What is Agriculture Produce Market Committee (APMC)?

  What is Agriculture Produce Market Committee (APMC)? Agricultural Produce Market Committee (APMC) is a statutory market committee constituted by a State Government in respect of trade in certain notified agricultural or horticultural or livestock products, under the Agricultural Produce Market Committee Act issued by that state government. APMCs are intended to be responsible for:Continue reading “What is Agriculture Produce Market Committee (APMC)?”

 When the world collapsed around Lehman Brothers 

Headline : When the world collapsed around Lehman Brothers  What triggered the crisis? From 2005 to 2007, at the height of the real estate bubble, mortgages were given to many homebuyers who could not afford them, and then packaged into securities and sold off. Lehman Brothers bought several mortgage brokerages and posted record profits. But inContinue reading ” When the world collapsed around Lehman Brothers “

What is plea bargaining and how does it work?

Many members of the Tablighi Jamaatbelonging to different countries have obtained release from court cases in recent days by means of plea bargaining. They were accused of violating visa conditionsby attending a religious congregation in Delhi. In Focus: Plea Bargaining The Concept: Plea bargaining refers to a person charged with a criminal offence negotiating with the prosecution for aContinue reading “What is plea bargaining and how does it work?”

In focus: Space Debris

In focus: Space Debris What is space debris? Inactive satellites that have passed their functional life, leftovers from a rocket or other small fragments form space debris often called as space junk. The A-SAT missile tests that shoot down a satellite adds to the space debris in space. Threat of space debris Space debris, evenContinue reading “In focus: Space Debris”

Why is a Public Credit Registry important?

Headline : Why is a Public Credit Registry important? Details : What is Public Credit Registry? A Public Credit Registry is set up by the central bank and reporting of loan details to the Registry by lenders and/or borrowers is mandated by law. A public credit registry is an information repository that collates all loan information ofContinue reading “Why is a Public Credit Registry important?”

Intention, tech and capital to make ‘One Sun One World One Grid’ a reality Editorial 14th Jul’20 FinancialExpress

Clean energy future: The key elements of the big picture in the energy world are becoming more and more clear. The dependence on fossil fuels will continue to drop and we are not very far from a future that will be predominantly run on clean energy.  It may not be long before renewable energy overtakesContinue reading “Intention, tech and capital to make ‘One Sun One World One Grid’ a reality Editorial 14th Jul’20 FinancialExpress”

About Microbots or Micro-robots

About Microbots or Micro-robots Microbots are tiny automated machines with sizes of order less than a millimeter. They are basically a robot of the size of cell or say about 100 atoms. As a result of tiny sizes, microbot technology is seen as a disruptive technology especially in future biomedicine.   Principle and Working BasicContinue reading “About Microbots or Micro-robots”

Everything about NATGRID

The National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID) has signed a memorandum of understanding with the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) to access the centralised online database on FIRs and stolen vehicles. The MoU will give NATGRID access to the Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and Systems (CCTNS) database, a platform that links around 14,000 police stations. The MoU enablesContinue reading “Everything about NATGRID”

Magnetic Pole is drifting

Headline : Magnetic Pole is drifting Details : The News The North Magnetic Pole of the earth is found to be moving from Northern Canada towards Siberia, at an unusually faster rate. Highlights • The north magnetic field is moving at an unusually faster rate of about 60 Km/year from northern Canada towards Siberia in Russia. • This has forced theContinue reading “Magnetic Pole is drifting”

Get to know currency derivatives

Headline : Get to know currency derivatives Details : Introduction Currency derivatives are considered to be one of the best options to manage any risk against foreign currency exchange rate volatility.   About currency derivatives Currency derivatives are exchange-based futures and options contracts that allow one to hedge against currency movements. One can use a currencyContinue reading “Get to know currency derivatives”

What are galaxy clusters?

What are galaxy clusters? Galaxies are like the building blocks of the universe and they contain a huge number of stars (like 100 billion at a count). Galaxy groups can have three to 20 galaxies whereas the galaxy clusters can have several hundred galaxies. Superclusters are clusters of clusters and the number can vary fromContinue reading “What are galaxy clusters?”

