About Elephants: Elephant reserves, Project elephant, MIKE Programme, Conservation efforts, Threats faced

About: Elephants The Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus) occurs in 16 states of the country and in regions of central and southern Western Ghats, North-east India, eastern India and northern India and in some parts of southern peninsular India.The Indian elephant is one of three extant recognised subspecies of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and native to mainland Asia. The GovernmentContinue reading “About Elephants: Elephant reserves, Project elephant, MIKE Programme, Conservation efforts, Threats faced”

About 3D Printing

Govt readies 3D printing policy for local firms to join new global market In News The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) will soon come up with a policy aimed at promoting 3D printing on an industrial scale. Objectives of the policy The policy will help to develop an ecosystem for design, development and deployment ofContinue reading “About 3D Printing”

About: Pfizer Vaccine

BNT162b2 is a vaccine that has been developed using mRNA technologye. it makes use of the messenger RNA molecules that tell cells what proteins to build. The mRNA, in this case, is coded to tell the cells to recreate the spike protein of the novel coronavirus. The coronavirus spike protein is a molecular machine that facilitates the entry of coronavirusContinue reading “About: Pfizer Vaccine”

Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)

Headline : Mobile scheme to quit tobacco has over 2 million users in India Details : In News: The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently released its 7th report on global tobacco epidemic. The report analyses national efforts to implement the most effective measures from the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC).   About:Continue reading “Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)”

Important Terms – Current Affairs

Mallakhamb It is a traditional Indian sport in which a gymnast performs feats and poses in concert with a vertical wooden pole or rope. Mallakhamb originated in Maharastra, India, during the 12th century, as a form of training for wrestlers. Mallakhamba derives from the terms malla which denotes a wrestler and khamba which means aContinue reading “Important Terms – Current Affairs”

Geography Concepts

Doldrums:- At sea, ITCZ area is called doldrums because sailors in olden days used to get becalmed here. It’s the region of weak winds (small pressure gradients), High Humidity and High Temperatures occuring heat near equator. Horse Latitude:- In olden days, Zones at about 30 N/S Degree were known as Horse latitude. When ships wereContinue reading “Geography Concepts”

Shubhra Ranjan IAS Study Prelims 2019 Tests

Download Shubhra Ranjan Prelims 2019 Tests Shubhra Ranjan Prelims 2019 Tests 1 Shubhra Ranjan Prelims 2019 Tests 2 Shubhra Ranjan Prelims 2019 Tests 3 Shubhra Ranjan Prelims 2019 Tests 4 Shubhra Ranjan Prelims 2019 Tests 5 Shubhra Ranjan Prelims 2019 Tests 6 Shubhra Ranjan Prelims 2019 Tests 7 Shubhra Ranjan Prelims 2019 Tests 8 ShubhraContinue reading “Shubhra Ranjan IAS Study Prelims 2019 Tests”

Download : Vajiram Prelims 2019 Test -1 to 18

Download Vajiram and Ravi Prelims Test 2019:   Vajiram and Ravi Prelims 2019 Test -1 Vajiram and Ravi  Prelims 2019 Test -2 Vajiram and Ravi  Prelims 2019 Test -3 Vajiram and Ravi  Prelims 2019 Test -4 Vajiram and Ravi  Prelims 2019 Test -5 Vajiram and Ravi  Prelims 2019 Test -6 Vajiram and Ravi  Prelims 2019 TestContinue reading “Download : Vajiram Prelims 2019 Test -1 to 18”

Culture:- Brief for Prelims

Ugadi/ Losar/ Gudi Padawa Ugadi is celebrated as New Year’s Day in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. The name Ugadi is derived from the name “Yuga Adi”, which means ‘the beginning of a new age’. It is celebrated on the first day of the Hindu month Chaitra, which marks the onset of spring. The festival of LosarContinue reading “Culture:- Brief for Prelims”

Indian Army gets first batch of Dhanush artillery guns

Headline : Indian Army gets first batch of Dhanush artillery guns  Details :  The News In a major boost to its fire power, the indigenously produced long-range artillery gun, Dhanush was inducted into the Indian Army.   In focus: Dhanush Introduction Dhanush is the first indigenously produced long-range artillery gun. It has been developed by theContinue reading “Indian Army gets first batch of Dhanush artillery guns”

Prelims Program: Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana (PMBJP) Kendras

Headline : Prelims Program: Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana (PMBJP) Kendras Details : About Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana (PMBJP) Kendras Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana (PMBJP) is a campaign launched by the Department of Pharmaceuticals to provide quality medicines at affordable prices to the masses. PMBJP stores have been set up to provide generic drugs,Continue reading “Prelims Program: Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana (PMBJP) Kendras”

CSE 2021: What’s Important to read ?

