace Palace in The Hague (Netherlands).
  • Of the six principal organs of the United Nations, it is the only one not located in New York (United States of America).
  • The Court’s role is to settle, in accordance with international law, legal disputes submitted to it by States and to give advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by authorized United Nations organs and specialized agencies.
  • The Court is composed of 15 judges, who are elected for terms of office of nine years by the United Nations General Assembly and the Security Council.
  • Its official languages are English and French.
  • Also known as world court

National Legal Services Authority (NALSA)

  • The National Legal Services Authority (NALSA) has been constituted under the Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987 to provide free Legal Services to the weaker sections of the society and to organize Lok Adalats for amicable settlement of disputes.
  • NALSA is headed by the Chief Justice of India.
  • In every State, State Legal Services Authority has been constituted to give effect to the policies and directions of the NALSA and to give free legal services to the people and conduct Lok Adalats in the State.
  • The State Legal Services Authority is headed by Hon’ble the Chief Justice of the respective High Court who is the Patron-in-Chief of the State Legal Services Authority.
  • In every District, District Legal Services Authority has been constituted to implement Legal Services Programmes in the District.
  • The District Legal Services Authority is situated in the District Courts Complex in every District and chaired by the District Judge of the respective district.
  • Since 2011, NALSA has been organising legal services clinics, especially in rural areas.
  • It has even recruited prison convicts with basic education and good behaviour to volunteer as paralegals.
  • Tihar Jail, for instance, has 46 such volunteers.

World Economic Forum – WEF

  • It is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva.
  • The forum was founded in 1971 by Klaus Schwab, a German-born business professor at the University of Geneva.
  • Recognized by the Swiss authorities as the international institution for public-private cooperation, its mission is cited as “committed to improving the state of the world by engaging business, political, academic, and other leaders of society to shape global, regional, and industry agendas”.
  • The Forum is best known for its annual winter meeting for five days in Davos, a mountain resort in Graubünden, in the eastern Alps region of Switzerland.
  • The meeting brings together some 2,500 top business leaders, international political leaders, selected intellectuals, and journalists for up to five days (winter) to discuss the most pressing issues facing the world.


  • It is a regional organization comprising seven Member States lying in the littoral and adjacent areas of the Bay of Bengal constituting a contiguous regional unity.
  • This sub-regional organization came into being on 6 June 1997 through the Bangkok Declaration. 
  • The regional group constitutes a bridge between South and South East Asia and represents a reinforcement of relations among these countries.
  • BIMSTEC has also established a platform for intra-regional cooperation between SAARC and ASEAN members.
  • The BIMSTEC region is home to around 1.5 billion people which constitute around 22% of the global population with a combined gross domestic product (GDP) of 2.7 trillion economy.
  • The objective of building such an alliance was to harness shared and accelerated growth through mutual cooperation in different areas of common interests by mitigating the onslaught of globalization and by utilizing regional resources and geographical advantages.
  • Unlike many other regional groupings, BIMSTEC is a sector-driven cooperative organization.
  • Starting with six sectors—including trade, technology, energy, transport, tourism and fisheries—for sectoral cooperation in the late 1997, it expanded to embrace nine more sectors—including agriculture, public health, poverty alleviation, counter-terrorism, environment, culture, people to people contact and climate change—in 2008.
  • The Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectorial Technical and Economic Co-operation (BIMSTEC)’s Permanent Secretariat Headquarters is in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
  • Fourth BIMSTEC summit to be held at Nepal in 2017

East Asia Summit – EAS

  • East Asia Summit is a unique Leaders-led forum of 18 countries of the Asia-Pacific region formed to further the objectives of regional peace, security and prosperity.
  • It has evolved as a forum for strategic dialogue and cooperation on political, security and economic issues of common regional concern and plays an important role in the regional architecture.
  • Established in 2005, EAS allows the principal players in the Asia-Pacific region to discuss issues of common interest and concern in an open and transparent manner at the highest level.
  • The membership of EAS consists of ten ASEAN Member States (i.e. Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand, the Philippines and Vietnam), Australia, China, India, Japan, New Zealand, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation and the USA.
  • EAS is an initiative of ASEAN and is based on the premise of the centrality of ASEAN.
  • The concept of an East Asia Grouping was first promoted in 1991 by then Malaysian Prime Minister, Mahathir bin Mohamad.
  • India has been a part of this process since its inception in 2005 in Kuala Lumpur and the fact that Indian Prime Ministers have participated in all the Summits, stands testimony to the importance India attaches to this process.


  • G20 was initiated in 1999 and consists of Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Republic of Korea, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union (EU).
  • Before the outbreak of global financial crisis in 2008, G20 meetings of Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors were held to discuss international financial and monetary policies, reform of international financial institutions and world economic development.
  • The first G20 Leaders’ Summit was held in 2008 in Washington D.C., United States of America.
  • In September 2009, the Pittsburgh Summit announced G20 as the premier forum for international economic cooperation, marking an important progress in global economic governance reform.
  • The tenth Summit was held in Antalya ,Turkey in November, 2015.
  • Hangzhou in China which was the venue of the 2016 G 20 summit and 2017 venue was Hamburg Germany.

Asian Development Bank (ADB)

  • The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established on 19 December 1966.
  • which is headquartered in Ortigas Center located in Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, Philippines, and maintains.
  • It promote social and economic development in Asia.
  • The bank admits the members of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP, formerly the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East or ECAFE) and non-regional developed countries.
  • From 31 members at its establishment, ADB now has 67 members, of which 48 are from within Asia and the Pacific and 19 outside.
  • The ADB was modeled closely on the World Bank, and has a similar weighted voting system where votes are distributed in proportion with members’ capital subscriptions.
  • At the end of 2014, Japan holds the largest proportion of shares at 15.7%. The United States holds 15.6%, China holds 6.5%, India holds 6.4%, and Australia holds 5.8%.

United Nations – UN

  • The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization that promotes international cooperation and peace building.
  • The United Nations was established after the end of WWII on the 24th of October 1945 in order to prevent a similar global conflict from ever reoccurring.
  • The United Nations replaced the ineffective League of Nations, which was created after the end of WWI.
  • The United Nations has 193 member states.
  • Its headquarters is situated in New York City.
  • The UN aims to maintain international peace, promote human rights, encourage global disarmament, foster social and economic development, protect the environment, provide humanitarian aid in cases of famine, natural disaster, and armed conflict, and further sustainable development.

The UN General Assembly  formally appointed Antonio Guterres as the new Secretary-General of the United Nations, replacing Ban Ki-moon.

  • He will serve for five years starting from January 1, 2017.
  • The UN Secretary-General is the head of the United Nations Secretariat and is de facto spokesperson and leader of the UN.

Islamic Development Bank

  • The Islamic Development Bank is an international financial institution established in pursuance of the Declaration of Intent issued by the Conference of Finance Ministers of Muslim Countries held in Jeddah in December 1973, and the Bank was formally opened on 20 October 1975.
  • The purpose of the Bank is to foster the economic development and social progress of member countries and Muslim communities individually as well as jointly in accordance with the principles of Shari’ah i.e., Islamic Law.
  • Functions- The functions of the Bank are to participate in equity capital and grant loans for productive projects and enterprises besides providing financial assistance to member countries in other forms for economic and social development.
  • The present membership of the Bank consists of 56 countries.
  • The basic condition for membership is that the prospective member country should be a member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), pay its contribution to the capital of the Bank and be willing to accept such terms and conditions as may be decided upon by the IDB Board of Governors.
  • The Bank’s principal office is in Jeddah in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

International Organizations: UNHRC

  • It is an inter-governmental body within the United Nations system responsible for strengthening the promotion and protection of human rights around the globe and for addressing situations of human rights violations and make recommendations on them.
  • It meets at the UN Office at Geneva.
  • The Council is made up of 47 United Nations Member States which are elected by the UN General Assembly.
  • The term of each seat is three years, and no member may occupy a seat for more than two consecutive terms.
  • The council works closely with the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights and engages the United Nations’ special procedures.
  • The General Assembly can suspend the rights and privileges of any Council member that it decides has persistently committed gross and systematic violations of human rights during its term of membership. The suspension process requires a two-thirds majority vote by the General Assembly.