In focus: Graphene – The wonder material

In focus: Graphene – The wonder material Graphene is the next-generation wonder material that will revolutionize material science. It is made up of carbon atoms that are arranged in a peculiar way to give it the special properties it possesses.   Structure of graphene Graphene is a 1-atom thick layer of carbon atoms arranged inContinue reading “In focus: Graphene – The wonder material”

About 3D printing technology

About 3D printing technology 3D printing or additive manufacturing is a process of making three dimensional solid objects from a digital file. The creation of a 3D printed object is achieved using additive processes. In an additive process an object is created by laying down successive layers of material until the object is created. EachContinue reading “About 3D printing technology”

What is Gross Domestic Product (GDP)? What is Gross Value Added (GVA)? How is GDP calculated in India? Deficiencies in the current GDP calculation

What is Gross Domestic Product (GDP)? The gross domestic product (GDP) is one of the primary indicators used to gauge the health of a country’s economy. It represents the total value of all goods and services produced over a specific time period, often referred to as the size of the economy. Usually, GDP is expressedContinue reading “What is Gross Domestic Product (GDP)? What is Gross Value Added (GVA)? How is GDP calculated in India? Deficiencies in the current GDP calculation”

Water desalination plants harm environment: UN

Headline : Water desalination plants harm environment: UN Details : The News According to a study backed by UN, though desalinization is a necessity to manage water scarcity globally, it is fraught with ecological challenges mainly due to discharge of Brine. Background Desalination Globally around 1.5 to 2 billion people live in areas of physical waterContinue reading “Water desalination plants harm environment: UN”

In focus: Multi-drug resistant fungus, Candida auris

In focus: Multi-drug resistant fungus, Candida auris Introduction Candida auris is a fungus discovered in 2009 that has developed resistance to commonly used anti-fungal drugs. ‘Candida auris’ is spreading across the globe adding a new dimension to anti-microbial drug resistance. WHO recognizes anti-microbial multidrug-resistance as one of the top 10 global public health threats in 2019. Thus,Continue reading “In focus: Multi-drug resistant fungus, Candida auris”

In focus: Multi-drug resistant fungus, Candida auris

In focus: Multi-drug resistant fungus, Candida auris Introduction Candida auris is a fungus discovered in 2009 that has developed resistance to commonly used anti-fungal drugs. ‘Candida auris’ is spreading across the globe adding a new dimension to anti-microbial drug resistance. WHO recognizes anti-microbial multidrug-resistance as one of the top 10 global public health threats in 2019. Thus,Continue reading “In focus: Multi-drug resistant fungus, Candida auris”

National Policy on Software Product 2019

National Policy on Software Product 2019 National Policy on Software Product 2019 is a basic roadmap for formulation of initiatives, schemes and other measures for the development of software products sector in India   Funding It involves an initial outlay of Rs.1500 crore for various schemes till 2025. Software Product Development Fund: of Rs 5000Continue reading “National Policy on Software Product 2019”

About Sovereign Gold Bonds Scheme

About Sovereign Gold Bonds Scheme In 2015, Government introduced the Sovereign Gold Bonds as substitutes of expensive gold imports that impact the current account deficit (CAD). The main objective of the scheme was to develop a financial asset as an alternative to purchasing metal gold, thus also aimed at changing the habits of Indians from saving in physicalContinue reading “About Sovereign Gold Bonds Scheme”

Headline : Prelims Program: Map- Middle East

Headline : Prelims Program: Map- Middle East Details : Middle East The Middle East is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa). Arabian peninsula is the largest in the world. In the eastern parts there is salt desert, western parts there is sandyContinue reading “Headline : Prelims Program: Map- Middle East”

About National Stem Cell Registry

About National Stem Cell Registry It will be a government managed database of unrelated bone-marrow donors. The database will be created by linking 5 existing stem cell registries in India. It is being set up primarily to find matching donors for treating patients with blood-related disorders such as blood cancers (lymphoma, leukemia) thalassaemia, sickle-cell anaemia, haemophilia The databaseContinue reading “About National Stem Cell Registry”

About: South China Sea (SCS)