Must Read, Nothing Required. 0. Syllabus+ Past Papers 1. Polity- Laxmikant, 11th NCERT 2. Geography – 11th or 12th NCERT + World ATLAS 3. History- TN NCERT/ OLD NCERT/ THEMES + Spectrum 4. Art and Culture- 11th- Introduction to Arts 5. Environment – Shankar IAS 6. Economy – Sanjiv Verma + Reddy Sir Notes +Continue reading “CSE 2021: What’s Important to read ?”

Everything about Ramappa Temple and World heritage site

Ramappa Temple for world heritage site: Telangana is expected to get its first site, the Ramappa Temple at Palampet, included in UNESCO World Heritage Site in the 43rd session of the World Heritage Committee. Background India has already got 37 sites inscribed in the World Heritage List. There are total 29 cultural sites, 7 NaturalContinue reading “Everything about Ramappa Temple and World heritage site”

Everything about Mission Shakti

Headline : Successful anti-satellite missile test puts India in elite club Details : In News India successfully conducted an Anti-Satellite (ASAT) missile test, named Mission Shakti, becoming the fourth country in the world to demonstrate the capability to shoot down satellites in orbit. News Summary Under Mission Shakti, India demonstrated the capability to destroy a satelliteContinue reading “Everything about Mission Shakti”

Prelims Program: National Innovations on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA)

Headline : Prelims Program: National Innovations on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) Details :  Climate change: Problems faced in India Climate Change, caused by the increased concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere, has emerged as the most prominent global environmental problem. Most of the countries including India are facing the problems of rising temperature, melting ofContinue reading “Prelims Program: National Innovations on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA)”

A-SAT tech gives India diplomatic bargaining power Editorial 28th Mar’19 LiveMint

Headline : A-SAT tech gives India diplomatic bargaining power Editorial 28th Mar’19 LiveMint Details :  Anti-Satellite (ASAT) missile test: India has successfully conducted an Anti-Satellite (ASAT) missile test. Conducting the test under Mission Shakti, India demonstrated the capability to destroy a satellite in the low earth orbit (LEO) at about 300 km above the earth’s surface, using anContinue reading “A-SAT tech gives India diplomatic bargaining power Editorial 28th Mar’19 LiveMint”

Headline : Prelims Program: Map- Argentina

Headline : Prelims Program: Map- Argentina Details : Why it is important? Argentina hosted the recent G20 summit in 2018. In Feb 2019, Argentina’s President paid a state visit to India. 2019 is the 70th year of establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries.   Argentina Argentina is located mostly in the southern half ofContinue reading “Headline : Prelims Program: Map- Argentina”

Dozen insurgent camps ‘smashed’ along India-Myanmar border in joint military operation

The News Recently, the armies of India and Myanmar conducted a “coordinated operation” against insurgents in Myanmar territory to avert a possible threat to the Kaladan multi-modal transit transport project.   Kaladan multi-model transit transport project India entered into a framework agreement with Myanmar in April 2008 to facilitate implementation of the project. Objective: To create aContinue reading “Dozen insurgent camps ‘smashed’ along India-Myanmar border in joint military operation”

Prelims Program: Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

Headline : Prelims Program: Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Details : About Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) OPEC is a permanent intergovernmental organization of 14 oil-exporting nations. It coordinates and unifies the petroleum policies of its Member Countries. The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was founded in Baghdad, Iraq, in 1960Continue reading “Prelims Program: Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)”

Prelims Program: National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA)

