Category Archives: polity

Explained: What NHRC, SC have said on encounter killings

Headline : Explained: What NHRC, SC have said on encounter killings Details : In News: All four accused in the rape-and-murder of a 25-year-old woman veterinarian in Hyderabad were recently killed in an encounter by the police. While several voices, including senior officials and public figures, have hailed the killing, questions have also been raised over the legality and propriety of the police

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Explained: Jammu and Kashmir state to two UTs — today, later

Headline : Explained: Jammu and Kashmir state to two UTs — today, later Details : In News The state of Jammu and Kashmir will be officially bifurcated into the Union Territories of J&K and Ladakh on October 31. The day will mark the beginning of the functioning of the two UTs at a bureaucratic level. This marks an important milestone in the history

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Who are the 19 lakh excluded from Assam NRC, and what next for them?

Headline : Who are the 19 lakh excluded from Assam NRC, and what next for them? Details : In News: The recently published final list of people in updated National Register of Citizen (NRC) has stripped nearly 19 lakh people in the north-eastern state of Assam of their citizenship. About: NRC The NRC for a state is the list of Indian

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Can Pakistan get the ICJ to undo India’s decision on J&K’s special status?

Headline : Can Pakistan get the ICJ to undo India’s decision on J&K’s special status? Details : In News: Pakistan has decided to approach the International Court of Justice (ICJ) over the recent revocation of Jammu and Kashmir’s special status by India. Telegram: https://t.me/ShubhraRanjanPSIR Theme of the topic: The topic analysis the ICJ’s Jurisdiction over the Jammu and Kashmir case About/; International Court of

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Headline : Explained: Sikkim, from Chogyal rule to Indian state

Headline : Explained: Sikkim, from Chogyal rule to Indian state Details : In News: Recently, Sikkim’s longest serving Chief Minister, Pawan Chamling, became the sole elected Opposition representative in the Assembly after the remaining 12 Sikkim Democratic Front (SDF) MLAs defected, with 10 joining the BJP and another two joining the ruling Sikkim Krantikari Morcha (SKM). Telegram: https://t.me/ShubhraRanjanPSIR http://www.UpscExpress.com Context of

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Polity: Federalism- Debate, landmark cases, Types of Federalism, J&K and more

Headline : The forms of federalism in India Details : Why in News? The Union government has withdrawn the special status conferred on Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) under Article 370 of the Constitution. It has also divided the State into two regions and declared them as Union Territories. Telegram: https://t.me/ShubhraRanjanPSIR The debate concerning with federalism: Nations are described as ‘federal’ or

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Incisive interventions that blunt the RTI’s edge Editorial 10th Aug’19 TheHindu

Headline : Incisive interventions that blunt the RTI’s edge Editorial 10th Aug’19 TheHindu Details : Meaning of Democracy: Democracy has to percolate beyond the bare promises of formal political equality. Along with a system of popular sovereignty founded in universal adult franchise, it also assures a set of rights, among others, to a freedom of expression, life and personal liberty, and equal

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J&K Statehood and 370 Article: Analysis

Headline : The state has its reasons Editorial 7th Aug’19 IndianExpress Details : Telegram : https://t.me/SimplifiedIAS Status of J&K stuck in ambiguity: For over seven decades, the status of the state of Jammu and Kashmir has been masked in ambiguity and deceit. Successive governments of both India and Pakistan had tried but failed to arrive at an amicable “final solution” because of

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River water disputes: Disputes Resolution Committee (DRC), Inter State Water Dispute Act, 1956

Headline : One tribunal for all river water disputes: why the proposal, how it will work Details : In News: The Inter-State River Water Disputes (Amendment) Bill, 2019 has been passed by Lok Sabha. It seeks to streamline the adjudication of disputes relating to waters of inter-State rivers and river valleys. News Summary: The Bill cleared by Lok Sabha seeks to

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India and Global Innovation Index

Headline : India rises in global innovation ranking Details : The News India has jumped five places to rank 52 in the Global Innovation Index 2019 (GII). The GII is a global benchmark that helps policy makers better understand how to stimulate and measure innovative activity, a main driver of economic and social development.   News Summary: The latest Global Innovation index rankings

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For Naya Kashmir Editorial 6th Aug’19 IndianExpress