It is one of the busiest waterways of the world connecting Asia with Europe and Africa. One third of global shipping, or a total of US$3.37 trillion of international trade, passes through the South China Sea. Its seabed is rich with natural resources like oil and natural gas. The US Energy Information Administration estimates the area containsContinue reading “About: South China Sea (SCS)”

About REITs

About REITs REITs are investment vehicles that own, operate and manage a portfolio of income-generating properties for regular returns. These are usually commercial properties (offices, shopping centres, hotels etc.) that generate rental income. An REIT works very much like a mutual fund. It pools funds from a number of investors and invests them in rent-generatingContinue reading “About REITs”

In focus: Space Debris from Mission Shakti

In focus: Space Debris from Mission Shakti Findings NASA has identified that India’s A-SAT missile test has generated around 400 pieces of pace debris. 60 are larger than 10cm in size and 24 are identified by NASA as potential threat to International Space Station (ISS) orbiting at the height of 410 km. NASA’s concern: ThreatContinue reading “In focus: Space Debris from Mission Shakti”

About Hyper-Spectral Imaging

About Hyper-Spectral Imaging Working • Hyper-Spectral Imaging is a combination of spectroscopy and digital imaging. • The sensors or cameras, mounted on UAVs, will take images in two wavelengths of the electro-magnetic spectrum, namely ‘visible light’ and ‘infrared’. • The images so takes will be run through ‘deep learning’ algorithms to process them into usable data. • The data so processed is thenContinue reading “About Hyper-Spectral Imaging”

About Sir Chhotu Ram (1881-1945)

About Sir Chhotu Ram (1881-1945)   Background In the early 19th century India witnessed immense agricultural indebtedness. With 2.3 million acres under agriculture in 1901-1902, Punjab was primarily an agricultural economy. Chhotu Ram is regarded as the champion of peasantry. He sought to empower peasantry politically, socially and economically. He also served as a distinguishedContinue reading “About Sir Chhotu Ram (1881-1945)”

How stock markets really work?

Headline : How stock markets really work? Details : What is Market Capitalisation? Market capitalisation or value is the price of individual shares multiplied by total number of shares in the issue. Companies have a dominant shareholder, which can be the government or some promoting group or a business family. Remaining shares are held by institutionsContinue reading “How stock markets really work?”

About Generations of Internet

About Generations of Internet The mobile wireless Generation (G) generally refers to a change in the nature of the system, speed, technology, frequency, data capacity, latency etc. Each generation has some standards, different capacities, new techniques and new features which differentiate it from the previous one. The journey of mobile wireless communication began with 1GContinue reading “About Generations of Internet”

Angkor Wat Temple

Angkor: Angkor, in Cambodia’s northern province of Siem Reap, is one of the most important archaeological sites of Southeast Asia. It was the capital of the Khmer Empire, which flourished from approximately the 9th to the 15th centuries. It contains the magnificent remains of the different capitals of the Khmer Empire. They include the famousContinue reading “Angkor Wat Temple”

2023 to be celebrated as international year of millets

Headline : 2023 to be celebrated as international year of millets Details : The News Acting on India’s proposal, the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) of the United Nations has agreed to celebrate ‘International Year of Millets’ in 2023   What are millets? Millet is a common term to categorize small-seeded grasses that are often termedContinue reading “2023 to be celebrated as international year of millets”

Hybrid material 

Why in News? The researchers of the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) synthesised a  hydrophobic (water hating) hybrid molecular material.   Hybrid material  The material was synthesised by combining polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) and diphenylalanine. The POSS molecule has unique properties of high thermal stability and fire retarding ability. Both POSS andContinue reading “Hybrid material “

In brief: Cruise Missiles v/s Ballistic Missiles

About Nirbhay Nirbhay is the long range sub-sonic cruise missile. It is 1st indigenously developed long range cruise missile flying at low altitudes. It is designed and developed by Advanced Defence Establishment of DRDO. It will arm the army, the navy and the air force. Features It flies at subsonic speeds of 0.7 mach. (speed ofContinue reading “In brief: Cruise Missiles v/s Ballistic Missiles”