Headline : Prelims Program: National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) Details : About National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) has been formulated for enhancing agricultural productivity especially in rainfed areas focusing on integrated farming, water use efficiency, soil health management and synergizing resource conservation.   Objectives To make agriculture more productive, sustainable,Continue reading “Prelims Program: National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA)”

Everything about Madhubani Painting

Madhubani which means ‘forest of honey’, is a style of folk painting old enough to find mention in some of the ancient Indian texts like the holy Ramayana. It is also known as Mithila, for its origin is said to be the Mithila region in Bihar. Traditionally, the Madhubani paintings are created using fingers andContinue reading “Everything about Madhubani Painting”

The clever poor man- A must Read

Once upon a time, there was a clever poor young man who lived in a city. His only resource was a dead rat. He started off by selling it for a coin to a hotel, for their cat. Then one day, there was a storm. The king’s garden was littered with branches and leaves, andContinue reading “The clever poor man- A must Read”

Pradhan Mantri Gramin Digital Saksharta Abhiyan (PMGDISHA)

What is the aim of the programme ‘PMGDISHA’? (a) A programme for empowerment of rural destitute women by providing them source of livelihood. (b) To make 6 Crore rural households digitally literate by March 2019. (c) It aims to provide Digital education to the rural children in the age group of 7 14 years throughContinue reading “Pradhan Mantri Gramin Digital Saksharta Abhiyan (PMGDISHA)”

Objectives of Ayush Mission

The Government has launched the National AYUSH Mission with the objectives of:  providing cost effective AYUSH Services, with a universal access through upgrading AYUSH Hospitals and Dispensaries,  co-location of AYUSH facilities at Primary Health Centres (PHCs), Community Health Centres (CHCs) and District Hospitals (DHs),  strengthening institutional capacity at the state level throughContinue reading “Objectives of Ayush Mission”

TataTarini Temple

Taratarini Temple is located in which of the following states? a     Madhya Pradesh b     Odisha c      Andhra Pradesh d     Kerala Explanation: Solution (b) Taratarini Temple on the Kumari hills at the bank of the River Rushikulya near Brahmapur city in Ganjam District, Odisha, India is worshiped as the Breast Shrine (SthanaContinue reading “TataTarini Temple”

Everything about Project Size by NIFT

Indian launched a project named Size India to get its own sizing standards after following the size code of European countries or the US. News Summary Project Size India A project is to be launched to scan and measure thousands of men and women in the age group of 15-65 years to come up withContinue reading “Everything about Project Size by NIFT”

What is Trachoma?

• It is a chronic infective eye disease caused by infection with the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis which is transmitted through contact with eye and nose discharge of infected people, particularly young children who are most vulnerable to the infection. • It is also spread by flies which come in contact with the infected person andContinue reading “What is Trachoma?”

National Population Policy 2002

National Population Policy 2002  long term objective of achieving a stable population by 2045  To address the unmet needs for contraception, health care infrastructure, and health personnel  To provide integrated service delivery for basic reproductive and child health care.  Maternal Mortality Rate: below 100 per lakh birth.  Infant Mortality Rate: 30 perContinue reading “National Population Policy 2002”

Scheme: UDAAN

The programme aims to provide skills training and enhance the employability of unemployed youth of J&K. The scheme covers graduates, post graduates and three year engineering diploma holders. The key stakeholders are Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), State Government (Jammu & Kashmir), Corporates and National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC). UDAAN (Giving Wings to Girl Students)Continue reading “Scheme: UDAAN”

Krishi Vigyan Kendras

Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) are agricultural extension centers created by ICAR to provide various types of farm support to the agricultural sector. It is created to serve as a single window mechanism for addressing the technology needs of farmers and acts as a link among researchers, extension functionaries like NGOs and farmers. The farm support includesContinue reading “Krishi Vigyan Kendras”

Everything about INS Kalvari

INS Kalvari • INS Kalvari is a Scorpene-class submarine described as a “deadly predator”. • It is one of six built by Mazagon Dock Limited in Mumbai as a part of Project-75 of the Indian Navy. • Kalvariis a potent Man o’ War capable of undertaking offensive operations spanning across the entire spectrum of MaritimeContinue reading “Everything about INS Kalvari”

