Ratings Agency Q What is the context ? Finance Secretary has accused rating agencies of “double standards” when assessing emerging markets and developing economies. Fitch, a rating agency, has termed India as the most indebted emerging market. It claimed that the latest budget did not provide clarity on fiscal consolidation plans. Q What is a Rating Agency? Rating agencies assessRead more
Tag Archives: UPSC Mains Answers
Model Answer The Green Revolution in India began in the mid-1960s marking a transition from traditional agriculture in India and the introduction of high-yielding varieties of seeds and the associated agricultural techniques. The Main achievements of the Green Revolution are: Increase in Agricultural Production and productivity: The production and productivity of wheat, rice, maize and bajra has substantially increased. Less DependenceRead more
Q. Forest Fires pose a threat not only to the forest wealth but also to the entire regime. In view of this statement discuss the various adverse impacts of Forest Fires.
Model Answer Fires are a major cause of forest degradation and have wide ranging adverse ecological, economic and social impacts including: Effects of forest fire: Loss of valuable timber resources: Forest fires cause indispensable loss to timber and deteriorate its quality. Valuable timber species like teak, sal, chir, deodar, sheesam, rosewood etc. are adversely affected by fire. However, the adhesive impactRead more
Q. What is Budget Transparency? Scratching its genesis, discuss the benefits associated with budget transparency as well as the ways through which it can be promoted in functioning of a government?
Model Answer Budgets are key documents since they lay out a government’s priorities in terms of policies and programs. Opening up budgets and democratizing the budget process gives citizens a say in policy formulation and resource allocation. Budget transparency refers to the extent and ease with which citizens can access information about and provide feedback on government revenues, allocations, andRead more
Q. Comment upon the role of women in the Indian freedom struggle. How did the arrival of Gandhiji affect their participation in the political sphere?
Model Answer Indian freedom struggle was not only a political agitation for freedom but also an inclusive movement that included various sections of the society. The process of inclusion only intensified with the multidimensional role of women with renewed vigour after the arrival of Mahatma Gandhi. Role of Women in Indian Freedom Struggle – Earliest examples – Right from the revoltRead more
Q. In recent years the caste system in India is assuming new identities. In this light discuss the importance and challenges posed by caste system.
Structure of the answer: Introduction (about India’s caste system) Caste assuming new identities Importance of caste system Challenges of caste system Way forward Model Answer Caste is an endogamous group based on social hierarchy, where position of individual is ascribed by birth rather than achieved status. There are about 3,000 caste and 25,000 sub caste in India. In recent times the caste system is assumingRead more
Q. What are the different types of ecological succession? In this light also discuss the significance of ecological succession?
Structure of the answer: Introduction Types of ecological succession Significance of ecological succession Way forward Model Answer Ecological succession is the steady and gradual change in a species of a given area with respect to the changing environment. The ultimate aim of this process is to reach equilibrium in the ecosystem. The community that achieves this aim is called a climax community. Further, inRead more
Q. India’s quest to land its first spacecraft on the moon got off to a smooth start with the successful launch of Chandrayaan-2 mission aboard the country’s most powerful rocket – GSLV Mk-III. In light of this statement, discuss the significance of this mission.
Model Answer Chandrayaan-2 is India’s most challenging, totally indigenous, and India’s second mission to Moon. It is advanced version of previous Chandrayaan-1 mission (launched in 2008) which only involved orbiting around moon, Chandrayaan-2 is much complicated mission as it involves an orbiter, lander and rover. After reaching the 100 km lunar orbit, the Lander housing the Rover was to separateRead more
Q. Hate speech in India is a result of various facilitating factors. In this light discuss the impact of hate speech and suggestion to effectively deal with the same.
Structure of the answer: Introduction (Meaning) Factors supporting hate speeches Impact of hate speech Way for ward/ suggestion Model Answer Hate speech is incitement of hatred primarily against a group of people defined in terms of race, ethnicity, sexual orientation etc. The issue of hate speech has become a recurrent phenomenon especially before the elections. There are various factors facilitating hate speechesRead more
Q. Regionalism in India is a result of various interconnected factors. In this light discuss the various types regionalism in India and also suggest suitable measures to curtail negative impact of regionalism.