Kavirajamargam and Vaddaradhane

Kavirajamargam Kavirajamargam (The Way of the King of Poets) was authored by Srivijaya. The work dates back to the 9th century. It has been translated by R.V.S. Sundaram and Deven M. Patel. Kavirajamargam is an extant work of early Kannada. It is regarded as one of the early works to address literary culture from aContinue reading “Kavirajamargam and Vaddaradhane”

Headline : Wars of the currency kind

Headline : Wars of the currency kind Details : Context Recently, RBI Governor Urjit Patel warned that the global trade war could escalate into a currency war. Trade Wars: A Background A trade war is when countries try to attack each other’s trade with taxes and quotas. Trade wars erupt when countries impose tit-for-tat tariffs onContinue reading “Headline : Wars of the currency kind”

Headline : Wars of the currency kind

Headline : Wars of the currency kind Details : Context Recently, RBI Governor Urjit Patel warned that the global trade war could escalate into a currency war. Trade Wars: A Background A trade war is when countries try to attack each other’s trade with taxes and quotas. Trade wars erupt when countries impose tit-for-tat tariffs onContinue reading “Headline : Wars of the currency kind”

Dear Zindagi Quotes: Keep this in Mind

“Don’t let your past blackmail your present, to ruin your beautiful future “Kabhi kabhi hum mushkil rasta sirf is liye chunte hai, kyun ki humein lagta hai, important cheezein paane ke liye humein mushkil rasta apnana chahiye. Apne aap ko punish karna bahut zaroori samajhte hai. But why? Aasaan rasta kyun nahi chun sakte? KyaContinue reading “Dear Zindagi Quotes: Keep this in Mind”

About Sickle-Cell Disease

About Sickle-Cell Disease The Red Blood Cells in the blood contains a protein called hemoglobin, which carries oxygen throughout the body. Normally,  hemoglobin is smooth, round, disk-shaped and flexible, allowing the RBCs to flow smoothly through our bloodstreams. In case of patients with sickle-cell disease, the gene that codes for hemoglobin is genetically mutated making theContinue reading “About Sickle-Cell Disease”

About Multidimensional Poverty Index

About Multidimensional Poverty Index The Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) was developed in 2010 by the Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative (OPHI) and the United Nations Development Programme. It replaced the previous Human Poverty Index. The global MPI is released annually by OPHI and the results published on its website. It is an internationalContinue reading “About Multidimensional Poverty Index”

About: Exotic live species

About: Exotic live species According to the advisory, the phrase “exotic live species” includes animals named under the Appendices I, II and III of the Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. It does not include species from the Schedules of the Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972. Approximately 5,800 species of animalsContinue reading “About: Exotic live species”

Virtual Autopsy: No cuts to body, no hurt feelings

Headline : Virtual Autopsy: No cuts to body, no hurt feelings Details : The News Forensic medicine team at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences is starting an experiment for virtual Autopsy. The project will be funded by ICMR under its new initiative to select 10 projects for funding under ‘Centre for Advanced Research andContinue reading “Virtual Autopsy: No cuts to body, no hurt feelings”

In Focus: Overseas Citizenship of India

The Overseas Citizenship of India (OCI) is an immigration status permitting a foreign citizen of Indian origin to live and work in India indefinitely. It was introduced by The Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2005, in response to the demands for dual citizenship by the Indian diaspora, particularly in developed countries. Eligibility: To apply for and use an OCIContinue reading “In Focus: Overseas Citizenship of India”

In focus: Pseudomonas putida (CSV86)

In focus: Pseudomonas putida (CSV86) Introduction Pseudomonas putidais a soil and water bacterium that thrives on organic compounds. They usually use carbon-based energy sources in plant roots for their metabolism. Usually these bacteria breakdown simple hydrocarbons like glucose for energy. The new strain CSV86 discovered have been found to breakdown complex hydrocarbons such as aromatic compounds. ProcessContinue reading “In focus: Pseudomonas putida (CSV86)”

Headline : What does the falling rupee mean for you and economy?

Headline : What does the falling rupee mean for you and economy? Details : Context Since the beginning of 2018 rupee has fallen by about 6 per cent in value against the US dollar hovering past ₹70 to a dollar.   What is meant by Depreciation of Rupee? Rupee is said have depreciated if we endContinue reading “Headline : What does the falling rupee mean for you and economy?”

