Anti-Defection Law Q Why is it in News ? Vice-President M. Venkaiah Naidu said that there was a need to amend the anti-defection legislation in the country to plug existing loopholes. Q What did Vice President notice now? Stating that there was no clarity in the law about the time frame for the action of the House Chairperson or SpeakerRead more
Category Archives: Polity & Governance
What do you understand by model code of conduct? Explain the purpose behind having a model code of conduct in India.
Model Answer The Model Code of Conduct (MCC) is a set of guidelines issued by the Election Commission to regulate conduct of political parties and candidates during the election campaign. It is evolved by the Election Commission on the basis of consensus among political parties. The model code of conduct is operational from the date on which election schedule isRead more
About: Zonal Councils: The idea of creation of Zonal Councils was mooted by the first Prime Minister of India, Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru in 1956. Subsequently, through States Reorganization Act of 1956, Zonal Councils were established as statutory bodies. Objective: To promote cooperation and coordinationbetween states, union territories and the Centre. The Act divided the country intofive zones (Northern, Central, Eastern, WesternRead more
Outline the importance of the India- Nepal bilateral relations. What are the major tensions between the countries?
Model Answer India-Nepal relations are based on multidimensional linkages. Acknowledging each other’s importance, both countries have described the relationship as ‘special’ on various occasions. However, the India-Nepal bilateral relationship is currently at its lowest ebb due to anti-India sentiments in Nepal, in reaction to the perceived political interference by India. Importance: People to people contact: Open border system (bordering 5 IndiaRead more
Model Answer The emergency provisions contained in article 352 (national emergency) and article 356 (President‘s rule) enable the central government to meet any abnormal situations effectively. Although their purpose is similar, these two emergencies differ widely in many regards. National emergency (article 352) President‘s rule (article 356) grounds of proclamation – When security of India or a part of itRead more
Model Answer The president can declare a national emergency under article 352, when the security of India or a part of it is threatened by war or external aggression or armed rebellion. The normal fabric of the Centre-state relations undergoes a basic change during national emergency. Effect on Centre-state relations Executive In normal times, the Centre state can give executiveRead more
How does national emergency differ from the President‘s rule? Comment. Model Answer The emergency provisions contained in article 352 (national emergency) and article 356 (President‘s rule) enable the central government to meet any abnormal situations effectively. Although their purpose is similar, these two emergencies differ widely in many regards. National emergency (article 352) President‘s rule (article 356) grounds of proclamationRead more
About Quit India Movement: The Quit India Movement started on August 9, 1942, and set in motion a chain of events over the following five years, which finally led to the end of the British rule in India. Also known as the August Kranti, the mass civil disobedience movement is considered to be one of the most significant events inRead more
In Focus: Uniform Civil Code (UCC) What is Uniform Civil Code (UCC)? A Uniform Civil Code refers to a single law for the entire country, applicable to all religious communities in their personal matters such as marriage, divorce, inheritance, adoption etc. It is intended to replace the system of fragmented personal laws, which currently govern interpersonal relationships and related mattersRead more
About: Syama Prasad Mookerjee Born on 6 July 1901 in Calcutta, Syama Prasad Mookerjee was an Indian politician, barrister and academician. In 1934, Mookerjee earned the rare distinction of becoming the youngest vice-chancellor of Calcutta University at the age of 33. For his outstanding academic record, he was awarded with the Doctorate of Literature by the Calcutta University and LL.D (Doctor of Law) byRead more
Chief Secretaries (CS) are members of the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) and are the administrative head of state governments. The Chief Secretary is the senior-most cadre post in the state administration and the status of the Chief Secretary is equal to that of a Secretary to the Government of India. The Indian Constitution does not list the powers and functions of the Chief Secretary. The functions ofRead more
About: Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) The Central Vigilance Commission was setup by a Government Resolution in 1964, to advise and guide Central Government agencies in the field of vigilance. The Commission was given the status of independent statutory authority through the Central Vigilance Commission Act, 2003. As the apex integrity institution, the Commission is mandated to fight corruption and to ensure integrity in public administration.Read more
About: National Human Rights Commission (NHRC): The National Human Rights Commission is a statutory body established in 1993 under the Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993. The commission is the watchdog of human rights in the country i.e. the rights relating to life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the Constitution or embodied in the international covenants and enforceable byRead more
How Supreme Court chooses the Chief Justice of India Why is it in News? Chief Justice of India Sharad A. Bobde has recommended Justice N.V. Ramana, the senior-most judge of the Supreme Court, as the next top judge. Justice Ramana is now set to take over as the 48th Chief Justice of India from April 24. How is CJI Appointed? TheRead more
In Focus: Civilian Awards: In 1954, Government of India instituted two civilian awards i.e. Bharat Ratna and Padma Vibhushan. The Padma Vibhushan had three classes namely Pahela Varg, Dusra Varg and Tisra Varg, which were subsequently renamed as Padma Vibhushan, Padma Bhushan and Padma Shri in 1955. About: Bharat Ratna Bharat Ratna is the highest civilian award of the country. It isRead more
Q. India is a “indestructible union of destructible state”. Explain this statement in light of the reorganization of the state under Article 3 of the Constitution.
