About: Pfizer Vaccine

BNT162b2 is a vaccine that has been developed using mRNA technologye. it makes use of the messenger RNA molecules that tell cells what proteins to build. The mRNA, in this case, is coded to tell the cells to recreate the spike protein of the novel coronavirus. The coronavirus spike protein is a molecular machine that facilitates the entry of coronavirusContinue reading “About: Pfizer Vaccine”

Ban or regulate? Editorial 29th Jul’19 TheHindu

Headline : Ban or regulate? Editorial 29th Jul’19 TheHindu Details : Use of Cryptocurrencies  at this moment in a bit shady: Bitcoin, the most prominent among cryptocurrencies, has fluctuated wildly in value, even over short periods of time. As per some analysts, for now, “speculation remains Bitcoin’s primary use case”. Its use in illegal online marketplacesContinue reading “Ban or regulate? Editorial 29th Jul’19 TheHindu”

Everything about Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C

Headline : Hepatitis B and C major killers, but few know it Details : In News: On the World Hepatitis Day, the Union health minister pledged to join a campaign initiated by the Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences (ILBS) to create awareness about the disease. Context of the topic: In India, more people are dyingContinue reading “Everything about Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C”

Everything about EMISAT: Electronic Intelligence Satellite, PSLV-C45 Mission

Headline : PSLV to launch military’s eye in the sky Details : The News ISRO will launch India’s first electronic intelligence satellite, EMISAT onboard PSLV-C45.   PSLV-C45 Mission PSLV-C45 mission, for the first time, will launch satellites in 3 different orbits EMISAT, electronic intelligence satellite in the low earth orbit, 749 km above the surface ofContinue reading “Everything about EMISAT: Electronic Intelligence Satellite, PSLV-C45 Mission”

Everything about Commercial Surrogacy

Lok Sabha Passes Bill Banning Commercial Surrogacy Details : The News The Lok Sabha has passed the Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill 2016 that seeks to put a blanket ban on commercial surrogacy and regulate altruistic surrogacy in India. The bill was cleared by the Union cabinet in March 2018 after the recommendations of a Parliamentary StandingContinue reading “Everything about Commercial Surrogacy”

Everything about Mission Shakti

Headline : Successful anti-satellite missile test puts India in elite club Details : In News India successfully conducted an Anti-Satellite (ASAT) missile test, named Mission Shakti, becoming the fourth country in the world to demonstrate the capability to shoot down satellites in orbit. News Summary Under Mission Shakti, India demonstrated the capability to destroy a satelliteContinue reading “Everything about Mission Shakti”

Prelims Program: National Innovations on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA)

Headline : Prelims Program: National Innovations on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) Details :  Climate change: Problems faced in India Climate Change, caused by the increased concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere, has emerged as the most prominent global environmental problem. Most of the countries including India are facing the problems of rising temperature, melting ofContinue reading “Prelims Program: National Innovations on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA)”

A-SAT tech gives India diplomatic bargaining power Editorial 28th Mar’19 LiveMint

Headline : A-SAT tech gives India diplomatic bargaining power Editorial 28th Mar’19 LiveMint Details :  Anti-Satellite (ASAT) missile test: India has successfully conducted an Anti-Satellite (ASAT) missile test. Conducting the test under Mission Shakti, India demonstrated the capability to destroy a satellite in the low earth orbit (LEO) at about 300 km above the earth’s surface, using anContinue reading “A-SAT tech gives India diplomatic bargaining power Editorial 28th Mar’19 LiveMint”

What is Trachoma?

• It is a chronic infective eye disease caused by infection with the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis which is transmitted through contact with eye and nose discharge of infected people, particularly young children who are most vulnerable to the infection. • It is also spread by flies which come in contact with the infected person andContinue reading “What is Trachoma?”

Discuss the applications of biotechnology in the agriculture and allied sectors.

Approach Introduce by mentioning the need for biotechnology in agriculture and allied sectors Explain how biotechnology can be used in agriculture and allied sectors. Conclude appropriately. Model Answer : Agriculture along with its allied sectors is the largest source of livelihood in India. Biotechnology can be instrumental in improving productivity and modernising these sectors. TheContinue reading “Discuss the applications of biotechnology in the agriculture and allied sectors.”

Everything about Chandrayaan-2

• Chandrayaan-2, the lunar mission, will be launched in April this year. • Under this mission ISRO for the first time will attempt to land a rover on the Moon’s south pole. • In Chandrayaan-1 mission, ISRO has spotted water on the moon. • Chandrayaan-2 is a further extension of the project as it also involvesContinue reading “Everything about Chandrayaan-2”

Prelims- Q30. Consider the following statements:

Q30. Consider the following statements: 1. The image formed by a plane mirror is always virtual and erect. 2. An image formed by a convex mirror is always virtual, erect and diminished. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? A. 1 only B. 2 only C. Both 1 and 2 D. Neither 1 norContinue reading “Prelims- Q30. Consider the following statements:”

Quiz-Q23. Which of the following pairs is not correctly matched?

Q23. Which of the following pairs is not correctly matched? Enzymes Produced In A. Trypsin – Pancreas B. Pesin – Stomach C. Salivary Amylase – Saliva D. Lipase – Liver Answer: D Exp: The stomach is a large organ which expands when food enters it. The muscular walls of the stomach help in mixing theContinue reading “Quiz-Q23. Which of the following pairs is not correctly matched?”

Quiz-Q24- Asserssion and Reasoning Question

Paragraph: DIRECTIONS for Question No. 24: The following question consists of two statements, one labelled ‘Assertion’ (A) and the other labelled ‘Reason’ (R). Examine these two statements carefully and decide if the Assertion and the Reason are individually true and if so, whether the Reason is a correct explanation of the Assertion. Select your answerContinue reading “Quiz-Q24- Asserssion and Reasoning Question”

Quiz- Q10. With reference to Mitochondria, consider the following statements:

Q10. With reference to Mitochondria, consider the following statements: 1. They have their own DNA and ribosomes. 2. They are storage sacs of solid and liquid content. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? A. 1 only B. 2 only C. Both 1 and 2 D. Neither 1 nor 2 Answer: A Exp: MitochondriaContinue reading “Quiz- Q10. With reference to Mitochondria, consider the following statements:”

Quiz- Q16. Epidermis on the aerial parts of the plant often secretes a waxy layer to protect against:

Q16. Epidermis on the aerial parts of the plant often secretes a waxy layer to protect against: A. Loss of water B. Mechanical injury C. Invasion by parasitic fungi D. All of the above Answer: D Exp: The outermost layer of cells is known as epidermis. The epidermis is usually made of a single layerContinue reading “Quiz- Q16. Epidermis on the aerial parts of the plant often secretes a waxy layer to protect against:”

Artificial Intelligence and it’s application

Artificial Intelligence • It is a term coined in 1956 by John McCarthy at the Dartmouth conference, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. • It is an area of computer science that emphasises on the creation of intelligent machines that work and react like humans. • Some of the activities which computers with artificial intelligence are designed,Continue reading “Artificial Intelligence and it’s application”

Everything about INS Kalvari

INS Kalvari • INS Kalvari is a Scorpene-class submarine described as a “deadly predator”. • It is one of six built by Mazagon Dock Limited in Mumbai as a part of Project-75 of the Indian Navy. • Kalvariis a potent Man o’ War capable of undertaking offensive operations spanning across the entire spectrum of MaritimeContinue reading “Everything about INS Kalvari”

Everything about Missiles

What is a missile? A missile is essentially a sophisticated bomb which after being released is governed by the laws of ballistics. The laws of ballistics means only the force of gravity acts upon it. It can be made more accurate and faster by attaching a propulsion system to the bomb and then it isContinue reading “Everything about Missiles”