Headline : For Naya Kashmir Editorial 6th Aug’19 IndianExpress Details : Telegram: https://t.me/UpscExpress Kashmiri leaders also sought progress: Naya Kashmir was a memorandum that Kashmiri leader Sheikh Abdullah submitted to the King of erstwhile Kashmir kingdom Maharaja Hari Singh in 1944. It outlined a plan to convert J&K from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional democracy, called for universal franchise, freedom

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Jammu and Kashmir: Article 370, Article 35(A), Resolutions, Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Bill and all other developments

Headline : J&K loses its special status, divided into two UTs Details : Telegram: https://t.me/UpscExpress The News: In a historic decision, the Indian government has changed the terms of engagement with Jammu and Kashmir by doing away with the special status enjoyed by the state under Article 370, scrapping Article 35A and splitting the state into two UTs of J&K and Ladakh.   Background: Special status to

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Productivity of Parliament

Headline : Lawmakers work overtime, Lok Sabha session set to be most productive in 20 years Details : In News: In this session of the Parliament, Lok Sabha has already passed 30 Bills, while Rajya Sabha has passes 25 Bills. In terms of legislative business transacted during the first session of a fresh Lok Sabha, the government claims the current session

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SC reserves verdict on changes to SC/ST law

Headline : SC reserves verdict on changes to SC/ST law Details : The News Recently, the Supreme Court has reserved its judgment on a batch of petitions challenging the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Act of 2018.   The Scheduled Castes and Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 Objective: to prevent atrocities against scheduled castes and scheduled

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In Brief: Undertrials and Covicts: Fundamental Right, Right to equality, Right to Constitutional Remedies

Headline : Plea in SC on voting rights of undertrials and convicts Details : The News Recently a plea has been filed in the Supreme Court under Article 32 challenging an electoral law denying undertrials and convicts their right to vote.   Provision violating the right to equality Section 62(5) of the Representation of People Act of 1951 : The provision deprives any person

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In Brief: Sedition, Defamation, AFSPA laws: Should repeal or amend

Headline : Sedition, Defamation, AFSPA laws that Congress wants to repeal or amend Details : The news A national party has released its manifesto for the 2019 Lok Sabha elections, in which it promised to repeal or amend laws related to Sedition, Defamation and AFSPA, if they come to the power.  General information about the laws related to Sedition, Defamation and

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Ensuring access to justice Editorial 2nd Apr’19 TheHindu

Headline : Ensuring access to justice Editorial 2nd Apr’19 TheHindu Details :  Justice system in India is not accessible to many: The justice system in any democracy is set up, under the Constitution to serve the public, and judges are supposed to act without “fear or favour, affection or ill-will”. However, judges through lack of prescience, and many lawyers through their dishonesty in

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What was hoped to be a ‘dead-letter’ of the Constitution has become one of the most controversial provisions. Discuss in the context of Article 356.

Approach: Briefly explain Article 356 and the grounds for its Explain why it was hoped to be a ‘dead-letter’. Discuss how it has become the most controversial provisions of the Answer: Article 356 of the Indian Constitution empowers the Centre to take over the State Government on certain grounds. Popularly known as the President’s rule it authorizes the President to

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In Brief: Money Bill , Finance Bill , It’s comparison and Authority over Bills

Headline : Finance Bill, 2017 certified as Money Bill by Speaker, court can’t interfere: Centre to SC Details : News Summary A batch of petitions were filed in the Supreme Court challenging that the passing of Finance Act, 2017 as a Money Bill was a “colourable exercise of power and a fraud on the Constitution.” Arguments given by Attorney General of

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What do you mean by delegated legislation? Give its advantages and disadvantages.

What do you mean by delegated legislation? Give its advantages and disadvantages. Approach Briefly explain delegated legislation in the introduction. Discuss the positives of such legislation. Then give its disadvantages. Conclude with some suggestions. Model Answer : When law making power is delegated to executive by legislation, then it is known as delegated legislation or sub-ordinate legislation. In this case,

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 Despite the consensus around the need for reforms, Indian prisons remain in a poor state as reflected in various issues including overcrowding and violation of prisoners’ rights. Discuss in light of the recently formed Amitava Roy committee. What measures must be taken to address this issue? (15 marks)