Everything about Mi8 Helicopter

• Indian Air Force is phasing out the Mi-8 helicopters. • Mi-8 helicopter has been used in numerous operations, missions, expeditions and movements conducted by IAF. • Most of the Indian Air Force Officials have called the helicopter ‘iconic’. Mi-8 helicopters • They are a utility and medium sized assault helicopter. Induction in IAF •Continue reading “Everything about Mi8 Helicopter”

Indian Council of Medical Research – ICMR

Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR): It is an apex body in India for the formulation, coordination and promotion of biomedical research and is one of the oldest medical research bodies in the world. Its headquarters are at New Delhi. It is funded by the Government of India through the Department of Health Research, MinistryContinue reading “Indian Council of Medical Research – ICMR”

Lymphatic Filariasis

Introduction • The national health policy had aimed at eliminating filariasis by 2015 but the deadline was extended to 2017 and now has been shifted to 2020. • But India is likely to miss the target date of stamping out elephantiasis or lymphatic filariasis. Filariasis • Filariasis, called hathipaon (elephant foot) locally, can cause limbs,Continue reading “Lymphatic Filariasis”

Commissions for Women

National Commission for Women • The National Commission for Women was set up as statutory body in January 1992 under the National Commission for Women Act,1990. Objectives • Review the Constitutional and Legal safeguards for women. • Recommend remedial legislative measures. • Facilitate redressal of grievances. • Advise the Government on all policy matters affectingContinue reading “Commissions for Women”

Everything about Brahmos

Brahmos: • It is a medium-range ramjet supersonic cruise missile that can be launched from submarine, ships, aircraft or land. • It is a joint venture between the Russia’s NPO Mashinostroeyenia and India’s Defence Research and Development Organisation. • It has derived its name from the names of two rivers, the Brahmaputra of India andContinue reading “Everything about Brahmos”

National Anti-Profiteering Authority:

National Anti-Profiteering Authority: • According to anti-profiteering clause of GST, it is mandatory to pass on the benefits due to reduction in rate of tax or from input tax credit to the consumer as an anti-profiteering measure. • The authority will decide on levying penalty if businesses do not pass on the benefit of priceContinue reading “National Anti-Profiteering Authority:”

National Testing Agency

Features of National Testing Agency • The National Testing Agency (NTA) will be created as a Society registered under the Indian Society Registration Act, 1860. • It will be an autonomous and self-sustained premier testing organization to conduct entrance examinations for higher educational institutions. • The NTA will begin by conducting exams managed by theContinue reading “National Testing Agency”

Everything about Japanese Encephalitis

Japanese Encephalitis It is a viral disease that infects animals and humans. In humans, it can cause inflammation of membrane around the brain. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the most important cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. JEV is a mosquito-borne flavivirus and belongs to the same genus as dengue, yellow fever and West NileContinue reading “Everything about Japanese Encephalitis”


TRAPPIST-1: It is an ultra-cool dwarf star about 40 light years away, located in the constellation Aquarius. It is named after the telescope that discovered this system – TRAPPIST (Transiting Planets and Planetesimals Small Telescop) in Chile. The planets have sizes and masses comparable to the Earth and Venus. It is an ultra-cool star (unlikeContinue reading “TRAPPIST-1:”


Dhruv: Dhruv has been indigenously designed and developed by the HAL, and is powered by the Shakti engine jointly developed with Turbomeca of France. It is a twin engine, multi-role, multi-mission new generation helicopter. It is superior to the other helicopters used by the Army such as Cheetah and Chetak, both of which have singleContinue reading “Dhruv:”

H1N1 Flu:

H1N1 Flu: It is a respiratory disease caused by a strain of the influenza type A virus known as H1N1. H1N1 Flu is also known as swine flu. It is called swine flu because in the past the people who caught it had direct contact with pigs. It can be transmitted from one person toContinue reading “H1N1 Flu:”


NATIONAL PHARMACEUTICAL PRICING AUTHORITY: The National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA) is a government regulatory agency that controls the prices of pharmaceutical drugs and equipments in India. NPPA is an organization of the Government of India which was established to fix/ revise the prices of controlled bulk drugs and formulations and to enforce prices and availabilityContinue reading “NATIONAL PHARMACEUTICAL PRICING AUTHORITY:”