Structure of the answer: Introduction (India being indestructible but State destructible) Background Reorganization of the state under Article 3 Final analysis Model Answer India has been called as “indestructible union” by Dr.B.R. Ambedkar as no Indian state can secede from the Indian union as in the case of confederation or loosely held federation. But on the other hand there is situation of destructible nature ofRead more
Q. Hate speech in India is a result of various facilitating factors. In this light discuss the impact of hate speech and suggestion to effectively deal with the same.
Structure of the answer: Introduction (Meaning) Factors supporting hate speeches Impact of hate speech Way for ward/ suggestion Model Answer Hate speech is incitement of hatred primarily against a group of people defined in terms of race, ethnicity, sexual orientation etc. The issue of hate speech has become a recurrent phenomenon especially before the elections. There are various factors facilitating hate speechesRead more
Q. Regionalism in India is a result of various interconnected factors. In this light discuss the various types regionalism in India and also suggest suitable measures to curtail negative impact of regionalism.
Structure of the answer: Introduction (regionalism) Factors responsible for regionalism Types of regionalism Conclusion/ way forward Model Answer Regionalism is a strong attachment to one’s own region. Thus, it is an ideology that seek to advance cause of a region. The rise of regionalism in India is a result of various factors: Historically, formation of various regional kingdoms and frequent regional warsRead more
Q. The amendment procedure under Indian Constitution is a curious mixture of rigidity and flexibility. In this light discuss the different procedure for amendment reflecting such blend.
Structure of the answer: Introduction (Article 368) Different types of amendment process Reflection of rigidity and flexibility Way forward Model Answer The nature of the amending process envisaged by the makers of our Constitution has been explained by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru as reconciliation of a written Constitution with Parliamentary Sovereignty. Article 368 (Part XX) of the Constitution deals with the power of Parliament toRead more
Q. Considering the controversial nature of the position of the Governor, many experts have suggested abolishment of the Governor’s post. In this light discuss the arguments for and against such decision.
Structure of the answer: Introduction Controversial position of the Governor Arguments for abolishing the post Arguments against abolishing the post Final analysis Model Answer The Position of the Governor is controversial in light of emergence of concept of cooperative federalism. The issue has recently cropped up over controversial role of Governor in post-election scenario in Maharashtra and Karnataka. These events reflected that Governor’s interferenceRead more
Q. India has moved forward by providing fundamental rights of basic education through Right to Education (RTE) Act 2009. Analyse the challenges faced at primary level of Education in India. Also discuss the major reforms suggested at primary level in the recent draft education policy 2019.
Approach: Briefly write about Right to Education (RTE) Act 2009 and its current status. Discuss the challenges faced at primary level of Education in India. Discuss the major reforms suggested at primary level in the recent draft education policy 2019. Model Answer With 86th amendment, education was made fundamental rights of the citizen under Article 21(a). Right to education act 2009Read more
Model Answer India adopted federal form of governance where the states are represented through the Upper House. Except Money Bills, Upper House plays an important role in the law making process in the country. It also plays the role of counsel to states; however, some experts are of the view that this House should be abolished as it is not servingRead more
Q. The Citizen’s Charter is an ideal instrument of organisational transparency and accountability. Identify the importance and components of Citizen’s Charter. Tracing out its limitations, suggest measures for its greater effectiveness.
Approach: Start introduction mentioning the challenges in public service delivery. Define Citizen’s Charter stating its importance and it components. Discuss the limitation in implementation of Citizen’s Charter. Discuss the measures to ensure its effective implementation. Model Answer The public service delivery of India faced a problem of bureaucratic corruption and delays. The government functioned in a very opaque and unaccountable manner. There existed aRead more
Q. The reason for malnutrition/ hunger are multidimensional. In this light, discuss the factors contributing to malnutrition and also suggest suitable measures to improve malnutrition in India.
Structure of the answer: Introduction Causes of malnutrition in India Measures to overcome Conclusion Model Answer Malnutrition is a physical state that includes undernutrition (wasting, stunting, underweight), inadequate vitamins or minerals, overweight, obesity, and resulting diet-related non-communicable diseases. As per Reports 31.4% of children are malnourished. The factors contributing to malnutrition are as follows: Despite increase in food grain production access to rice, wheatRead more
Governor’s role in calling an Assembly session: what the law, courts say Context: The Kerala Governor recently refused to accept the Kerala Cabinet’s request to summon (call) a special sitting of the Assembly to debate the new three central farm laws. This provides the context to study about the provisions related to the Governor’s powers to summon an assembly. In Focus: ProvisionsRead more
Q. Discuss the relevance of the Legislative Councils in the States in the backdrop of recent demand of certain states to create the second house?
Approach: Briefly write about the constitutional process of formation of Legislative Council. Discuss both the arguments: favour and against the existence of Legislative council. Write the final conclusion mentioning what should be the way forward. Model Answer Legislative councils of state are created under Article 169 of the Constitution. Parliament may by law create or abolish the second chamber in a state ifRead more
Q. The suburbanisation occurring at a relatively early stage of India’s urban development is creating new challenges for Indian cities. Enumerate the reasons and suggest remedies.
Approach: Brief introduction about suburbanisation phenomenon in most urbanising countries. Enumerating the reasons why it is occurring at a relatively early stage of India’s urban development. Highlight the challenges it is creating for Indian cities and suggest ways forward. Model Answer A 2013 World Bank report, “Urbanization beyond Municipal Boundaries”, found that suburban areas (or Suburbs) are generating higher economicRead more
Headline : Coming, digital push to Gram Panchayats Details : In News: The Union government has decided to start People’s Plan Campaign, also known as Sabki Yojana Sabka Vikas in September, after consultations with the representatives of 16 key ministries. Earlier, from October to December, 2018, the government conducted a similar exercise in 2.48 lakh Gram Panchayats (GPs) across the country, which showed several GPsRead more
Headline : Urbanisation key to driving growth engines Editorial 3rd Aug’19 FinancialExpress Details : Development and urbanisation: Development and urbanisation are two sides of the same coin. No society in recent history remained agrarian while adequately providing for its population. Urbanisation aggregates human activity—aggregation leads to specialisation, specialisation to increased productivity. This enables greater availability of goods, delivery of services, increased wages,Read more
National Mineral Policy 2019 National Mineral Policy 2019 replaces the extant National Mineral Policy 2008. Objective : The aim of the policy is to have a more effective, meaningful and implementable policy that brings in further transparency, better regulation and enforcement, balanced social and economic growth as well as sustainable mining practices. Benefits: Bringing about more effective regulation to theRead more
Headline : Who are the Dhangars of Maharashtra, and why do they want ST status? Details : Why in news? Recently, Maharashtra has announced extension of all social welfare schemes available to Scheduled Tribes to the Dhangar community of the state. Who are the Dhangars? The Dhangars are shepherd community, living mostly in Western Maharashtra and Marathwada. They constitute aboutRead more
National Population Policy 2002 long term objective of achieving a stable population by 2045 To address the unmet needs for contraception, health care infrastructure, and health personnel To provide integrated service delivery for basic reproductive and child health care. Maternal Mortality Rate: below 100 per lakh birth. Infant Mortality Rate: 30 per 1000 live birth. TotalRead more
About Haj Haj is one of the most complex organizational tasks undertaken by Government of India outside its borders. It is a five day religious congregation and a virtually a year-long managerial exercise. Indian Haj pilgrims who constitute one of the largest national group perform Haj through two streams: The Haj Committee of India (HCOI) Registered Private Tour Operators (PTOs) HCOIRead more
National Commission for Women • The National Commission for Women was set up as statutory body in January 1992 under the National Commission for Women Act,1990. Objectives • Review the Constitutional and Legal safeguards for women. • Recommend remedial legislative measures. • Facilitate redressal of grievances. • Advise the Government on all policy matters affecting women. State Commission for WomenRead more
National Anti-Profiteering Authority: • According to anti-profiteering clause of GST, it is mandatory to pass on the benefits due to reduction in rate of tax or from input tax credit to the consumer as an anti-profiteering measure. • The authority will decide on levying penalty if businesses do not pass on the benefit of price reduction to consumers under theRead more
Features of National Testing Agency • The National Testing Agency (NTA) will be created as a Society registered under the Indian Society Registration Act, 1860. • It will be an autonomous and self-sustained premier testing organization to conduct entrance examinations for higher educational institutions. • The NTA will begin by conducting exams managed by the CBSE and gradually conduct otherRead more
What is surrogacy? Surrogacy is where a woman becomes pregnant with the intention of handing over the child to someone else after giving birth. Generally, she carries the baby for a couple or parent who cannot conceive a child themselves – they are known as “intended parents”. There are two forms of surrogacy. In traditional surrogacy, the surrogate mother’s eggRead more
In Focus: Question Hour Lok Sabha starts every day with Question Hour. The functioning of the Parliament under normal circumstances is as shown: Objective of Question Hour Question Hour is the time of an hour during which Members of Parliament ask any questions from ministers related to the implementation of laws and policies under the purview of their Ministry. Members useRead more