 Despite the consensus around the need for reforms, Indian prisons remain in a poor state as reflected in various issues including overcrowding and violation of prisoners’ rights. Discuss in light of the recently formed Amitava Roy committee. What measures must be taken to address this issue? (15 marks) Approach: Introduce with the recent SC decision to form a committee on prison

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Is the High Court’s power to issue writs wider than that of the Supreme Court of India? Examine. (10 marks)

Is the High Court’s power to issue writs wider than that of the Supreme Court of India? Examine. (10 marks) Approach: Introduce with the power of courts to issue writs under Article 32 and 226 Compare the writ jurisdictions of SC and HCs – wider jurisdiction of HC in some aspects and SC writ jurisdiction wider in other aspects Conclude

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Prelims Polity 515

Consider the following statements regarding the Basic Structure of the Constitution: 1. It refers to features of the Constitution that even the Parliament cannot amend. 2. The Supreme Court has defined the Basic Structure of the Constitution in the Kesavananda Bharti judgement. Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? A. 1 only B. 2 only C. Both 1 and

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Prelims Polity 514

Consider the following statements regarding the Second Schedule of the Constitution: 1. Second Schedule contains the Oaths or Affirmations for Ministers, MPs, Judges of SC and HCs etc. 2. It can be amended by simple majority of the Parliament. Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? A. 1 only B. 2 only C. Both 1 and 2 D. Neither

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Prelims Polity 513

The office of Secretary of State for India, with complete authority and control over Indian administration, was created by: A. Charter Act of 1853 B. Government of India Act of 1858 C. Indian Councils Act of 1861 D. An executive order of the British Government Explanation : The office of Secretary of State for India, with complete authority and control

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Prelims 512

Consider the following statements regarding the Committees of Constituent Assembly: 1. States Committee (for negotiating with States) was headed by Sardar Patel. 2. The Minorities Sub-Committee was headed by Maulana Abul Kalam Azam. 3. Fundamental Rights Sub-Committee was headed by Dr. Rajendra Prasad Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? A. 1 only B. 1 and 2 C. 2

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Prelims 511

Consider the following statements regarding the Government of India Act of 1919: 1. It divided the central subjects into two parts – transferred and reserved. 2. The transferred central subjects were to be administered by the Governor while the reserved subjects were to be administered by the Viceroy of India. Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? A. 1

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Polity Prelims 510

With reference to the provisions of the Panchayats (Extension to the Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996, consider the following statements: 1. In the Scheduled areas, at least one-half of the seats in every panchayat are reserved for members of the scheduled tribes. 2. The Gram Sabha shall be responsible for the coordination of planning and implementation of development projects in the

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Polity Prelims 509

With regard to the executive power relating to the concurrent subjects in seventh schedule, consider the following statements: 1. A law on concurrent subject is to be ordinarily enacted and executed by the Union. 2. A law to implement any international treaty on concurrent list is enacted by the Parliament but executed by the State. Which of the statements given

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Prelims Polity 508

Which of the following subjects come under the State list in the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution? 1. Education 2. Forests 3. Pilgrimage within India 4. Agriculture Select the correct answer using the code given below. A. 1 and 2 only B. 2 and 3 only C. 3 only D. 3 and 4 only Explanation : Education and Forests were

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Prelims Polity 507

With reference to the urban local bodies, consider the following statements: 1. A nagar panchayat is established for an area in transition from a rural area to an urban area. 2. A cantonment board works under the administrative control of the Ministry of Defence. Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? A. 1 only B. 2 only C. Both

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Prelims 506

Which of the following signifies Federal spirit of the Indian Constitution? 1. Article 345 2. Article 370 3. Article 371-B 4. Seventh Schedule 5. Ninth Schedule Select the correct answer using the code given below: A. 1, 2, 3 and 4 B. 1, 3 and 4 C. 1, 4 and 5 D. 2, 3 and 5 Explanation : Art. 345:

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Prelims 505

Consider the following statements regarding Rajya Sabha elections: 1. There is no model code of conduct for the elections of Rajya Sabha. 2. All the members of a state legislative assembly take part in voting. 3. All the states have equal representation in Rajya Sabha. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? A. 1 only B. 1 and 2

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Prelims 504

Consider the following subjects: 1. Water 2. Public Health and Sanitation 3. Land acquisition 4. Audit of the accounts of the states Which of the above subjects is/are included in the Union list? A. 1 and 2 B. 1 and 4 C. 4 only D. 1, 2, 3 and 4 Explanation : Water is a state subject. Public health and