Principles of Just recourse to War

​Principles of Just recourse to war

• Last resort

• Just cause

• Legitimate authority

• Right intentin

• Reasonable prospect of success

• Proportionality

​Thucydides quotes for Realist Foreign Policy

​Thucydides quotes

The bravest are surely those who have the clearest vision of what is before them, glory and danger alike, and yet notwithstanding, go out to meet it.

The secret to happiness is freedom… And the secret to freedom is courage.

Be convinced that to be happy means to be free and that to be free means to be brave. Therefore do not take lightly the perils of war.

Ignorance is bold and knowledge reserved.

It is frequently a misfortune to have very brilliant men in charge of affairs. They expect too much of ordinary men.

Men naturally despise those who court them, but respect those who do not give way to them.

History is Philosophy teaching by examples.

We secure our friends not by accepting favors but by doing them.

Wars spring from unseen and generally insignificant causes, the first outbreak being often but an explosion of anger.

Electoral Reforms : NOTA

NOTA – None of the Above

NOTA is designed to allow the voter to indicate disapproval of all of the candidates in a voting system. It is based on the principle that consent requires the ability to withhold consent in an election, just as they can by voting no on ballot questions.

  • The Supreme Court had upheld the right of voters to reject all candidates contesting the elections, saying it would go a long way in cleansing the political system of the country.
  • The court had directed the Election Commission to have an option of ‘None Of The Above’ (NOTA) on the electronic voting machines (EVMs) and ballot papers in a major electoral reform.
  • The EVMs have the NOTA option at the end of the candidates’ list. Earlier, in order to cast a negative ballot, a voter had to inform the presiding officer at the polling booth. A NOTA vote doesn’t require the involvement of the presiding officer.
  • In the Indian general election, 2014, NOTA polled 1.1% of the votes, counting to over 6 million.

Before NOTA:

  • Before the NOTA option came in existence, people casting negative votes were required to enter their names in a register and cast their vote on a separate paper ballot.
  • Under Section 49 (O) of the Conduct of Elections Rules, 1961, a voter could enter his electoral serial number in Form 17A and cast a negative vote. The presiding officer would then put a remark in the form and get it signed by the voter. This was done to prevent fraud or misuse of votes.
  • This provision was, however, deemed unconstitutional by the SC as it did not protect the identity of the voter.

Indian vs American constitution

Indian vs American constitution


Feature India America
Length Longest written Shortest written
Constitution type Federal with unitary basis Federal
Citizen ship One (except J&K A 370) One for America, and one for the state
Nature of democracy Parliamentary (because of British rule) Presidential
Legislature type Flexible with rigid Rigid
Number of constitution Only one for the country One for country and one for each state
Houses Lok sabha[house of people]

Rajya sabha[council of state] [Parliament]


House of representative [House of Congress]

Election of president Indirectly by the legislatures of central and state Directly by the people
President/ PM term 5 years and any number of times 4 years and 2 times

Electoral Bond

The concept of electoral bonds was introduced by Mr. Jaitley during his Budget 2017 speech in order to bring some transparency to the electoral funding process.

  • These bonds have to be authorised under a scheme under the Income Tax Act.
  • It will open for a limited period of time during the elections, or maybe a little before the elections.
  • A bond can be purchased by any donor only by cheque or electronic payment, only at authorised banks.
  • These bonds can be donated only to a political party. These are redeemable in only one account of that party, registered with the Election Commission.

Indus Treaty

Signed in 1960 by then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and then Pakistan President Ayub Khan, the treaty allocates 80% of water from the six-river Indus water system to Pakistan.

  • Beas, Ravi, Sutlej, Indus, Chenab and Jhelum from the Indus water system that flows from India to Pakistan. The Indus river basin spans parts of 4 countries (Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and China) in an area that is more than 30% arid.
  • Under the treaty, control over six north Indian rivers were divided between the two countries. India got control over the rivers Beas, Ravi and Sutlej whereas Pakistan got control over Indus, Chenab and Jhelum.
  • This is a unique treaty involving a third party. It was brokered by the World Bank.
  • A Permanent Indus Commission was set up as a bilateral commission to implement and manage the Treaty. The Commission solves disputes arising over water sharing.
  • The Treaty also provides arbitration mechanism to solve disputes amicably.

​Censure Motion:

​Censure Motion

• This motion can be moved only in the Lok Sabha and by the Opposition of the House.

• It can be moved against the Council of Ministers or an individual Minister or a group of Ministers for their failure to act or not to act or for their policy and may express regret, indignation or surprise of the House at the failure of the Minister or Ministers.

• The Motion should be specific and self-explanatory so as to record the reasons for the censure, precisely and briefly.

• No leave of the House is required to move a Censure Motion.

• If the Censure Motion is passed, the Council of Ministers is bound to seek the confidence of the Lok Sabha as early as possible.

• This motion is mentioned under the Rule 184 of the Rules and Procedures of the Lok Sabha.

Oscar Wilde Quotes

Oscar Wilde

I can resist everything except temptation.

We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars.

Always forgive your enemies – nothing annoys them so much.

Experience is simply the name we give our mistakes.

The truth is rarely pure and never simple.

Too many people today know the price of everything and the value of nothing.

To live is the rarest thing in the world. Most people exist, that is all.

There is only one thing in the world worse than being talked about, and that is not being talked about.

Be yourself; everyone else is already taken

To love oneself is the beginning of a lifelong romance.

Most people are other people. Their thoughts are someone else’s opinions, their lives a mimicry, their passions a quotation.

A dreamer is one who can only find his way by moonlight, and his punishment is that he sees the dawn before the rest of the world.

Some cause happiness wherever they go; others whenever they go.

Education is an admirable thing, but it is well to remember from time to time that nothing that is worth knowing can be taught.

A little sincerity is a dangerous thing, and a great deal of it is absolutely fatal.

It is absurd to divide people into good and bad. People are either charming or tedious.

The only difference between the saint and the sinner is that every saint has a past, and every sinner has a future.

I never travel without my diary. One should always have something sensational to read in the train.

There are only two tragedies in life: one is not getting what one wants, and the other is getting it.

I have nothing to declare except my genius.

I have the simplest tastes. I am always satisfied with the best.

The books that the world calls immoral are books that show the world its own shame.

I am not young enough to know everything.

There is no such thing as a moral or an immoral book. Books are well written, or badly written. That is all.

All women become like their mothers. That is their tragedy. No man does. That’s his.

A man who does not think for himself does not think at all.

Whenever people agree with me I always feel I must be wrong.

Fashion is a form of ugliness so intolerable that we have to alter it every six months.

Ordinary riches can be stolen; real riches cannot. In your soul are infinitely precious things that cannot be taken from you.

Anyone who lives within their means suffers from a lack of imagination.

Women are made to be loved, not understood.

Consistency is the last refuge of the unimaginative.

I think that God, in creating man, somewhat overestimated his ability.

I am so clever that sometimes I don’t understand a single word of what I am saying.

Man is least himself when he talks in his own person. Give him a mask, and he will tell you the truth.

If you want to tell people the truth, make them laugh, otherwise they’ll kill you.

The old believe everything; the middle-aged suspect everything; the young know everything.

The only thing to do with good advice is to pass it on. It is never of any use to oneself.

An idea that is not dangerous is unworthy of being called an idea at all.

If you are not too long, I will wait here for you all my life.

Life is too important to be taken seriously.

Children begin by loving their parents; as they grow older they judge them; sometimes they forgive them.

Art is the most intense mode of individualism that the world has known.

Keep love in your heart. A life without it is like a sunless garden when the flowers are dead.

It is what you read when you don’t have to that determines what you will be when you can’t help it.

When I was young I thought that money was the most important thing in life; now that I am old I know that it is.

The very essence of romance is uncertainty.

The world is a stage, but the play is badly cast.

Art is the only serious thing in the world. And the artist is the only person who is never serious.

Patriotism is the virtue of the vicious.

Work is the curse of the drinking classes.

Chester Bennington

Chester Bennington

I’m So “NUMB” and “FAINT” Today, 

My tears are “CRAWLING” and emotions are “BURNING IN THE SKY”


Today I am  “LOST IN THE ECHO”.

“IN THE END” you have “GIVEN UP”

I Know, now you are “A LIGHT THAT NEVER COMES” 

“NO MORE SORROWS ” May your soul Rest in Peace.

      Yours  “FROM THE INSIDE”.


Question Hour: Objective, Origin, Regulation, Types of questions.

In Focus: Question Hour

  • Lok Sabha starts every day with Question Hour.
  • The functioning of the Parliament under normal circumstances is as shown:
  • Objective of Question Hour
    • Question Hour is the time of an hour during which Members of Parliament ask any questions from ministers related to the implementation of laws and policies under the purview of their Ministry.
    • Members use it to hold the government accountable for its policies and actions.
    • Its broadcasting on TV started in 1991 and since then, it has become one the most visible aspects of parliamentary functioning.
  • Origin of Question Hour
    • Asking questions of the government has a long history in our legislative bodies.
    • Prior to Independence, the first question asked of government was in 1893.
    • It was on the burden cast on village shopkeepers who had to provide supplies to touring government officers.
  • Regulation of Question Hour
    • Parliament has comprehensive rules for dealing with every aspect of Question Hour.
    • Authority Conducting the Question Hour:
      • The presiding officers of the two houses are the final authority with respect to the conduct of Question Hour.
    • Kinds of Questions to be Asked:
      • Parliamentary rules provide guidelines on the kind of questions that can be asked by MPs.
      • Questions have to be limited to 150 words.
      • They have to be precise and not too general.
      • The question should also be related to an area of responsibility of the Government of India.
      • Questions should not seek information about matters that are secret or are under adjudication before courts.
    • Managing Question Hour:
      • To streamline the answering of questions raised by MPs, the ministries are put into five groups.
      • Each group answers questions on the day allocated to it.
    • Limit on Number of Questions:
      • Parliament rules limit the number of starred and unstarred questions an MP can ask in a day .
      • An MP may submit a maximum of five questions per day.
      • Of the questions listed against his name, one may be a starred question. (it is discussed in detail in later section of Types of Questions).
    • Days to Conduct Question Hour:
      • It is the presiding officers of the two Houses who finally decide whether a question raised by an MP will be admitted for answering by the government.
      • Question Hour in both Houses is held on all days of the session. But there are two days when an exception is made.
    • Exceptions:
      • There is no Question Hour on the day the President addresses MPs from both Houses in the Central Hall.
      • The President’s speech takes place at the beginning of a new Lok Sabha and on the first day of a new Parliament year.
      • Question Hour is not scheduled either on the day the Finance Minister presents the Budget.
    • Significance of Question Hour
      • The questions that MPs ask are designed to elicit information and trigger suitable action by ministries.
      • Over the last 70 years, MPs have successfully used this parliamentary device to shine a light on government functioning.
      • Their questions have exposed financial irregularities and brought data and information regarding government functioning to the public domain.

Different Types of Questions:

  • There are three different types of questions- Starred, Unstarred and Short Notice Questions.
  • Starred Question:
    • A starred question is asked by an MP and answered orally by the Minister-in-charge.
    • Each MP is allowed to ask one starred question per day.
    • Starred questions are submitted in advance (15 days) and only 20 questions are picked (through ballot) for oral answer on a day.
    • The questioning MP can thereafter ask upto two supplementary questions.
    • The Speaker may then permit other MPs to ask supplementary questions.
  • Unstarred Question:
    • An unstarred question receives a written reply from the Ministry.
    • These are also submitted 15 days in advance.
    • A maximum of 230 unstarred questions are picked for a day.
  • Short Notice Question:
    • These relate to a matter of urgent public importance.
    • They can be asked with less than 10 days’ notice, with reasons for the short notice.
    • Like starred questions they are answered orally followed by supplementary questions.
    • These are admitted at the discretion of the Speaker, with the consent of the concerned Minister.
    • This is a rarely used device; such questions have not been admitted even once in the last 10 years.

​Michel Foucault

​Michel Foucault

Madness is the absolute break with the work of art; it forms the constitutive moment of abolition, which dissolves in time the truth of the work of art.

In its function, the power to punish is not essentially different from that of curing or educating.

Freedom of conscience entails more dangers than authority and despotism.

As the archaeology of our thought easily shows, man is an invention of recent date. And one perhaps nearing its end.

What strikes me is the fact that in our society, art has become something which is only related to objects, and not to individuals, or to life.

Justice must always question itself, just as society can exist only by means of the work it does on itself and on its institutions.

The lyricism of marginality may find inspiration in the image of the “outlaw,” the great social nomad, who prowls on the confines of a docile, frightened order.

​Henry David Thoreau – The one who influenced Mahatma Gandhi

Henry David Thoreau

Go confidently in the direction of your dreams. Live the life you have imagined.

Our life is frittered away by detail… simplify, simplify.

Things do not change; we change.

Rather than love, than money, than fame, give me truth.

If you have built castles in the air, your work need not be lost; that is where they should be. Now put the foundations under them.

The mass of men lead lives of quiet desperation.

Aim above morality. Be not simply good, be good for something.

This world is but a canvas to our imagination.

It’s not what you look at that matters, it’s what you see.

As if you could kill time without injuring eternity.

How vain it is to sit down to write when you have not stood up to live.

A man is rich in proportion to the number of things he can afford to let alone.

I know of no more encouraging fact than the unquestionable ability of man to elevate his life by conscious endeavor.

There is no remedy for love but to love more.

I say beware of all enterprises that require new clothes, and not rather a new wearer of clothes.

I love to be alone. I never found the companion that was so companionable as solitude.

Most of the luxuries and many of the so-called comforts of life are not only not indispensable, but positive hindrances to the elevation of mankind.

Disobedience is the true foundation of liberty. The obedient must be slaves.

Most men lead lives of quiet desperation and go to the grave with the song still in them.

None are so old as those who have outlived enthusiasm.

The light which puts out our eyes is darkness to us. Only that day dawns to which we are awake. There is more day to dawn. The sun is but a morning star.

Many men go fishing all of their lives without knowing that it is not fish they are after.

That man is the richest whose pleasures are the cheapest.

The price of anything is the amount of life you exchange for it.

Never look back unless you are planning to go that way.

All good things are wild, and free.

Success usually comes to those who are too busy to be looking for it.

There are a thousand hacking at the branches of evil to one who is striking at the root.

Our truest life is when we are in dreams awake.

The cost of a thing is the amount of what I will call life which is required to be exchanged for it, immediately or in the long run.

Do not trouble yourself much to get new things, whether clothes or friends… Sell your clothes and keep your thoughts.

The most I can do for my friend is simply be his friend.

Pursue some path, however narrow and crooked, in which you can walk with love and reverence.

Every generation laughs at the old fashions, but follows religiously the new.

Dreams are the touchstones of our character.

Wealth is the ability to fully experience life.

I would rather sit on a pumpkin, and have it all to myself, than be crowded on a velvet cushion.

It is never too late to give up our prejudices.

Not until we are lost do we begin to understand ourselves.

That government is best which governs least.

The language of friendship is not words but meanings.

If the machine of government is of such a nature that it requires you to be the agent of injustice to another, then, I say, break the law.

Do not hire a man who does your work for money, but him who does it for love of it.

To be awake is to be alive.

An early-morning walk is a blessing for the whole day.

Under a government which imprisons any unjustly, the true place for a just man is also a prison.

Public opinion is a weak tyrant compared with our own private opinion. What a man thinks of himself, that is which determines, or rather indicates, his fate.

Live in each season as it passes; breathe the air, drink the drink, taste the fruit, and resign yourself to the influence of the earth.

Read the best books first, or you may not have a chance to read them at all.

Every man is the builder of a temple called his body.

Heaven is under our feet as well as over our heads.

Friedrich Hegel Quotes – Ardent defendant of State as an Institution

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Nothing great in the world has ever been accomplished without passion.

An idea is always a generalization, and generalization is a property of thinking. To generalize means to think.

Education is the art of making man ethical.

Genuine tragedies in the world are not conflicts between right and wrong. They are conflicts between two rights.

What experience and history teaches us is that people and governments have never learned anything from history, or acted on principles deduced from it.

Truth in philosophy means that concept and external reality correspond.

When liberty is mentioned, we must always be careful to observe whether it is not really the assertion of private interests which is thereby designated.

To him who looks upon the world rationally, the world in its turn presents a rational aspect. The relation is mutual.

Amid the pressure of great events, a general principle gives no help.

It is easier to discover a deficiency in individuals, in states, and in Providence, than to see their real import and value.

The Few assume to be the deputies, but they are often only the despoilers of the Many.

Once the state has been founded, there can no longer be any heroes. They come on the scene only in uncivilised conditions.

Too fair to worship, too divine to love.

The history of the world is none other than the progress of the consciousness of freedom.

Mere goodness can achieve little against the power of nature.

America is therefore the land of the future, where, in the ages that lie before us, the burden of the World’s History shall reveal itself.

World history is a court of judgment.

The valour that struggles is better than the weakness that endures.

The learner always begins by finding fault, but the scholar sees the positive merit in everything.

Animals are in possession of themselves; their soul is in possession of their body. But they have no right to their life, because they do not will it.

It is a matter of perfect indifference where a thing originated; the only question is: “Is it true in and for itself?”

Leo Tolstoy – Quotes – Influenced Mahatma Gandhi 

Leo Tolstoy

Everyone thinks of changing the world, but no one thinks of changing himself.

If you want to be happy, be.

All happy families resemble one another, each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.

All, everything that I understand, I understand only because I love.

The two most powerful warriors are patience and time.

There is no greatness where there is no simplicity, goodness and truth.

Truth, like gold, is to be obtained not by its growth, but by washing away from it all that is not gold.

In the name of God, stop a moment, cease your work, look around you.

We can know only that we know nothing. And that is the highest degree of human wisdom.

The sole meaning of life is to serve humanity.

Boredom: the desire for desires.

Joy can only be real only if people look upon their life as a service, and have a definite object in life outside themselves and their personal happiness.

It is amazing how complete is the delusion that beauty is goodness.

True life is lived when tiny changes occur.

He stepped down, trying not to look long at her, as if she were the sun, yet he saw her, like the sun, even without looking.

All violence consists in some people forcing others, under threat of suffering or death, to do what they do not want to do.

The strongest of all warriors are these two — Time and Patience.

Everything comes in time to him who knows how to wait.

Music is the shorthand of emotion.

Art is not a handicraft, it is the transmission of feeling the artist has experienced.

Without knowing what I am and why I am here, life is impossible.

Sun Tzu Quotes on Warfare and Realist Politics

​Sun Tzu

All warfare is based on deception.

Hence to fight and conquer in all your battles is not supreme excellence; supreme excellence consists in breaking the enemy’s resistance without fighting.

If you know the enemy and know yourself you need not fear the results of a hundred battles.

The supreme art of war is to subdue the enemy without fighting.

Victorious warriors win first and then go to war, while defeated warriors go to war first and then seek to win.

The general who wins the battle makes many calculations in his temple before the battle is fought. The general who loses makes but few calculations beforehand.

Opportunities multiply as they are seized.

Strategy without tactics is the slowest route to victory. Tactics without strategy is the noise before defeat.

Pretend inferiority and encourage his arrogance.

For to win one hundred victories in one hundred battles is not the acme of skill. To subdue the enemy without fighting is the acme of skill.

Know thy self, know thy enemy. A thousand battles, a thousand victories.

There is no instance of a nation benefitting from prolonged warfare.

are far from him. If you are far from the enemy, make him believe you are near.

The quality of decision is like the well-timed swoop of a falcon which enables it to strike and destroy its victim.

He who knows when he can fight and when he cannot, will be victorious.

The opportunity to secure ourselves against defeat lies in our own hands, but the opportunity of defeating the enemy is provided by the enemy himself.

The good fighters of old first put themselves beyond the possibility of defeat, and then waited for an opportunity of defeating the enemy.

Know your enemy and know yourself and you can fight a hundred battles without disaster.

In the practical art of war, the best thing of all is to take the enemy’s country whole and intact; to shatter and destroy it is not so good.

Secret operations are essential in war; upon them the army relies to make its every move.

All men can see these tactics whereby I conquer, but what none can see is the strategy out of which victory is evolved.

Sigmund Freud – Quotes

Being entirely honest with oneself is a good exercise.

Sometimes a cigar is just a cigar.

We are never so defenseless against suffering as when we love.

The ego is not master in its own house.

Most people do not really want freedom, because freedom involves responsibility, and most people are frightened of responsibility.

America is a mistake, a giant mistake.

Love and work are the cornerstones of our humanness.

What progress we are making. In the Middle Ages they would have burned me. Now they are content with burning my books.

One day, in retrospect, the years of struggle will strike you as the most beautiful.

I cannot think of any need in childhood as strong as the need for a father’s protection.

Love and work… work and love, that’s all there is.

Religion is an illusion and it derives its strength from the fact that it falls in with our instinctual desires.

The interpretation of dreams is the royal road to a knowledge of the unconscious activities of the mind.

A man should not strive to eliminate his complexes but to get into accord with them: they are legitimately what directs his conduct in the world.

The mind is like an iceberg, it floats with one-seventh of its bulk above water.

Dreams are often most profound when they seem the most crazy.

Men are more moral than they think and far more immoral than they can imagine.

Flowers are restful to look at. They have neither emotions nor conflicts.

The conscious mind may be compared to a fountain playing in the sun and falling back into the great subterranean pool of subconscious from which it rises.

Everywhere I go I find a poet has been there before me.

Where id was, there ego shall be.

Jean-Paul Satre Quotes

Jean-Paul Satre Quotes

Man is condemned to be free; because once thrown into the world, he is responsible for everything he does.
Freedom is what you do with what’s been done to you.

Three o’clock is always too late or too early for anything you want to do.

If you are lonely when you are alone, you are in bad company.

When the rich wage war it’s the poor who die.

Everything has been figured out, except how to live.

Every existing thing is born without reason, prolongs itself out of weakness, and dies by chance.

Do you think that I count the days? There is only one day left, always starting over: it is given to us at dawn and taken away from us at dusk.

Life begins on the other side of despair.

Like all dreamers, I mistook disenchantment for truth.

I hate victims who respect their executioners.

Life has no meaning the moment you lose the illusion of being eternal.

We must act out passion before we can feel it.

We do not know what we want and yet we are responsible for what we are – that is the fact.

All that I know about my life, it seems, I have learned in books.

She believed in nothing; only her skepticism kept her from being an atheist.

Only the guy who isn’t rowing has time to rock the boat.

I tell you in truth: all men are Prophets or else God does not exist.

If literature isn’t everything, it’s not worth a single hour of someone’s trouble.

Being is. Being is in-itself. Being is what it is.

Fascism is not defined by the number of its victims, but by the way it kills them.

That God does not exist, I cannot deny, That my whole being cries out for God I cannot forget.

One is still what one is going to cease to be and already what one is going to become. One lives one’s death, one dies one’s life.

All human actions are equivalent and all are on principle doomed to failure.

It is only in our decisions that we are important.

We do not judge the people we love.

To eat is to appropriate by destruction.

Existence precedes and rules essence.

One always dies too soon or too late. And yet, life is there, finished: the line is drawn, and it must all be added up. You are nothing other than your life.

I do not believe in God; his existence has been disproved by Science. But in the concentration camp, I learned to believe in men.

Man is fully responsible for his nature and his choices.

If I became a philosopher, if I have so keenly sought this fame for which I’m still waiting, it’s all been to seduce women basically.

For an occurrence to become an adventure, it is necessary and sufficient for one to recount it.

If a victory is told in detail, one can no longer distinguish it from a defeat.

Commitment is an act, not a word.

Life has no meaning a priori… It is up to you to give it a meaning, and value is nothing but the meaning that you choose.

Fear? If I have gained anything by damning myself, it is that I no longer have anything to fear.

I have no need for good souls: an accomplice is what I wanted.

Once you hear the details of victory, it is hard to distinguish it from a defeat.

As far as men go, it is not what they are that interests me, but what they can become.

The poor don’t know that their function in life is to exercise our generosity.

In love, one and one are one.

There are two types of poor people, those who are poor together and those who are poor alone. The first are the true poor, the others are rich people out of luck.

The best work is not what is most difficult for you; it is what you do best.

Politics is a science. You can demonstrate that you are right and that others are wrong.

What do I care about Jupiter? Justice is a human issue, and I do not need a god to teach it to me.

Ah! yes, I know: those who see me rarely trust my word: I must look too intelligent to keep it.

Man is not the sum of what he has already, but rather the sum of what he does not yet have, of what he could have.

My thought is me: that is why I cannot stop thinking. I exist because I think I cannot keep from thinking.

A writer must refuse to allow himself to be transformed into an institution.

The more sand that has escaped from the hourglass of our life, the clearer we should see through it.

Why Quit India Movement (August Revolution)is most UnGandhian?

Why Quit India Movement (August Revolution)is most UnGandhian?

It was most militant and UnGandhian because of following reasons.

  • Movement was clear rebellion, least controlled and most spontaneous
  • Gandhi allowed use of arms in self-defense
  • Justified armed resistance against stronger and well-equipped aggressor
  • Called for Do or Die
  • Asked not to remain alive to see country in state of bondage of slavery
  • Held that nation survives when people are ready to die for nation
  • Refused to condemn violence by people rather justified as reaction to bigger violence
  • Congress asked not to bow heads and receive strokes but pull stick and defend.
  • Nehru clarified that there is no restriction on any sorts like previous restrictions.
  • Congress clarified that everyone is free to use his or her own weapon
  • Gandhi called it as last struggle of his life
  • Gandhi held that further delay in freedom in injurious and Humiliating
  • He also clarified that there’s no plan to call off movement
  • He even permitted people to take control of police-station whenever necessary.

Edmund Burke Quotes to support State as an Institution

The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing.

Nobody made a greater mistake than he who did nothing because he could do only a little.

Those who don’t know history are destined to repeat it.

When bad men combine, the good must associate; else they will fall one by one, an unpitied sacrifice in a contemptible struggle.

Our patience will achieve more than our force.

You can never plan the future by the past.

He that struggles with us strengthens our nerves, and sharpens our skill. Our antagonist is our helper.

People will not look forward to posterity, who never look backward to their ancestors.

Your representative owes you, not his industry only, but his judgment; and he betrays instead of serving you if he sacrifices it to your opinion.

To read without reflecting is like eating without digesting.

No passion so effectually robs the mind of all its powers of acting and reasoning as fear.

Among a people generally corrupt liberty cannot long exist.

All government, indeed every human benefit and enjoyment, every virtue, and every prudent act, is founded on compromise and barter.

Good order is the foundation of all things.

Never despair, but if you do, work on in despair.

It is a general popular error to suppose the loudest complainers for the public to be the most anxious for its welfare.

But what is liberty without wisdom, and without virtue? It is the greatest of all possible evils; for it is folly, vice, and madness, without tuition or restraint.

A State without the means of some change is without the means of its conservation.

It is not what a lawyer tells me I may do; but what humanity, reason, and justice tell me I ought to do.

Hypocrisy can afford to be magnificent in its promises, for never intending to go beyond promise, it costs nothing.

The greater the power, the more dangerous the abuse.

F​riedrich Nietzsche Quotes

Friedrich Nietzsche

That which does not kill us makes us stronger.

He who fights with monsters might take care lest he thereby become a monster. And if you gaze for long into an abyss, the abyss gazes also into you.

He who has a why to live can bear almost any how.

In individuals, insanity is rare; but in groups, parties, nations and epochs, it is the rule.

Without music, life would be a mistake.

One must still have chaos in oneself to be able to give birth to a dancing star.

You have your way. I have my way. As for the right way, the correct way, and the only way, it does not exist.

There are no facts, only interpretations.

The surest way to corrupt a youth is to instruct him to hold in higher esteem those who think alike than those who think differently.

There is always some madness in love. But there is also always some reason in madness.

Whatever is done for love always occurs beyond good and evil.

All truly great thoughts are conceived by walking.

And those who were seen dancing were thought to be insane by those who could not hear the music.

The true man wants two things: danger and play. For that reason he wants woman, as the most dangerous plaything.

It is not a lack of love, but a lack of friendship that makes unhappy marriages.

We have art in order not to die of the truth.

The advantage of a bad memory is that one enjoys several times the same good things for the first time.

Thoughts are the shadows of our feelings – always darker, emptier and simpler.

We should consider every day lost on which we have not danced at least once. And we should call every truth false which was not accompanied by at least one laugh.

Hope in reality is the worst of all evils because it prolongs the torments of man.

Of all that is written, I love only what a person has written with his own blood.

Revolutionary Movement in India – Contribution, Source of Influence, Strategy, Achievement

Revolutionary Movement in India

Telegram :

  1. Contributions

Revolutionary term is used for section of Indian Nationalists who believed in “Cult of Bomb”.

  1. Difference between Revolutionary and Terrorist

Revolutionaries used violence against those whom they considered as exploiters.

Terrorist go for indiscriminate use of violence and Killing of innocent people can not be justified.

  1. Sources of Influences on Revolutionaries
    • Bankim Chandra Chatterjee’s “Anandmath”
    • Sachindranath Sanyal’s  “Bandijeevan”
    • Bhagvati Chandra Vohra’s “Philospohy of Bomb”
    • Irish Nationalist
    • Russian Nihilists and Revolutionaries
  1. Strategy of Revolutionaries

  • To strike terror in hearts of rulers
  • Assassin British officers whom they consider very exploitative
  • Arose patriotic feelings among masses.
  • Inspire youth for Heroism
  • Remove fear of British Authority
  • Initially emphasized on individual acts of heroism but later contemplated possibility of revolution of masses.
  • Operate from outside (Below personalities established societies in England and Europe)
    1. Shyamji Krishna Verma – India House – London
    2. Madam Kama
    3. Ajit Singh
    4. D. Savarkar
  1. Why it was not successful
  • Lacked mass support
  • They also did not get support from Indian National Congress
  • They had to depend on Individual acts of heroism
  1. Achievements of Revolutionaries
  • It filled political vacuum when congress was in INACTIVE Phase.
  • It inspired not only Youths but also Women.
  • By remarkable Heroism they gave pride of manhood in Indians.




Mother Teresa – Quotes on Peace

​Mother Teresa Quotes

If you judge people, you have no time to love them.

Spread love everywhere you go. Let no one ever come to you without leaving happier.

Be faithful in small things because it is in them that your strength lies.

Kind words can be short and easy to speak, but their echoes are truly endless.

There are no great things, only small things with great love. Happy are those.

If we have no peace, it is because we have forgotten that we belong to each other.

If you can’t feed a hundred people, then feed just one.

I have found the paradox that if I love until it hurts, then there is no hurt, but only more love.

Peace begins with a smile..

Every time you smile at someone, it is an action of love, a gift to that person, a beautiful thing.

Intense love does not measure, it just gives.

The hunger for love is much more difficult to remove than the hunger for bread.

Do not wait for leaders; do it alone, person to person.

Yesterday is gone. Tomorrow has not yet come. We have only today. Let us begin.

Love begins at home, and it is not how much we do… but how much love we put in that action.

I’m a little pencil in the hand of a writing God, who is sending a love letter to the world.

Joy is a net of love by which you can catch souls.

We shall never know all the good that a simple smile can do.

Let us always meet each other with smile, for the smile is the beginning of love.

Being unwanted, unloved, uncared for, forgotten by everybody, I think that is a much greater hunger, a much greater poverty than the person who has nothing to eat.

God doesn’t require us to succeed; he only requires that you try.

Immanuel Kant Quotes – Use for Ethical Case Studies

​Immanuel Kant

Science is organized knowledge. Wisdom is organized life.

Morality is not properly the doctrine of how we may make ourselves happy, but how we may make ourselves worthy of happiness.

Live your life as though your every act were to become a universal law.

So act that your principle of action might safely be made a law for the whole world.

He who is cruel to animals becomes hard also in his dealings with men. We can judge the heart of a man by his treatment of animals.

All our knowledge begins with the senses, proceeds then to the understanding, and ends with reason. There is nothing higher than reason.

Seek not the favor of the multitude; it is seldom got by honest and lawful means. But seek the testimony of few; and number not voices, but weigh them.

Thoughts without content are empty, intuitions without concepts are blind.

By a lie, a man… annihilates his dignity as a man.

Immaturity is the incapacity to use one’s intelligence without the guidance of another.

Out of timber so crooked as that from which man is made nothing entirely straight can be carved.

From such crooked wood as that which man is made of, nothing straight can be fashioned.

It is not God’s will merely that we should be happy, but that we should make ourselves happy.

Nothing is divine but what is agreeable to reason.

Experience without theory is blind, but theory without experience is mere intellectual play.

I had therefore to remove knowledge, in order to make room for belief.

Have patience awhile; slanders are not long-lived. Truth is the child of time; erelong she shall appear to vindicate thee.

But although all our knowledge begins with experience, it does not follow that it arises from experience.

May you live your life as if the maxim of your actions were to become universal law.

What can I know? What ought I to do? What can I hope?

Happiness is not an ideal of reason, but of imagination.

​Confucius Quotes on Everything

​Confucius Quotes

Everything has its beauty, but not everyone sees it.

It does not matter how slowly you go so long as you do not stop.

Our greatest glory is not in never falling, but in rising every time we fall.

I want you to be everything that’s you, deep at the center of your being.

I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand.

Choose a job you love, and you will never have to work a day in your life.

Wheresoever you go, go with all your heart.

By three methods we may learn wisdom: First, by reflection, which is noblest; Second, by imitation, which is easiest; and third by experience, which is the bitterest.

When anger rises, think of the consequences.

Real knowledge is to know the extent of one’s ignorance.

What you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others.

To see what is right, and not to do it, is want of courage or of principle.

The superior man is modest in his speech, but exceeds in his actions.

Respect yourself and others will respect you.

When it is obvious that the goals cannot be reached, don’t adjust the goals, adjust the action steps.

Silence is a true friend who never betrays.

Before you embark on a journey of revenge, dig two graves.

Forget injuries, never forget kindnesses.

The will to win, the desire to succeed, the urge to reach your full potential… these are the keys that will unlock the door to personal excellence.

When we see men of a contrary character, we should turn inwards and examine ourselves.

The man who moves a mountain begins by carrying away small stones.

Adolf Hitler Quotes

Those who want to live, let them fight, and those who do not want to fight in this world of eternal struggle do not deserve to live.

If you tell a big enough lie and tell it frequently enough, it will be believed.

He alone, who owns the youth, gains the future.

Make the lie big, make it simple, keep saying it, and eventually they will believe it.

The victor will never be asked if he told the truth.

Words build bridges into unexplored regions.

Demoralize the enemy from within by surprise, terror, sabotage, assassination. This is the war of the future.

I use emotion for the many and reserve reason for the few.

All propaganda has to be popular and has to accommodate itself to the comprehension of the least intelligent of those whom it seeks to reach.

It is not truth that matters, but victory.

The great strength of the totalitarian state is that it forces those who fear it to imitate it.

As a Christian I have no duty to allow myself to be cheated, but I have the duty to be a fighter for truth and justice.

Humanitarianism is the expression of stupidity and cowardice.

Anyone who sees and paints a sky green and fields blue ought to be sterilized.

The broad masses of a population are more amenable to the appeal of rhetoric than to any other force.

I believe today that my conduct is in accordance with the will of the Almighty Creator.

Strength lies not in defence but in attack.

The doom of a nation can be averted only by a storm of flowing passion, but only those who are passionate themselves can arouse passion in others.

Who says I am not under the special protection of God?

Mankind has grown strong in eternal struggles and it will only perish through eternal peace.

The very first essential for success is a perpetually constant and regular employment of violence.

The leader of genius must have the ability to make different opponents appear as if they belonged to one category.

The art of leadership consists in consolidating the attention of the people against a single adversary and taking care that nothing will split up that attention.

The great masses of the people will more easily fall victims to a big lie than to a small one.

I go the way that Providence dictates with the assurance of a sleepwalker.

And I can fight only for something that I love, love only what I respect, and respect only what I at least know.

What luck for rulers that men do not think.

Voltaire Quotes For Ethical and Political Questions and Essays

Judge of a man by his questions rather than by his answers.

I disapprove of what you say, but will defend to the death your right to say it.

Common sense is genius in homespun. II

Those who can make you believe absurdities can make you commit atrocities.

Every man is guilty of all the good he did not do.

If there were no God, it would be necessary to invent him.

Appreciation is a wonderful thing: It makes what is excellent in others belong to us as well.

Think for yourselves and let others enjoy the privilege to do so, too.

It is forbidden to kill; therefore all murderers are punished unless they kill in large numbers and to the sound of trumpets.

The secret of being a bore is to tell everything.

It is difficult to free fools from the chains they revere.

Prejudices are what fools use for reason.

I have always made one prayer to God, a very short one. Here it is: “My God, make our enemies very ridiculous!” God has granted it to me.

A witty saying proves nothing.

Each player must accept the cards life deals him or her: but once they are in hand, he or she alone must decide how to play the cards in order to win the game.

It is dangerous to be right when the government is wrong.

Indeed, history is nothing more than a tableau of crimes and misfortunes.

Let us read, and let us dance; these two amusements will never do any harm to the world.

The best is the enemy of the good.

The art of medicine consists in amusing the patient while nature cures the disease.

God is a comedian playing to an audience too afraid to laugh.

Jeremy Bentham’s Quotes – Father of Utilitarianism

Jeremy Bentham Quotes

The said truth is that it is the greatest happiness of the greatest number that is the measure of right and wrong.

The question is not, can they reason? Nor, can they talk? But, can they suffer?

Stretching his hand up to reach the stars, too often man forgets the flowers at his feet.

Every law is an infraction of liberty.

Lawyers are the only persons in whom ignorance of the law is not punished.

The greatest happiness of the greatest number is the foundation of morals and legislation.

Tyranny and anarchy are never far apart.

It is vain to talk of the interest of the community, without understanding what is the interest of the individual.

No power of government ought to be employed in the endeavour to establish any system or article of belief on the subject of religion.

Secrecy, being an instrument of conspiracy, ought never to be the system of a regular government.

The age we live in is a busy age; in which knowledge is rapidly advancing towards perfection.

The power of the lawyer is in the uncertainty of the law.

George Washington – Quotes on Everything From Life to State

Associate with men of good quality if you esteem your own reputation; for it is better to be alone than in bad company.

Be courteous to all, but intimate with few, and let those few be well tried before you give them your confidence.

If the freedom of speech is taken away then dumb and silent we may be led, like sheep to the slaughter.

Friendship is a plant of slow growth and must undergo and withstand the shocks of adversity before it is entitled to the appellation.

I hope I shall possess firmness and virtue enough to maintain what I consider the most enviable of all titles, the character of an honest man.

To be prepared for war is one of the most effectual means of preserving peace.

Observe good faith and justice toward all nations. Cultivate peace and harmony with all.

Liberty, when it begins to take root, is a plant of rapid growth.

Guard against the impostures of pretended patriotism.

Labor to keep alive in your breast that little spark of celestial fire, called conscience.

It is better to offer no excuse than a bad one.

Few men have virtue to withstand the highest bidder.

Happiness and moral duty are inseparably connected.

Discipline is the soul of an army. It makes small numbers formidable; procures success to the weak, and esteem to all.

Arbitrary power is most easily established on the ruins of liberty abused to licentiousness.

The basis of our political system is the right of the people to make and to alter their constitutions of government.

The Constitution is the guide which I never will abandon.

Worry is the interest paid by those who borrow trouble.

We should not look back unless it is to derive useful lessons from past errors, and for the purpose of profiting by dearly bought experience.

Let us raise a standard to which the wise and honest can repair; the rest is in the hands of God.

Let your heart feel for the afflictions and distress of everyone, and let your hand give in proportion to your purse.

Thomas Jefferson Quotes – Declaration of American Independence

The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants.

Do you want to know who you are? Don’t ask. Act! Action will delineate and define you.

I hold it, that a little rebellion, now and then, is a good thing, and as necessary in the political world as storms in the physical.

In matters of style, swim with the current; in matters of principle, stand like a rock.

I cannot live without books.

Nothing can stop the man with the right mental attitude from achieving his goal; nothing on earth can help the man with the wrong mental attitude.

Honesty is the first chapter in the book of wisdom.

When angry count to ten before you speak. If very angry, count to one hundred.

Question with boldness even the existence of a God; because, if there be one, he must more approve of the homage of reason, than that of blind-folded fear.

I would rather be exposed to the inconveniences attending too much liberty than those attending too small a degree of it.

The God who gave us life, gave us liberty at the same time.

If a nation expects to be ignorant and free, in a state of civilization, it expects what never was and never will be.

No free man shall ever be debarred the use of arms.

Never spend your money before you have it.

Information is the currency of democracy.

I like the dreams of the future better than the history of the past.

I sincerely believe… that banking establishments are more dangerous than standing armies.

Enlighten the people generally, and tyranny and oppressions of body and mind will vanish like evil spirits at the dawn of day.

How much pain they have cost us, the evils which have never happened.

I have sworn upon the altar of God, eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man.

The spirit of resistance to government is so valuable on certain occasions that I wish it to be always kept alive.

Montesquieu Quotes – Use in Political Essays

There is no greater tyranny than that which is perpetrated under the shield of the law and in the name of justice.

Success in the majority of circumstances depends on knowing how long it takes to succeed.

I have always observed that to succeed in the world one should appear like a fool but be wise.

The tyranny of a prince in an oligarchy is not so dangerous to the public welfare as the apathy of a citizen in a democracy.

To become truly great, one has to stand with people, not above them.

If the triangles made a god, they would give him three sides.

Useless laws weaken the necessary laws.

Do you think that God will punish them for not practicing a religion which he did not reveal to them?

There is no nation so powerful, as the one that obeys its laws not from principals of fear or reason, but from passion.

Lunch kills half of Paris, supper the other half.

It is not the young people that degenerate; they are not spoiled till those of mature age are already sunk into corruption.

I’ve never known any trouble that an hour’s reading didn’t assuage.

Liberty is the right of doing whatever the laws permit.

What orators lack in depth they make up for in length.

Friendship is an arrangement by which we undertake to exchange small favors for big ones.

Countries are well cultivated, not as they are fertile, but as they are free.

An author is a fool who, not content with boring those he lives with, insists on boring future generations.

There should be weeping at a man’s birth, not at his death.

Luxury ruins republics; poverty, monarchies.

The severity of the laws prevents their execution.

We should weep for men at their birth, not at their death.

Vivekananda Quotes on Spiritualism and Life

​Vivekananda Quotes

You have to grow from the inside out. None can teach you, none can make you spiritual. There is no other teacher but your own soul.

We are what our thoughts have made us; so take care about what you think. Words are secondary. Thoughts live; they travel far.

The world is the great gymnasium where we come to make ourselves strong.

You cannot believe in God until you believe in yourself.

All the powers in the universe are already ours. It is we who have put our hands before our eyes and cry that it is dark.

Condemn none: if you can stretch out a helping hand, do so. If you cannot, fold your hands, bless your brothers, and let them go their own way.

Arise,awake and donot stop until the goal is reached.