In Focus: S&P Global Ratings

Global ratings agency S&P has retained India’s sovereign credit rating at BBB (minus) with a stable outlook for the 13th year in a row. The rating agency had in 2007 assigned a ‘BBB-’ rating to India and has been maintaining a stable outlook on India since September 2014. It pointed out that ongoing economic reforms, if executed well,Continue reading “In Focus: S&P Global Ratings”

Single mothers head 4.5% of all Indian households

Headline : Single mothers head 4.5% of all Indian households Details :   In News UN Women has released its flagship report ‘Progress of the world’s women 2019–2020: Families in a changing world’. It assesses the reality of families today in the context of sweeping economic, demographic, political, and social transformation. It also analyses key issuesContinue reading “Single mothers head 4.5% of all Indian households”

Drugs used in India to treat Covid-19

Remdesivir Remdesivir, which inhibits (prevents) viral replication, is an antiviral drug first developed for treating Ebola in 2014. It is one of the possible Covid-19 treatments being investigated in the WHO’s Solidarity Trial. Last month, the US National Institutes of Allergies and Infectious Diseases released preliminary trial results showing recovery time of Covid patients given remdesivir improvedContinue reading “Drugs used in India to treat Covid-19”

About New- generation anti-radiation missile (NGARM)

About New- generation anti-radiation missile (NGARM) NGARM is the first air-to-surface missile completely designed and developed by DRDO. The missile is capable of destroying enemy radars, tracking systems and communication facilities. It will be mounted on the combat aircraft of the IAF such as Sukhoi Su-30MKI and HAL Tejas. It can be launched from different altitudesContinue reading “About New- generation anti-radiation missile (NGARM)”

Figuring out COVID-19 terminology

Over the past few months, we have learnt about many scientific terms in relation to COVID-19. This is like a revision of glossary of terms that are being used now regularly. The disease and its spreadCOVID-19: It is name given by the World Health Organization (WHO) to the disease, that has become a global pandemic. The coronavirus disease 2019Continue reading “Figuring out COVID-19 terminology”

About: Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958

About: Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), under the Ministry of Culture, is the premier organization for the archaeological researches and protection of the cultural heritage of the nation. Maintenance of ancient monuments and archaeological sites and remains of national importance is the prime concern of the ASI. It regulates allContinue reading “About: Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958”

How India and Australia have elevated their ties Editorial 7th Jun’20 HindustanTimes

India-Australia Comprehensive Strategic Partnership: India and Australia agreed on Comprehensive Strategic Partnership at Virtual Leaders’ Summit between Prime Ministers Narendra Modi and Scott Morrison. The increased cooperation between the two countries and the trust and confidence made it possible to take the partnership to the next level. The new next level partnership reflects a historicContinue reading “How India and Australia have elevated their ties Editorial 7th Jun’20 HindustanTimes”

Endosulfan Pollution: A backgrounder

Endosulfan Pollution: A backgrounder Endosulfan is an organochlorine compound present in several pesticides used on crops like cashew, cotton, tea, paddy, fruits. Staring from 1978, endosulfan was aerially sprayed in the cashew plantations of Kasaragod district of Kerala as insecticide. By 1990s, in more than 20 gram panchayats in Kasargod district, endosulfan had caused serious illnesses to animals andContinue reading “Endosulfan Pollution: A backgrounder”

Headline : Understanding bad loans

Headline : Understanding bad loans Details : Context Former RBI Governor Raghuram Rajan explains the reason behind bad loans.   Highlights of the news Gross Non-performing Assets (NPAs) of banks rose to Rs 10.3 lakh crore in FY18, or 11.2% of advances. Banks wrote off a record Rs 1.44 lakh crore of bad loans in 2017-18.Continue reading “Headline : Understanding bad loans”

In Focus: GAVI, the Vaccine Alliance

Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance is a public-private global health partnership with the goal of increasing access to immunisation in poor countries. The Alliance brings together countries which introduce vaccines, donors, the WHO which sets standards for vaccines, manufacturers, UNICEF which manages procurement, the World Bank which manages funds and civil society which holds others toContinue reading “In Focus: GAVI, the Vaccine Alliance”

About World Environment Day

About World Environment Day World Environment Day is the largest celebration of environment started in 1974. It is celebrated on 5 June every year to spread awareness about the importance of environment and measure to be adopted to save it. UNEP provides leadership and encourages partnership among governments, the private sector, civil society and withContinue reading “About World Environment Day”

What is the GDP deflator?

Headline : What is the GDP deflator? Details : Gross Domestic product (GDP) GDP and its calculation Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services produced within the national borders of a country for a given period of time. As per National Income Accounting there are 3 ways to computeContinue reading “What is the GDP deflator?”

In Brief: Wildlife Crimes

In Brief: Wildlife Crimes Section 2(37) of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972, defines ‘wildlife’ to include any animal, aquatic or land vegetation which forms part of any habitat. Wildlife crime can be defined as taking, possession, trade or movement, processing, consumption of wild animals and plants or their derivatives in contravention of any international, regional, or nationalContinue reading “In Brief: Wildlife Crimes”

Headline : BASICS: Understanding inflation

Headline : BASICS: Understanding inflation Details : Why in News? India’s headline inflation measured by the Wholesale Price Index (WPI) rose 5.77% on a year-on-year basis to a 54-month high in June 2018.   Basic information: What is inflation? Inflation is defined as a sustained increase in the general level of prices for goods and servicesContinue reading “Headline : BASICS: Understanding inflation”

Gangetic Dolphin protection

  Measures Proposed for Gangetic Dolphin protection: The Ministry of Shipping has proposed mitigation measures based on Comprehensive Environmental and Social lmpact Assessment (ESIA) study on National Waterway-I including on stretches falling within VGDS. Vessel speed would be restricted to 2.7 knots in Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary (VGDS) area to reduce the noise generation from propeller.Continue reading “Gangetic Dolphin protection”

Simply Put: Why a currency war is a worry

Headline : Simply Put: Why a currency war is a worry Details : Context Recently, the RBI Governor warned that trade wars among various countries may lead to a currency war. What is Currency War? Currency war is a situation when economies, in order to maintain and preserve their export competitiveness, manage the exchange rates vis-à-visContinue reading “Simply Put: Why a currency war is a worry”


Pushkaram: Pushkaram is an Indian festival dedicated to worshiping of rivers. Celebrations/ceremonies include ancestor worship, devotional music and cultural programmes, spiritual discourses. It is also known as Pushkaralu (in Telugu), Pushkara or Pushkar. Hindus believe that taking a dip in the river during Pushkaram would wipe off all the sins. Happens each year at oneContinue reading “Pushkaram”

About New English School (NES) and About Deccan Education Society (DES)

About New English School (NES): Establishment: Vishnu Krushna Chiplunkar, who is remembered as the poet of Maharashtra’s nationalist revival for his ornate literary style, quit government service in 1879 and issued a call for the creation of a school run by Indians. Bal Gangadhar ‘Lokmanya’ Tilak, with Mahadev Ballal Namjoshi, volunteered as charter members of theContinue reading “About New English School (NES) and About Deccan Education Society (DES)”

The five Ps of disaster management Editorial 26th May’20 HindustanTimes

The five Ps of disaster management Editorial 26th May’20 HindustanTimes Destruction caused by Amphan cyclone: Amphan was the first super-cyclone in the Bay of Bengal after 1999 (ie, wind speeds beyond 220 kph). West Bengal chief minister (CM) even called Amphan “a bigger disaster than Covid-19”. In less than two days, Bengal lost an estimated Rs 1Continue reading “The five Ps of disaster management Editorial 26th May’20 HindustanTimes”

In brief: Most Trafficked Species

In brief: Most Trafficked Species More than 6,000 turtles and tortoises are smuggled every year through Malaysia, India, or Bangladesh. Indian Star tortoise Most trafficked tortoise High demand as exotic pet Found in abundance in scrub jungles across the southern peninsula Smuggled from Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Karnataka to Southeast Asia via Chennai Covered underContinue reading “In brief: Most Trafficked Species”

What is a World Heritage Site?

Importance What is a World Heritage Site? A World Heritage Site is a place on earth having a special cultural or physical significance and outstanding universal value to the humanity. It may be a building, a city, a complex, a desert, a forest, an island, a lake, a monument, or a mountain. They have beenContinue reading “What is a World Heritage Site?”

In focus: Impatiens in India

In focus: Impatiens in India Introduction Impatiens is a group of about 1000 angiosperms (flowering plants) species. They are commonly known by different names including balsams, touch me not, jewel weed etc. Distribution Impatiens is distributed in the tropical, sub-tropical and northern temperate regions of the world. It is found mainly in India, China andContinue reading “In focus: Impatiens in India”

About Victorian structures and Art Deco Buildings

About Victorian structures and Art Deco Buildings The Victorian buildings are amongst the finest and most cohesive group of 19th century Victorian Gothic in the world. The Art Deco of the 20th century is the second largest and homogenous collections in the world. The eastern edge of the property is defined by Mahatma Gandhi Marg and ShyamaContinue reading “About Victorian structures and Art Deco Buildings”

About United Nations Security Council (UNSC)

About United Nations Security Council (UNSC) The United Nations Security Council has primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security. It has 15 Members, and each Member has one vote. There are five permanent members: China, France, Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and 10 non-permanent members elected for two-year termsContinue reading “About United Nations Security Council (UNSC)”

Flood Hazard Atlas

Floods in Odisha The entire coastal belt of Odisha is vulnerable to both storm surges and river flooding. Also, few districts in the western and southern part of Odisha are prone to flash floods. According to NRSC, about 9% of land in Odisha was affected by floods during 2001-2018. Flood prone rivers of Odisha: Mahanadi, Brahmani, Baitarani, Subarnarekha, Rushikulya,Continue reading “Flood Hazard Atlas”

About: Compensatory Afforestation Fund (CAF)

About: Compensatory Afforestation Fund (CAF) A company diverting forest land must provide alternative land to take up compensatory afforestation. The amount to be paid by industry depends on the economic value of the goods and services that the razed forest would have provided. These include timber, bamboo, firewood, carbon sequestration, soil conservation, water recharge, andContinue reading “About: Compensatory Afforestation Fund (CAF)”

About United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR)

About United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR) UNDRR was established in 1999 as a dedicated secretariat to facilitate the implementation of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR). Objective: It works towards the substantial reduction of disaster risk and losses to ensure a sustainable future. Mandate: To serve as the focal point in theContinue reading “About United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR)”

In Focus: Land Degradation

In Focus: Land Degradation What is Land Degradation? Land Degradation can be termed as the degradation of the quality of land resulting in the reduction of fertility and crop production capacity of the land. Land degradation is driven by both by changes in climate or human activities. Globally, nearly one-third of the total geographical areaContinue reading “In Focus: Land Degradation”

In focus: Threat to Great Indian Bustard

In focus: Threat to Great Indian Bustard Introduction The Great Indian Bustard in India has witnessed a rapid decline in their numbers from 1500-2000 in the 1980s to barely 150 left currently.   About Great Indian Bustard Introduction The Great Indian Bustard is the flagship grassland species of India. It is one of the largest flying birds in theContinue reading “In focus: Threat to Great Indian Bustard”

About: Char Dham Highway Project

About: Char Dham Highway Project The Chardham Mahamarg Vikas Pariyojna, or the Chardham highway project, is an initiative to improve connectivity to the Char Dham pilgrimage centres (Gangotri, Yamunotri, Kedarnath and Badrinath) in the Himalayas. The Prime Minister had launched the construction of the Char Dham Mahamarg in December, 2016, as a tribute to thoseContinue reading “About: Char Dham Highway Project”

Advanced Towed Artillery Gun System (ATAGS)

News Summary: During the firing trial at Pokhran ranges, ATAGS has covered the longest ever distance of 48 kms. It has surpassed the maximum ranges of 35-40 kms fired by any artillery gun system in this category. The record was achieved with special ammunition, “high explosive – base bleed” (HE – BB). The next roundContinue reading “Advanced Towed Artillery Gun System (ATAGS)”