Structure of the answer: Introduction (regionalism) Factors responsible for regionalism Types of regionalism Conclusion/ way forward Model Answer Regionalism is a strong attachment to one’s own region. Thus, it is an ideology that seek to advance cause of a region. The rise of regionalism in India is a result of various factors: Historically, formation of various regional kingdoms and frequent regional warsRead more
Q. Discuss the various features of tropical cyclones. While mentioning the factors contributing in formation of tropical cyclone differentiate them from extra-tropical cyclones.
Structure of the answer: Introduction Features of tropical cyclone Factors contributing in formation of cyclones Difference between tropical and extra tropical cyclones Conclusion Model Answer Cyclone is an intense vortex or a whirl in the atmosphere with very strong winds circulating around it in anti-clockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere and in clockwise direction in the Southern Hemisphere. For Ex- Cyclone Titli Some of the special characteristics ofRead more
Q. Oceans are the major sources for multiple living and non-living resources that are useful for the growth of blue economy. In this light discuss the concept of Blue economy and its importance for India.
Structure of the answer: Introduction (Blue economy) Ocean as the source for various resources Importance of blue economy Final analysis Model Answer The concept of blue economy was given by Gunter Pauli. It is the sustainable use of ocean resources for economic growth, improved livelihoods and jobs and ocean ecosystem health. Thus, it advocates the greening of ocean development for purposes of higherRead more
Q. The amendment procedure under Indian Constitution is a curious mixture of rigidity and flexibility. In this light discuss the different procedure for amendment reflecting such blend.
Structure of the answer: Introduction (Article 368) Different types of amendment process Reflection of rigidity and flexibility Way forward Model Answer The nature of the amending process envisaged by the makers of our Constitution has been explained by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru as reconciliation of a written Constitution with Parliamentary Sovereignty. Article 368 (Part XX) of the Constitution deals with the power of Parliament toRead more
Q. World trade organisation (WTO) as a multilateral body is facing challenges on various counts. In this light discuss the relevance of WTO and also suggest suitable reform in its functioning.
Structure of the answer: Introduction (about WTO) Challenges faced by WTO Relevance of WTO Reform in functioning of WTO Model Answer WTO was set up under Marrakesh Treaty (1994) and as an organization aim to improve living standards, generate employment, and expand global trade. However, in recent years WTO is facing challenges on various counts such as: Consensus based rule making has become aRead more
Q. The town planning in Harappan Civilisation shows the high level of sophistication. In this light discuss the significant features of Harappan town planning. Also mention the various theories in relation to decline of the Civilisation.
Structure of the answer: Introduction Significant features High level of sophistication Decline of Harappan civilisation Model Answer The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC), also known as Harappan Civilization flourished around 2,500 BC in the western part of South Asia. The Harappan culture was distinguished by its system of town planning. Significant features of the Harappan town planning are as follows: Division of city into the Citadel e. mound builtRead more
Q. The term ‘governance’, ‘good governance’ and ‘ethical governance’ though looks similar, yet signifies different idea. In this background, differentiate the above-mentioned terms in light of governance structure in India.
Structure of the answer: Introduction Meaning of different terms with help of example Final analysis/ conclusion Model Answer The term ‘governance’, ‘good governance’ and ‘ethical governance’ appears to be used interchangeably and are intrinsically interlinked. Yet, each of them signify different meaning in their own sense. The same are discussed below with help of examples. The term ‘governance’ is defined as follows: It is the exercise of economic, political andRead more
Q. The British rule was marked by various Peasants movement. In this background discuss the impact of these movement on freedom struggle.
Structure of the answer: Introduction Various peasant movement in British era Impact of peasant movement on freedom struggle Conclusion Model Answer Peasant movement in India arose due to Britishers economic policies that resulted in the change of ownership of agrarian land, massive debt burden and impoverishment of peasantry. Thus, the peasants rose in revolt against this injustice on many occasions. Some ofRead more
Q. India is currently facing the issue of rising tsunami of e-waste. In this light discuss the challenges being posed by increasing e-waste and also suggest the suitable measures to tackle these challenges.