Everything about Aerial Refueling

Air to air refuelling It is also known as Aerial refuelling, air refuelling, in-flight refuelling and tanking. It is the process of transferring aviation fuel from one military aircraft to another during flight. During air-to-air refuelling, both aircraft must maintain accurate flying parameters. The two main refuelling systems are: Probe-and-drogue: It requires exceptional flying skills asContinue reading “Everything about Aerial Refueling”

Everything about World Malaria Report 2017 by WHO

The global figures • The report shows that there were 5 million more malaria cases in 2016 than in 2015. • The estimated global tally of malaria deaths reached 445,000 in 2016 compared to 446,000 the previous year. • The African Region continues to bear an estimated 90% of all malaria cases and deaths worldwide.Continue reading “Everything about World Malaria Report 2017 by WHO”

Everything about Umang App (Unified Mobile Application for New-age Governance (UMANG)

Umang (Unified Mobile Application for New-age Governance (UMANG) app: • It is a unified app to serve e-governance through mobile devices. • It is developed by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) and National e-Governance Division (NeGD). • It is to offer services of the central, state, local bodies and various government agenciesContinue reading “Everything about Umang App (Unified Mobile Application for New-age Governance (UMANG)”


TRAPPIST-1: It is an ultra-cool dwarf star about 40 light years away, located in the constellation Aquarius. It is named after the telescope that discovered this system – TRAPPIST (Transiting Planets and Planetesimals Small Telescop) in Chile. The planets have sizes and masses comparable to the Earth and Venus. It is an ultra-cool star (unlikeContinue reading “TRAPPIST-1:”


Dhruv: Dhruv has been indigenously designed and developed by the HAL, and is powered by the Shakti engine jointly developed with Turbomeca of France. It is a twin engine, multi-role, multi-mission new generation helicopter. It is superior to the other helicopters used by the Army such as Cheetah and Chetak, both of which have singleContinue reading “Dhruv:”


Hyperloop: It is a system where magnetically levitating capsules are sent at high speeds through low-pressure tubes. It was entrepreneur Elon Musk who came up with the idea for a hyperloop. The Hyperloop project is being pegged as a mode of transport different from rail, mainly due to following reasons: It is said to beContinue reading “Hyperloop”

International Treaties fro Hazardous Substance Management

Hazardous Substance Management To promote safe management and use of hazardous substance in order to avoid damage to the health and env. International conventions Basel convention – control the transboundary mvmt of hazardous waste Non binding agreement Reduce the movement of hazardous waste between nations Prevent transfer of hazardous waste from developed to less developed country USA,Continue reading “International Treaties fro Hazardous Substance Management”

CITES ( Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora)

CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between governments. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. Today, it accords varying degrees of protection to more than 35,000 species of animals and plants, whether they are tradedContinue reading “CITES ( Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora)”

Everything about Cyberwar?

What is Cyberwar? Cyberwar is a form of war which takes places on computers and the Internet, through electronic means rather than physical ones. With an increasing global reliance on technology for everything from managing national electrical grids to ordering supplies for troops, cyberwar is a method of attack which many nations are vulnerable to.Continue reading “Everything about Cyberwar?”

Everything about Surrogacy

What is surrogacy? Surrogacy is where a woman becomes pregnant with the intention of handing over the child to someone else after giving birth. Generally, she carries the baby for a couple or parent who cannot conceive a child themselves – they are known as “intended parents”. There are two forms of surrogacy. In traditionalContinue reading “Everything about Surrogacy”

Neutrino and Indian Neutrino Observatory

Neutrino Very similar to electrons Second most abundant particles after photon Don’t carry any charge Are not massless Neutrinos are miniscule particles created in nuclear reactions, such as in the birth and death of sun and the stars, or in nuclear power plants. Neutrinos interact with matter via the weak force. The weakness of thisContinue reading “Neutrino and Indian Neutrino Observatory”