In Focus: Land Degradation

In Focus: Land Degradation What is Land Degradation? Land Degradation can be termed as the degradation of the quality of land resulting in the reduction of fertility and crop production capacity of the land. Land degradation is driven by both by changes in climate or human activities. Globally, 24 billion tonnes of fertile soil andContinue reading “In Focus: Land Degradation”


What are Microplastics? Plastic debris that is less than five millimeters in length is called “microplastics.”   Types and sources of Microplastics: Primary Microplastics: These are the microplastics which have been made as plastics less than 5mm in length. Microbeads are the type of primary microplastics which are less than 1mm in length. They areContinue reading “Microplastics”

About: SO2 Pollution

Headline : Coal-based power makes India largest SO2 emitter in world Details : In News: Greenpeace India has come up with a new report on sulphur dioxide pollution using NASA data from the OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) satellite. As per the report, India is the world’s largest emitter of anthropogenic sulphur dioxide (SO2), which is producedContinue reading “About: SO2 Pollution”

In focus: Fall Armyworm: A major food security threat

In focus: Fall Armyworm: A major food security threat Introduction Fall Armyworm is an invasive agricultural pest that affects multiple crops (about 80 crops) ranging from maize to sugarcane, rice, vegetables etc. It is native to tropical and sub-tropical Americas especially Brazil. Since it was first discovered in Nigeria in West Africa, it has spreadContinue reading “In focus: Fall Armyworm: A major food security threat”

Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972

Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 The Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted for protection of plants and animal species. The Act provides for the protection of wild animals, birds and plants; and for matters connected there with or ancillary or incidental thereto. Reforms done under the Act: Increase inContinue reading “Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972”

Headline : Is seawater the ultimate answer?

Headline : Is seawater the ultimate answer? Details : Context of the topic: With reports of major cities in India struggling to stave off a water crisis, there’s talk about exploring technologies to harness fresh water. The one idea that’s been around for a while is desalination, or obtaining freshwater from salt water. The city of ChennaiContinue reading “Headline : Is seawater the ultimate answer?”

In focus: Electric Vehicle Switch in India

In focus: Electric Vehicle Switch in India Earlier in June 2019, the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways announced the intention to completely switch to electric vehicles only in 2-wheeler and 3-wheeler segment in 4-6 years. The pending notification is seeking to propose sale of only electric vehicles in the 2-wheeler segment under 150cc fromContinue reading “In focus: Electric Vehicle Switch in India”

About Radio-frequency identification (RFID):

About Radio-frequency identification (RFID): Managing and locating important assets is a key challenge for almost any business. Radio-frequency identification (RFID) uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify, read and capture information stored on a tag attached to an object. There are two types of RFID Tags: Active RFID Tags: They are typically larger and more expensiveContinue reading “About Radio-frequency identification (RFID):”

About Heatwaves

About Heatwaves A Heat Wave is a period of abnormally high temperatures, which is more than the normal maximum temperature of a particular place. World Meteorological Organization: Heat wave is a situation when five or more consecutive days during which the daily maximum temperature exceeds the average maximum temperature by five degrees Celsius. The Indian MeteorologicalContinue reading “About Heatwaves”

Why Tigers are important for ecosystem?

Why Tigers are important for ecosystem? Tiger is a top predator which is at the apex of the food chain and keeps the population of wild ungulates in check, thereby maintaining the balance between prey herbivores and the vegetation upon which they feed. The extinction of this top predator is an indication that its ecosystemContinue reading “Why Tigers are important for ecosystem?”

Blue Flag Program

Blue Flag Program The Blue Flag Programme for beaches is run by the Copenhagen-based Foundation for Environmental Education (FEE). It started in France in 1985 and has been implemented in Europe since 1987. The campaign spread outside Europe, to South Africa, in 2001. It aims to promote sustainable development in freshwater and marine areas. TheContinue reading “Blue Flag Program”

What is Green House Effect?

What is Green House Effect? The greenhouse effect is a natural process that warms the Earth’s surface. When the Sun’s energy reaches the Earth’s atmosphere, some of it is reflected back to space and the rest is absorbed and re-radiated by greenhouse gases. The absorbed energy warms the atmosphere and the surface of the Earth.Continue reading “What is Green House Effect?”