Structure of the answer: Introduction Rise of e-waste and issues relating to it Challenges posed by it Measures to handle such an issue Final analysis Model Answer Electronic waste/ e-waste is a term used for electronic products that have become unwanted, obsolete and have reached the end of their useful life. India generates near about 2 million metric tonne of e-waste annually andRead more
Q. In recent years there has been number of farmer protest around India demanding increase in Minimum support price (MSP). In this light discuss the effectiveness of MSP and need for replacing it with Price deficiency payment system.
Structure of the answer: Introduction Deficiencies in the MSP system Importance of price deficiency payment system Final analysis Model Answer MSP is the base price set by the Government and whenever the market prices fall below the announced MSPs, procurement agencies step in to procure the crop at the support price. In India, the MSP are recommended by the Commission for Agricultural Cost andRead more
Q. Considering the controversial nature of the position of the Governor, many experts have suggested abolishment of the Governor’s post. In this light discuss the arguments for and against such decision.
Structure of the answer: Introduction Controversial position of the Governor Arguments for abolishing the post Arguments against abolishing the post Final analysis Model Answer The Position of the Governor is controversial in light of emergence of concept of cooperative federalism. The issue has recently cropped up over controversial role of Governor in post-election scenario in Maharashtra and Karnataka. These events reflected that Governor’s interferenceRead more
Q. Explain how the American War of Independence had transformed the Europe and other parts of the world?
Model Answer The American Revolution of 1776 had transformed not only the America but also the Europe and other parts of the world. Its direct and indirect influences were felt worldwide in the time to come. The impact of the American Revolution was as follows: Ideological impact: The ideas of liberty, equality, fraternity were popularized all over the world as a resultRead more
Q. Recent international trend has been averse to the use of nuclear energy. In this light, discuss the reason inhibiting use of nuclear use energy. Also bring out the positive externalities arising from use of nuclear energy.
Structure of the answer: Introduction Reason for averseness to the use of nuclear energy Positive things in relation to use of nuclear energy Conclusion Model Answer Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam described nuclear power as a gateway to a prosperous future. However, World Nuclear Association has reported that nuclear electricity generation in 2017 was at its lowest level since 1999. Even, Germany has decided to closeRead more
Q. What do you understand by Emotional Intelligence(EI)? Highlight its significance, discuss the ways to develop EI among civil servants.
Approach: Explain the concept of Emotional Intelligence(EI) and discuss its components Highlight the significance and importance of EI for civil servants. Discuss the ways to develop EI among civil servants. Model Answer Emotional Intelligence (EI) refers to the capability of a person to recognize, understand and manage own emotions, as well as to understand, manage and influence emotions of others.Read more
Q. In the context of the world history, discuss the achievements of the Bolshevik Revolution of Russia.
Model Answer The Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 were the two phases of a single revolution where due to the prevailing widespread discontent, Lenin overthrew Kerensky’s government with the help of his revolutionary Red Guard on the night of 6th and 7th November 1917 and declared Russia as a communist nation. Other significant achievements of the Bolshevik revolution are as follows:Read more
Q. Women’s movement post-independence has covered a wide array of topics. In this background mention the issues covered by these movement and government response to the same.
Structure of the answer: Introduction Issues covered by women’s movement Government response to the same Final analysis Model Answer Women’s movement is an important variant of social movement that aimed to bring changes in the institutional arrangements, customs and beliefs in the society that subjugated women. The aim of theses movement changed over a period of time and the same isRead more
Q. Government has promised to double farmer’s income by 2022, in this light discuss the measures taken by government to implement the same. Also suggest suitable strategies to timely and sustainable achievement of this target.
Structure of the answer: Introduction Measures taken by government Suggestion Way forward Model Answer The government has set a target of doubling farmers’ income by 2022 to overcome the distressed situation of agriculture. The situation was evident after large scale farmer’s protest in various parts of India. The reorientation of strategy was needed due to following reasons: Earlier strategy focused primarilyRead more
Q. India has moved forward by providing fundamental rights of basic education through Right to Education (RTE) Act 2009. Analyse the challenges faced at primary level of Education in India. