Category Archives: Political Science

Everything About: Syama Prasad Mookerjee

About: Syama Prasad Mookerjee Born on 6 July 1901 in Calcutta, Syama Prasad Mookerjee was an Indian politician, barrister and academician. In 1934, Mookerjee earned the rare distinction of becoming the youngest vice-chancellor of Calcutta University at the age of 33. For his outstanding academic record, he was awarded with the Doctorate of Literature by the Calcutta University and LL.D (Doctor of Law) by

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About: Central Vigilance Commission (CVC)

About: Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) The Central Vigilance Commission was setup by a Government Resolution in 1964, to advise and guide Central Government agencies in the field of vigilance. The Commission was given the status of independent statutory authority through the Central Vigilance Commission Act, 2003. As the apex integrity institution, the Commission is mandated to fight corruption and to ensure integrity in public administration.

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Who are the 19 lakh excluded from Assam NRC, and what next for them?

Headline : Who are the 19 lakh excluded from Assam NRC, and what next for them? Details : In News: The recently published final list of people in updated National Register of Citizen (NRC) has stripped nearly 19 lakh people in the north-eastern state of Assam of their citizenship. About: NRC The NRC for a state is the list of Indian

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Can Pakistan get the ICJ to undo India’s decision on J&K’s special status?

Headline : Can Pakistan get the ICJ to undo India’s decision on J&K’s special status? Details : In News: Pakistan has decided to approach the International Court of Justice (ICJ) over the recent revocation of Jammu and Kashmir’s special status by India. Telegram: https://t.me/ShubhraRanjanPSIR Theme of the topic: The topic analysis the ICJ’s Jurisdiction over the Jammu and Kashmir case About/; International Court of

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Polity: Federalism- Debate, landmark cases, Types of Federalism, J&K and more

Headline : The forms of federalism in India Details : Why in News? The Union government has withdrawn the special status conferred on Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) under Article 370 of the Constitution. It has also divided the State into two regions and declared them as Union Territories. Telegram: https://t.me/ShubhraRanjanPSIR The debate concerning with federalism: Nations are described as ‘federal’ or

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Jammu and Kashmir: Article 370, Article 35(A), Resolutions, Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Bill and all other developments

Headline : J&K loses its special status, divided into two UTs Details : Telegram: https://t.me/UpscExpress The News: In a historic decision, the Indian government has changed the terms of engagement with Jammu and Kashmir by doing away with the special status enjoyed by the state under Article 370, scrapping Article 35A and splitting the state into two UTs of J&K and Ladakh.   Background: Special status to

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Quotes for Essays:

Quotes for Essays: 1) Gandhi: https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/16/mahatma-gandhi-quotes-for-essays/ 2) Marx: https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/16/karl-marx-quotes/ 3) Aristotle: https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/16/aristotle-quotes-for-essay/ 4) Buddha: https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/16/indian-political-thoughts-buddha-quotes/ 5) Plato: https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/16/plato-quotes-for-essay/ 6) Ambedkar: https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/16/dr-babasaheb-ambedkar-quotes/ 7) Kautilya: https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/16/kautilya-chanakya-quotes/ 8) Aurobindo Ghosh: https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/16/aurobindo-ghosh-quotes-for-essay/ 9) Socrates: https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/16/western-political-thoughts-socrates-quotes/ 10) Machiaveli : https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/16/%E2%80%8Bmachiavelli-father-of-realism-quotes/ 11) Hobbes: https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/16/wesrer-political-thoughts-thomas-hobbes-quotes/ 12) Rousseau: https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/16/rousseaus-quotes-father-of-french-revolution/ !3) John Locke: https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/16/john-locke-quotes-man-who-influenced-american-constitution/ 14) J.S. Mill: https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/17/j-s-mill-quotes-father-of-liberalism/ 15) Gramsci : https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/17/gramsci-follower-of-marxism-quotes-for-essay-and-ethics/ 16) Vivekananda : https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/17/vivekananda-quotes-on-spiritualism-and-life/ 17) Montesquieu: https://upscexpress.com/2017/07/17/montesquieu-quotes-use-in-political-essays/

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In Focus: Presidential System of Government

In Focus: Presidential System of Government The Presidential system of government is one where the Executive is constitutionally independent of the Legislature, and is not responsible to the legislature. The Presidential form of government, unlike the Parliamentary system, is based on separation of powers, not on the fusion of Legislature and the Executive.  The Presidential system is found, besides the United States

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SC reserves verdict on changes to SC/ST law

Headline : SC reserves verdict on changes to SC/ST law Details : The News Recently, the Supreme Court has reserved its judgment on a batch of petitions challenging the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Act of 2018.   The Scheduled Castes and Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 Objective: to prevent atrocities against scheduled castes and scheduled

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Pak launches guidelines to implement UNSC 1267 Sanctions in country

Headline : Pak launches guidelines to implement UNSC 1267 Sanctions in country  Details :  The news Pakistan has launched guidelines for implementing the UNSC 1267 Sanctions targeting UN-proscribed individuals and entities in the country.   Background After Pulwama attach and India’s counter airstrikes, tensions escalated between India and Pakistan. Since then, Pakistan is under intense global pressure to take action against

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 Mahatma Gandhi gave a new dimension to the women question in the freedom struggle . Discuss.

Answer: • The women’s question like the untouchability or the communal question emerged  during the nationalist movement that had to be solved to give shape to the vision of a free India. From the 19th century, the women’s question has formed one of the major issues in socio-political debate. • In the Indian society, the coming of British rule led

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5 provisions under which Parliament can legislate on a subject.

There are 5 provisions under which Parliament can legislate on a subject included in state list: Article 249  if the Council of States has declared by resolution supported by not less than two thirds of the members present and voting that it is necessary or expedient in the national interest that Parliament should make laws with respect to any matter

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Safeguard for Minorities in India

Currently there are 6 minorities in India viz. Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, Parsis and Jains. The Constitution does not define a minority or provide details relating to the geographical and numerical specification of the concept. However, it talks about ‘Minorities’ and speaks of those ‘based on religion or language and provides for special domain rights for them such as: •

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The Naga insurgency has been a major threat to India’s security and integrity and can destabilize multiple states in north-eastern India. Elaborate. Also discuss various measures taken by the governments in handling the issue.

Approach: Introduce the issue of Naga insurgency. Explain its impact on security of India as well as that in northeastern states. Provide measures undertaken by Government especially Naga peace accord. Conclude appropriately. Model Answer : Ever since Indian Independence, the Naga Insurgency has taken many forms, including the demands for secessionism to wanton violence. The Naga Insurgency at present is

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In Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan is fighting a hybrid war, and Indian response should also be in the hybrid domain”. Discuss.

Approach: Introduce with Hybrid conflict Talk about how Pakistan indulges in regular and hybrid wars against India and India’s response Discuss why India needs to engage in hybrid war and what it involves Conclude appropriately Model Answer : Hybrid war is one fought through a combination of conventional, irregular (efforts to win legitimacy and influence over the populations), and asymmetric

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China Myanmar Economic Corridor

China and Myanmar have moved a step closer on negotiating the China-Myanmar economic corridor. This initiative is being given a high priority on account of the stalled Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar (BCIM) connectivity proposal. The negotiations for the formation of the BCIM corridor have virtually been stalled after Beijing went ahead with its plans to establish the China-Pakistan economic corridor. Y- shaped corridor

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Everything about INDIA- SINGAPORE Relations.

INDIA- SINGAPORE RELATIONS • India’s connection with Singapore dates back to the Cholas who are credited with naming the island and establishing a permanent settlement. • The close relationship shared by India and Singapore is based on convergence of economic and political interests. • The process of economic reforms in India since the early 1990s created a strong basis for

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Right to Freedom 

Right to Freedom Art 19(1) – Democratic rights Speech and expression  Art 19(1)(a) and Art 21 – inalienable disjunct Express your view, right to listen, any communicable medium Express others view Right to know Press freedom Elect/reject candidate based on informed choices Dissent – criticize govt ITA 2000 – Sec 66A – chilling effect Defamation – criminal and civil offense

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About the Direct Benefit Transfer

The program aims to transfer subsidies directly to the people through their bank accounts. Crediting subsidies directly into bank accounts help reduce leakages, delays, etc. DBT has now extended to most of the government schemes. DBT has two components: Subsidy: When a government meets a part of the cost of providing a good or service to a beneficiary. Income transfer: When a government

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Right to Freedom of religion

Right to Freedom of religion Art 25:  P3 -Profess,Practice,Propagate Conscience – inner freedom Profess -declare openly Practice – rituals and use signs Propagate – spread but not force Opinion & belief – no state interference Conduct & practice – state can Art 26: Religious denomination  Est. institutions for religion and charity Manage its affairs Right to property Administer its property State can take over with

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Right to equality  

Right to equality   Art 14 : Law  Equal before law   Negative English const Absence of any privileges Law is supreme authority – govt subjected to law Art 361 (exception for president and governor) Dicey No punishment unless law violated Every one equal before law without discrimination Law is the superior – const is superior in India From Rex Lex to

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Cultural and Educational Rights 

Cultural and Educational Rights Art 29: Minorities interest  Protect identity Unity in diversity Majority and minority State can’t deny admission in edu on grounds of religion, race, caste or language  Art 30: Minority education  Linguistics and religious minorities Can have schools of their own – state and ntl recognition BC not part of minority Right to property – state can

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About the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT):

The nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty came into force in 1970, following widespread international concern about the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation and the spiraling nuclear weapon stocks of those states that had developed them. The NPT is a multilateral treaty aimed at limiting the spread of nuclear weapons including three elements: (1) non-proliferation, (2) disarmament, and (3) peaceful use of nuclear

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Important Commitees

N.K.Singh committee To review the FRBM Act of 2003 Ratan Watal Committee On digital payments Anil Kakodkar Committee On railway safety A.K.Bhargava Net Neutrality Madhukar Gupta committee India Pakistan Border issue Aravind Subramanian Tackle shortage of pulses in India Bibek Debroy committee Railways and privatization of railways Shekatkar committee Defense Shyam Benegal committee Film certification Shankar Acharya committee To pre

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 Parliamentary vs Presidential System

Does India need a presidential system? Arguments :- Against Debate can be divided in to feasibility and desirability In the existing constitutional scheme, change is not possible. Supreme court of India already held parliamentary form of Government as part of the basic structure of the constitution. Presidential system centralizes power and chances of it turning in to an authoritative system are

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What is Article 35A of Constitution: Jammu and Kashmir 

Article 35A Article 35A gives the Jammu and Kashmir legislature the power to define the “permanent residents” of the state and provide them with special rights and privileges. Article 35A offers special privileges to state subjects of J&K in matters related to employment, acquisition of immovable property, settlements and scholarships in relation to Article 370 of the Constitution. The provision

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WRITS Under Article 32

Literal Meaning Habeas Corpus – to have the body of Mandamus – command/order to do the duty to public official Prohibition – to forbid higher court to lower court – prevent from exceeding the jurisdiction (in between the trial) Certiorari – to be certified – superior court to inferior court to squash the order or transfer the case (at the

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WTO- Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA)

Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA) Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA) envisages faster clearances and reduction of red tapism at the borders and would thereby help in the ease of doing business. TFA is bound to change the Indian trade and would bring more transparency in trade process. after TFA ratification, the world wide best trade practices would be shared among the member

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United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) was established in 1964 as a permanent intergovernmental body. UNCTAD is the principal organ of the United Nations General Assembly dealing with trade, investment, and development issues.  The organization’s goals are to: “maximize the trade, investment and development opportunities of developing countries and assist them in their efforts to integrate into

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UN Secretary General

The charter is vague in defining the duties of the secretary-general, the United Nations’ top official. He or she is expected to show no favoritism to any particular country, but the office is largely dependent on the funding and goodwill of the most powerful nations. The Security Council — notably the P5 — chooses the secretary-general, by secret ballot, to

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National Legal Services Authority (NALSA)

The National Legal Services Authority (NALSA) has been constituted under the Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987 to provide free Legal Services to the weaker sections of the society and to organize Lok Adalats for amicable settlement of disputes. NALSA is headed by the Chief Justice of India. In every State, State Legal Services Authority has been constituted to give effect

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World Economic Forum – WEF

It is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva. The forum was founded in 1971 by Klaus Schwab, a German-born business professor at the University of Geneva. Recognized by the Swiss authorities as the international institution for public-private cooperation, its mission is cited as “committed to improving the state of the world by engaging business, political, academic, and other

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BIMSTEC

It is a regional organization comprising seven Member States lying in the littoral and adjacent areas of the Bay of Bengal constituting a contiguous regional unity. This sub-regional organization came into being on 6 June 1997 through the Bangkok Declaration.  The regional group constitutes a bridge between South and South East Asia and represents a reinforcement of relations among these countries.

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East Asia Summit – EAS

East Asia Summit is a unique Leaders-led forum of 18 countries of the Asia-Pacific region formed to further the objectives of regional peace, security and prosperity. It has evolved as a forum for strategic dialogue and cooperation on political, security and economic issues of common regional concern and plays an important role in the regional architecture. Established in 2005, EAS

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G-20

G20 was initiated in 1999 and consists of Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Republic of Korea, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union (EU). Before the outbreak of global financial crisis in 2008, G20 meetings of Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors were held

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Asian Development Bank (ADB)

The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established on 19 December 1966. which is headquartered in Ortigas Center located in Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, Philippines, and maintains. It promote social and economic development in Asia. The bank admits the members of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP, formerly the Economic Commission

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United Nations – UN

The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization that promotes international cooperation and peace building. The United Nations was established after the end of WWII on the 24th of October 1945 in order to prevent a similar global conflict from ever reoccurring. The United Nations replaced the ineffective League of Nations, which was created after the end of WWI. The United

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Islamic Development Bank

The Islamic Development Bank is an international financial institution established in pursuance of the Declaration of Intent issued by the Conference of Finance Ministers of Muslim Countries held in Jeddah in December 1973, and the Bank was formally opened on 20 October 1975. The purpose of the Bank is to foster the economic development and social progress of member countries

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Indian vs American constitution

Indian vs American constitution Telegram: https://t.me/SimplifiedIAS Feature India America Length Longest written Shortest written Constitution type Federal with unitary basis Federal Citizen ship One (except J&K A 370) One for America, and one for the state Nature of democracy Parliamentary (because of British rule) Presidential Legislature type Flexible with rigid Rigid Number of constitution Only one for the country One

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Electoral Bond

The concept of electoral bonds was introduced by Mr. Jaitley during his Budget 2017 speech in order to bring some transparency to the electoral funding process. These bonds have to be authorised under a scheme under the Income Tax Act. It will open for a limited period of time during the elections, or maybe a little before the elections. A bond can

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Indus Treaty

Signed in 1960 by then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and then Pakistan President Ayub Khan, the treaty allocates 80% of water from the six-river Indus water system to Pakistan. Beas, Ravi, Sutlej, Indus, Chenab and Jhelum from the Indus water system that flows from India to Pakistan. The Indus river basin spans parts of 4 countries (Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and

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Chester Bennington

Chester Bennington I’m So “NUMB” and “FAINT” Today,  My tears are “CRAWLING” and emotions are “BURNING IN THE SKY” “SOMEWHERE I BELONG” ed to you. Today I am  “LOST IN THE ECHO”. “IN THE END” you have “GIVEN UP” I Know, now you are “A LIGHT THAT NEVER COMES”  “NO MORE SORROWS ” May your soul Rest in Peace.  

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Question Hour: Objective, Origin, Regulation, Types of questions.

In Focus: Question Hour Lok Sabha starts every day with Question Hour. The functioning of the Parliament under normal circumstances is as shown: Objective of Question Hour Question Hour is the time of an hour during which Members of Parliament ask any questions from ministers related to the implementation of laws and policies under the purview of their Ministry. Members use

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​Michel Foucault

​Michel Foucault Madness is the absolute break with the work of art; it forms the constitutive moment of abolition, which dissolves in time the truth of the work of art. In its function, the power to punish is not essentially different from that of curing or educating. Freedom of conscience entails more dangers than authority and despotism. As the archaeology

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Friedrich Hegel Quotes – Ardent defendant of State as an Institution

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Nothing great in the world has ever been accomplished without passion. An idea is always a generalization, and generalization is a property of thinking. To generalize means to think. Education is the art of making man ethical. Genuine tragedies in the world are not conflicts between right and wrong. They are conflicts between two rights. What

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Why Quit India Movement (August Revolution)is most UnGandhian?

Why Quit India Movement (August Revolution)is most UnGandhian? It was most militant and UnGandhian because of following reasons. Movement was clear rebellion, least controlled and most spontaneous Gandhi allowed use of arms in self-defense Justified armed resistance against stronger and well-equipped aggressor Called for Do or Die Asked not to remain alive to see country in state of bondage of

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Revolutionary Movement in India – Contribution, Source of Influence, Strategy, Achievement

Revolutionary Movement in India Telegram : https://t.me/SimplifiedIAS Contributions Revolutionary term is used for section of Indian Nationalists who believed in “Cult of Bomb”. Difference between Revolutionary and Terrorist Revolutionaries used violence against those whom they considered as exploiters. Terrorist go for indiscriminate use of violence and Killing of innocent people can not be justified. Sources of Influences on Revolutionaries Bankim

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