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Prelims 503

With reference to the North Eastern Council, consider the following statements: 1. It is the nodal agency for the economic and social development of the North Eastern Region. 2. It is a constitutional body. 3. Sikkim is a part of the council. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? A. 1 and 2 B. 1 and 3 C. 2

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Prelims 502

With reference to urban local bodies, consider the following statements: 1. Municipalities are established in smaller towns and cities in states by the concerned state legislatures and in UTs by the act of Parliament. 2. Notified Area Committee is established by a notification in the government gazette. 3. Town Area Committee is created by a separate act of Parliament. Which

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5 provisions under which Parliament can legislate on a subject.

There are 5 provisions under which Parliament can legislate on a subject included in state list: Article 249  if the Council of States has declared by resolution supported by not less than two thirds of the members present and voting that it is necessary or expedient in the national interest that Parliament should make laws with respect to any matter

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Safeguard for Minorities in India

Currently there are 6 minorities in India viz. Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, Parsis and Jains. The Constitution does not define a minority or provide details relating to the geographical and numerical specification of the concept. However, it talks about ‘Minorities’ and speaks of those ‘based on religion or language and provides for special domain rights for them such as: •

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The Naga insurgency has been a major threat to India’s security and integrity and can destabilize multiple states in north-eastern India. Elaborate. Also discuss various measures taken by the governments in handling the issue.

Approach: Introduce the issue of Naga insurgency. Explain its impact on security of India as well as that in northeastern states. Provide measures undertaken by Government especially Naga peace accord. Conclude appropriately. Model Answer : Ever since Indian Independence, the Naga Insurgency has taken many forms, including the demands for secessionism to wanton violence. The Naga Insurgency at present is

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In Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan is fighting a hybrid war, and Indian response should also be in the hybrid domain”. Discuss.

Approach: Introduce with Hybrid conflict Talk about how Pakistan indulges in regular and hybrid wars against India and India’s response Discuss why India needs to engage in hybrid war and what it involves Conclude appropriately Model Answer : Hybrid war is one fought through a combination of conventional, irregular (efforts to win legitimacy and influence over the populations), and asymmetric

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With the passage of The Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill, 2016, transgender people will have a better chance at being integrated into mainstream leading to greater inclusiveness. Critically comment. Approach

With the passage of The Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill, 2016, transgender people will have a better chance at being integrated into mainstream leading to greater inclusiveness. Critically comment. Approach • Introduce with the discrimination faced by transgenders • Highlight the key provisions of the Transgender Bill • Comment on how the provisions fall short of the intent behind

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Linguistic commissions

Dhar Commission There was a demand from different regions, mainly South India, for reorganization of States on linguistic basis. Consequently, in June 1948, the Government of India appointed the Linguistic Provinces Commission under the chairmanship of S.K.Dhar to study the feasibility of organizing states on Linguistic basis. The Commission, later on, rejected the linguistic basis of reorganization of States and

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Sources of the Constitution :

Sources of the Constitution 1. Government of India Act of 1935: Federal Scheme, Office of governor, Judiciary, Public Service Commissions, Emergency provisions and administrative details. 2. British Constitution: Parliamentary government, Rule of Law, legislative procedure, single citizenship, cabinet system, prerogative writs, parliamentary privileges and bicameralism. 3. US Constitution: Fundamental rights, independence of judiciary, judicial review, impeachment of the president, removal

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Unitary Features of Indian constitution:

Unitary Features of Indian constitution: 1.     The States of Indian Don’t have their own constitution as in the states of USA and Australia have their own constitution. 2.     Uniform and single Citizenship in India (Australia and USA have double citizenship). 3.     Parliament can make the changes of territorial extent of a State without its consent. 4.     Parliament has full control

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Federal Features of Indian Constitution

The main federal features of the Indian Constitution are as follows: 1. Written Constitution: The Indian Constitution is a written document containing 395 Articles and 12 schedules, and therefore, fulfils this basic requirement of a federal government. In fact, the Indian Constitution is the most elaborate Constitution of the world. 2. Supremacy of the Constitution: India’s Constitution is also supreme

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Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay Unnat Krishi Shiksha Scheme