When an idea exclusively occupies the mind, it is transformed into an actual physical or mental state.

Truth can be stated in a thousand different ways, yet each one can be true.

External nature is only internal nature writ large.

Where can we go to find God if we cannot see Him in our own hearts and in every living being.

All differences in this world are of degree, and not of kind, because oneness is the secret of everything.

The will is not free – it is a phenomenon bound by cause and effect – but there is something behind the will which is free.

If money help a man to do good to others, it is of some value; but if not, it is simply a mass of evil, and the sooner it is got rid of, the better.

The more we come out and do good to others, the more our hearts will be purified, and God will be in them.

If faith in ourselves had been more extensively taught and practiced, I am sure a very large portion of the evils and miseries that we have would have vanished.

God is to be worshipped as the one beloved, dearer than everything in this and next life.

Joseph Stalin Quotes – Can be used for Realist Political Essays.

It is enough that the people know there was an election. The people who cast the votes decide nothing. The people who count the votes decide everything.

A single death is a tragedy; a million deaths is a statistic.

Education is a weapon, whose effect depends on who holds it in his hands and at whom it is aimed.

Ideas are more powerful than guns. We would not let our enemies have guns, why should we let them have ideas.

Death is the solution to all problems. No man – no problem.

Gratitude is a sickness suffered by dogs.

History shows that there are no invincible armies.

In the Soviet army it takes more courage to retreat than advance.

The only real power comes out of a long rifle.

I believe in one thing only, the power of the human will.

The writer is the engineer of the human soul.

I trust no one, not even myself.

You cannot make a revolution with silk gloves.

If the opposition disarms, well and good. If it refuses to disarm, we shall disarm it ourselves.

Print is the sharpest and the strongest weapon of our party.

Gaiety is the most outstanding feature of the Soviet Union.

Sincere diplomacy is no more possible than dry water or wooden iron.

Rabindranath Tagore Quotes

I slept and dreamt that life was joy. I awoke and saw that life was service. I acted and behold, service was joy.
Faith is the bird that feels the light when the dawn is still dark.

You can’t cross the sea merely by standing and staring at the water.

The butterfly counts not months but moments, and has time enough.

Clouds come floating into my life, no longer to carry rain or usher storm, but to add color to my sunset sky.

A mind all logic is like a knife all blade. It makes the hand bleed that uses it.

Death is not extinguishing the light; it is only putting out the lamp because the dawn has come.

Everything comes to us that belongs to us if we create the capacity to receive it.

Let your life lightly dance on the edges of Time like dew on the tip of a leaf.

Don’t limit a child to your own learning, for he was born in another time.

Music fills the infinite between two souls.

Trees are the earth’s endless effort to speak to the listening heaven.

Love is the only reality and it is not a mere sentiment. It is the ultimate truth that lies at the heart of creation.

Love does not claim possession, but gives freedom.

Facts are many, but the truth is one.

The highest education is that which does not merely give us information but makes our life in harmony with all existence.

Every child comes with the message that God is not yet discouraged of man.

By plucking her petals, you do not gather the beauty of the flower.

We read the world wrong and say that it deceives us.

We live in the world when we love it.

Do not say, ‘It is morning,’ and dismiss it with a name of yesterday. See it for the first time as a newborn child that has no name.

Love is an endless mystery, for it has nothing else to explain it.

Love’s gift cannot be given, it waits to be accepted.

Depth of friendship does not depend on length of acquaintance.

We come nearest to the great when we are great in humility.

Beauty is truth’s smile when she beholds her own face in a perfect mirror.

Your idol is shattered in the dust to prove that God’s dust is greater than your idol.

The water in a vessel is sparkling; the water in the sea is dark. The small truth has words which are clear; the great truth has great silence.

He who wants to do good knocks at the gate: he who loves finds the door open.

If you shut your door to all errors truth will be shut out.

Bigotry tries to keep truth safe in its hand with a grip that kills it.

Age considers; youth ventures.

Emancipation from the bondage of the soil is no freedom for the tree.

We gain freedom when we have paid the full price.

The burden of the self is lightened with I laugh at myself.

What is Art? It is the response of man’s creative soul to the call of the Real.

Only in love are unity and duality not in conflict.

Love is not a mere impulse, it must contain truth, which is law.

When I stand before thee at the day’s end, thou shalt see my scars and know that I had my wounds and also my healing.

To be outspoken is easy when you do not wait to speak the complete truth.

He who is too busy doing good finds no time to be good.

Those who own much have much to fear.

Nirvana is not the blowing out of the candle. It is the extinguishing of the flame because day is come.

I have spent my days stringing and unstringing my instrument, while the song I came to sing remains unsung.

In Art, man reveals himself and not his objects.

From the solemn gloom of the temple children run out to sit in the dust, God watches them play and forgets the priest.

Men are cruel, but Man is kind.

God waits to win back his own flowers as gifts from man’s hands.

Gray hairs are signs of wisdom if you hold your tongue, speak and they are but hairs, as in the young.

Aristotle Quotes For Essay

We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but a habit.

What is a friend? A single soul dwelling in two bodies.

It is the mark of an educated mind to be able to entertain a thought without accepting it.
Pleasure in the job puts perfection in the work.

Happiness depends upon ourselves.

I count him braver who overcomes his desires than him who conquers his enemies; for the hardest victory is over self.

Poverty is the parent of revolution and crime.

The roots of education are bitter, but the fruit is sweet.

The educated differ from the uneducated as much as the living from the dead.

All men by nature desire knowledge.

For the things we have to learn before we can do them, we learn by doing them.

All human actions have one or more of these seven causes: chance, nature, compulsion, habit, reason, passion, and desire.

No great genius has ever existed without some touch of madness.

In all things of nature there is something of the marvelous.

The worst form of inequality is to try to make unequal things equal.

The energy of the mind is the essence of life.

A friend to all is a friend to none.

Nature does nothing uselessly.

Those who educate children well are more to be honored than they who produce them; for these only gave them life, those the art of living well.

The best friend is the man who in wishing me well wishes it for my sake.

Quality is not an act, it is a habit.

Mahatma Gandhi – Quotes For Essays

You must be the change you wish to see in the world.

The weak can never forgive. Forgiveness is the attribute of the strong.

Happiness is when what you think, what you say, and what you do are in harmony.

An eye for eye only ends up making the whole world blind.

Live as if you were to die tomorrow; learn as if you were to live forever.

First they ignore you, then they laugh at you, then they fight you, then you win.

You must not lose faith in humanity. Humanity is an ocean; if a few drops of the ocean are dirty, the ocean does not become dirty.

The best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in the service of others.

Strength does not come from physical capacity. It comes from an indomitable will.

A man is but the product of his thoughts; what he thinks, he becomes.

Nobody can hurt me without my permission.

Where there is love there is life.

Earth provides enough to satisfy every man’s needs, but not every man’s greed.

Freedom is not worth having if it does not include the freedom to make mistakes.

To believe in something, and not to live it, is dishonest.

It is unwise to be too sure of one’s own wisdom. It is healthy to be reminded that the strongest might weaken and the wisest might err.

The greatness of a nation can be judged by the way its animals are treated.

In a gentle way, you can shake the world.

Whatever you do will be insignificant, but it is very important that you do it.

A ‘No’ uttered from deepest conviction is better and greater than a ‘Yes’ merely uttered to please, or what is worse, to avoid trouble.

I like your Christ, I do not like your Christians. Your Christians are so unlike your Christ.