FASTag is a device that employs Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for making toll payments directly from the prepaid or savings account linked to it. It is affixed on the windscreen of the vehicle and enables to drive through toll plazas, without stopping for cash transactions. The tag can be purchased from Tag issuers andContinue reading “FASTags:”

Cyber attack – ransomware , NotPetya

It is a malicious software that blocks access to computers and data until a sum of money is paid. NotPetya is the second major global ransomware since WannaCry, which had infected about 3,00,000 computers across 200 countries in May. Similar to WannaCry, one of the means by which Petya spread was by exploiting the MS12-010Continue reading “Cyber attack – ransomware , NotPetya”

About the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT):

The nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty came into force in 1970, following widespread international concern about the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation and the spiraling nuclear weapon stocks of those states that had developed them. The NPT is a multilateral treaty aimed at limiting the spread of nuclear weapons including three elements: (1) non-proliferation, (2) disarmament, andContinue reading “About the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT):”

Pulikkali festival – Kerala

Pulikkali festival Pulikkali is a colorful recreational folk art from the state of Kerala. It is performed by trained artists to entertain people on the occasion of Onam, an annual harvest festival, celebrated mainly in Kerala. On the fourth day of Onam celebrations (Nalaam Onam), performers painted like tigers and hunters in bright yellow, red, andContinue reading “Pulikkali festival – Kerala”

Navroz festival : Parsi People

It is a Parsi New Year festival. While the Balkans, the Caucasus, the Middle Easterns celebrate the festival on March 21, the first day of the Zoroastrian calendar, in India there is another version of the festival that is followed according to the Shahanshahi calendar and falls during the later months of the year. The dates change every yearContinue reading “Navroz festival : Parsi People”

UNESCO : Yoga in the representative list of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity

Yoga, India’s one of the ancient practices has now been inscribed as an element in the UNESCO’s list of Intangible Cultural Heritage of humanity. Yoga has become the 13th intangible cultural heritage that has been listed from India so far with UNESCO. Previous ones includes the Chhau dance (Inscribed in 2010), the Buddhist chanting ofContinue reading “UNESCO : Yoga in the representative list of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity”

Pradhan Mantri Surakshit Matritva Abhiyan

Pradhan Mantri Surakshit Matritva Abhiyan envisages to improve the quality and coverage of Antenatal Care (ANC) including diagnostics and counselling services as part of the Reproductive Maternal Neonatal Child and Adolescent Health (RMNCH+A) Strategy. The Pradhan Mantri Surakshit Matritva Abhiyan has been launched by the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare (MoHFW), Government of India. The program aimsContinue reading “Pradhan Mantri Surakshit Matritva Abhiyan”

Military Exercises

Military Exercises Mitra Sakthi Slinex India – Sri Lanka Joint Military Exercise. India – Sri Lanka Naval exercise Sampriti India – Bangladesh Yudh Abhyas India – USA joint military training exercise Hand in Hand India – China military exercise Konkan Indian Navy and the Royal Navy maritime exercise Ekuverin India – Maldives Al Nagah IndiaContinue reading “Military Exercises”


Jallikattu is a bull taming sport played in Tamil Nadu as a part of Pongal celebrations on Mattu Pongal day. It is a Tamil tradition called ‘Yeru thazhuvatha’ in Sangam literature(meaning, to embrace bulls), popular amongst warriors during the Tamil classical period. Jallikattu is based on the concept of “flight or fight”. All castes participate in the event. TheContinue reading “Jallikattu”

Law Commission of India

Law Commission of India • The first Law Commission was established in 1834 under the Charter Act of 1833 under the Chairmanship of Lord Macaulay which recommended codification of the Penal Code, the Criminal Procedure Code and a few other matters.  • After independence,  though the Constitution stipulated the continuation of pre-Constitution Laws (Article 372)Continue reading “Law Commission of India”

Indian National Anthem

Indian National Anthem Facts ​• Jana Gana Mana is the national anthem of India. • The underlying message of Jana Gana Mana is pluralism.  • Jana Gana Mana was written on 11 December 1911. • It was first sung on 27 December 1911 at the Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress and again inContinue reading “Indian National Anthem”