It was launched to promote agricultural education. Under the scheme 100 centres are opened with a fund of Rs.5.35 crore. “Attracting and retaining youth in Agriculture (ARYA)” is a project sanctioned by the Indian Council of Agriculture (ICAR) and is being implemented at Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVKs). The main objective of the project was to provide complete knowledge and skill on

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Everything about TFA, GATS and  WTO Ministerial Conference

The Ministerial Conference is the highest decision-making body of the WTO and meets at least once every two years. Main points of discussion in MC11 Service negotiation under GATS will be on priority: Domestic regulation: to address the contentious issue of professional visa fee hikes by the likes of the US and UK, which India has been claiming are discriminatory. Agreement

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Everything about INDIA- SINGAPORE Relations.

INDIA- SINGAPORE RELATIONS • India’s connection with Singapore dates back to the Cholas who are credited with naming the island and establishing a permanent settlement. • The close relationship shared by India and Singapore is based on convergence of economic and political interests. • The process of economic reforms in India since the early 1990s created a strong basis for

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Everything about Global Entrepreneurship Summit (GES)

Global Entrepreneurship Summit (GES) • It is the preeminent annual entrepreneurship gathering that convenes emerging entrepreneurs, investors and supporters from around the world. • It was started by U.S. government in 2010. • It serves as a vital link between governments and the private sector and convenes global participants to showcase projects, network, exchange ideas and champion new opportunities for

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Everything about Net Neutrality

Net neutrality • The term was coined by Tim Wu in 2003. • It is the guiding principle that preserves the free and open Internet. • It means that the Internet Service Provider may not discriminate between different kind of content and applications online. • It guarantees a level playing field for all websites and Internet technologies. • In this,

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Q.What are bio ethics? Why has its importance increased recently? Discuss one bio ethical issue of eminence in recent times.

Bioethics is a field of applied ethics which involves ethical issues related to living beings and concerns three broad areas namely medical ethics (health care, health science, and health policy), animal ethics, and environmental ethics. It involves not just doctors, but patients,scientists, activists and policy makers and public at large. The increase of the importance of bioethics can be attributed

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What is the relevance of probity in governance? What steps can be taken to promote it.

For any country to survive and prosper there should be a continuous growth, optimal utilization of resources using state of the art technology and reduction of economic disparities so that all sections and regions of the country contribute to its growth. It is even more a necessity for a country like India where a sizable population lives under poverty line,there

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It is easier to build a boy than to mend a man. Discuss this statement in the light of selecting an individual for public office. 150 words

The basis of the statement lies in two elements: firstly, that it is possible to change behavior but very difficult to change attitudes; secondly, that as one ages,attitudes become more rigid and difficult to change. Thus, the earlier we introduce interventions to correct or improve behaviours and attitudes, the greater the chances of a meaningful impact. With regard to selecting an individual

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Madhyamik and Uchchatar Shiksha Kosh (MUSK)

Madhyamik and Uchchatar Shiksha Kosh (MUSK) A single non-lapsable corpus fund Madhyamik and Uchchatar Shiksha Kosh (MUSK) will work as a repository for the revenue of the Secondary and Higher Education Cess. It will be inducted to help the education schemes for which demand exceeds budgetary allocations. A non-lapsable reserve fund means that if the amount collected is not utilized

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Purpose and functions of a Constitution:

 • Lays out certain ideals that form the basis of the kind of country that we as citizens aspire to live in. • Defines the nature of a country’s political system; plays a crucial role in laying out certain important guidelines that govern decision-making within these societies. • Provides a set of basic rules that allow for minimal coordination amongst

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Khadi and Freedom movement

Khadi and Freedom movement Khadi owes its revival to the Father of the Nation, Mahatma Gandhi who saw it as a tool to become self-reliant and independent. Britishers bought raw materials at cheaper rate from India and sold their costly finished products in India. This unfavourable balance of trade was first brought to the mainstream by Dada Bhai Nairoji.  Dada

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Minerals of India

Minerals Metallic  Ferrous – Iron, manganese Non Ferrous – Cu, Bauxite Non Metallic  Fuel – Coal, Oil, petroleum Others – mica, limestone, granite Iron ore  India has largest reserve in Asia Haematite and magnetite Northern Orissa – Rourkela steel plant (German collaboration) Jharkand – Jamshedpur , Bokaro steel plant (Russian collaboration) Chattisgarh – Bhilai steel plant (Russian collaboration) Western WB

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Jyotiba Phule

Born: 11 April, 1827 Passed Away: 28 November, 1890 Originally Jyotirao’s family belonged to ‘mali’ caste, considered as inferior by the Brahmins. Jyotiba Phule devoted his entire life for the liberation of untouchables from the exploitation of Brahmins. He revolted against the tyranny of the upper castes.  Contributions  Jyotiba Phule was one of the prominent social reformers of the nineteenth century India.

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Global Entrepreneurship Summit (GES):

Global Entrepreneurship Summit (GES): It is the preeminent annual entrepreneurship gathering that convenes emerging entrepreneurs, investors and supporters from around the world. It was started by U.S. government in 2010. It serves as a vital link between governments and the private sector, and convenes global participants to showcase projects, network, exchange ideas, and champion new opportunities for investment. Its aims

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Right to Freedom 

Right to Freedom Art 19(1) – Democratic rights Speech and expression  Art 19(1)(a) and Art 21 – inalienable disjunct Express your view, right to listen, any communicable medium Express others view Right to know Press freedom Elect/reject candidate based on informed choices Dissent – criticize govt ITA 2000 – Sec 66A – chilling effect Defamation – criminal and civil offense

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About the Direct Benefit Transfer

The program aims to transfer subsidies directly to the people through their bank accounts. Crediting subsidies directly into bank accounts help reduce leakages, delays, etc. DBT has now extended to most of the government schemes. DBT has two components: Subsidy: When a government meets a part of the cost of providing a good or service to a beneficiary. Income transfer: When a government

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Right to Freedom of religion

Right to Freedom of religion Art 25:  P3 -Profess,Practice,Propagate Conscience – inner freedom Profess -declare openly Practice – rituals and use signs Propagate – spread but not force Opinion & belief – no state interference Conduct & practice – state can Art 26: Religious denomination  Est. institutions for religion and charity Manage its affairs Right to property Administer its property State can take over with

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Right to equality  

Right to equality   Art 14 : Law  Equal before law   Negative English const Absence of any privileges Law is supreme authority – govt subjected to law Art 361 (exception for president and governor) Dicey No punishment unless law violated Every one equal before law without discrimination Law is the superior – const is superior in India From Rex Lex to

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Cultural and Educational Rights 

Cultural and Educational Rights Art 29: Minorities interest  Protect identity Unity in diversity Majority and minority State can’t deny admission in edu on grounds of religion, race, caste or language  Art 30: Minority education  Linguistics and religious minorities Can have schools of their own – state and ntl recognition BC not part of minority Right to property – state can

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In South Asia, be the Un-China Editorial 12th Aug’17 The Hindu

India-China stand-off watched by neighbourhood: The stand-off at Doklam between the Indian and Chinese militaries has entered its third month. The potential fallout is being watched by the entire neighbourhood. There is obvious interest in how the situation plays out and the consequent change in the balance of power between India and China in South Asia. The outcome may impact

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Important Commitees

N.K.Singh committee To review the FRBM Act of 2003 Ratan Watal Committee On digital payments Anil Kakodkar Committee On railway safety A.K.Bhargava Net Neutrality Madhukar Gupta committee India Pakistan Border issue Aravind Subramanian Tackle shortage of pulses in India Bibek Debroy committee Railways and privatization of railways Shekatkar committee Defense Shyam Benegal committee Film certification Shankar Acharya committee To pre

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 Parliamentary vs Presidential System

Does India need a presidential system? Arguments :- Against Debate can be divided in to feasibility and desirability In the existing constitutional scheme, change is not possible. Supreme court of India already held parliamentary form of Government as part of the basic structure of the constitution. Presidential system centralizes power and chances of it turning in to an authoritative system are

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What is Article 35A of Constitution: Jammu and Kashmir 

Article 35A Article 35A gives the Jammu and Kashmir legislature the power to define the “permanent residents” of the state and provide them with special rights and privileges. Article 35A offers special privileges to state subjects of J&K in matters related to employment, acquisition of immovable property, settlements and scholarships in relation to Article 370 of the Constitution. The provision

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WRITS Under Article 32

Literal Meaning Habeas Corpus – to have the body of Mandamus – command/order to do the duty to public official Prohibition – to forbid higher court to lower court – prevent from exceeding the jurisdiction (in between the trial) Certiorari – to be certified – superior court to inferior court to squash the order or transfer the case (at the

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National Legal Services Authority (NALSA)

The National Legal Services Authority (NALSA) has been constituted under the Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987 to provide free Legal Services to the weaker sections of the society and to organize Lok Adalats for amicable settlement of disputes. NALSA is headed by the Chief Justice of India. In every State, State Legal Services Authority has been constituted to give effect

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World Economic Forum – WEF

It is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva. The forum was founded in 1971 by Klaus Schwab, a German-born business professor at the University of Geneva. Recognized by the Swiss authorities as the international institution for public-private cooperation, its mission is cited as “committed to improving the state of the world by engaging business, political, academic, and other

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BIMSTEC

It is a regional organization comprising seven Member States lying in the littoral and adjacent areas of the Bay of Bengal constituting a contiguous regional unity. This sub-regional organization came into being on 6 June 1997 through the Bangkok Declaration.  The regional group constitutes a bridge between South and South East Asia and represents a reinforcement of relations among these countries.

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United Nations – UN

The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization that promotes international cooperation and peace building. The United Nations was established after the end of WWII on the 24th of October 1945 in order to prevent a similar global conflict from ever reoccurring. The United Nations replaced the ineffective League of Nations, which was created after the end of WWI. The United

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Islamic Development Bank

The Islamic Development Bank is an international financial institution established in pursuance of the Declaration of Intent issued by the Conference of Finance Ministers of Muslim Countries held in Jeddah in December 1973, and the Bank was formally opened on 20 October 1975. The purpose of the Bank is to foster the economic development and social progress of member countries

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Indian vs American constitution

Indian vs American constitution Telegram: https://t.me/SimplifiedIAS Feature India America Length Longest written Shortest written Constitution type Federal with unitary basis Federal Citizen ship One (except J&K A 370) One for America, and one for the state Nature of democracy Parliamentary (because of British rule) Presidential Legislature type Flexible with rigid Rigid Number of constitution Only one for the country One

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Electoral Bond

The concept of electoral bonds was introduced by Mr. Jaitley during his Budget 2017 speech in order to bring some transparency to the electoral funding process. These bonds have to be authorised under a scheme under the Income Tax Act. It will open for a limited period of time during the elections, or maybe a little before the elections. A bond can

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Indus Treaty

Signed in 1960 by then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and then Pakistan President Ayub Khan, the treaty allocates 80% of water from the six-river Indus water system to Pakistan. Beas, Ravi, Sutlej, Indus, Chenab and Jhelum from the Indus water system that flows from India to Pakistan. The Indus river basin spans parts of 4 countries (Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and

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Medical council of India (MCI)

Medical Council of India (MCI) The Medical Council of India (MCI) is a statutory body for establishing uniform and high standards of medical education in India. The Council grants recognition of medical qualifications, gives accreditation to medical schools, grants registration to medical practitioners, and monitors medical practice in India. The Medical Council of India was first established in 1934 under

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​Why India faces huge corruption?

​Why India faces huge corruption? • Colonial Legacy of unchallenged authority and abritary use of power • Asymmetry of power. Reduces societal pressure to conform to ethical behavior  • Conscious choice of our economic policies which put citizen at the mercy of state – Monopoly – Corruption.  • Over Centralization – Power is exercised more remotely – increasing the distance

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Citizenship (Art.5 -11)

​CITIZENSHIP:  Acquisition of Citizenship:  By descent : Present : registration in embassy.  By registration : 1+ 6/8 By Naturalization  : 1 + 11/14 By Incorporation of new territory.  By Birth : 1993 : Atleast one parent, present : both father and mother. Children of foreign diplomats and enemy alien – no citizenship by birth  Termination :  By Deprivation : Govt

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Revolutionary Movement in India – Contribution, Source of Influence, Strategy, Achievement

Revolutionary Movement in India Telegram : https://t.me/SimplifiedIAS Contributions Revolutionary term is used for section of Indian Nationalists who believed in “Cult of Bomb”. Difference between Revolutionary and Terrorist Revolutionaries used violence against those whom they considered as exploiters. Terrorist go for indiscriminate use of violence and Killing of innocent people can not be justified. Sources of Influences on Revolutionaries Bankim

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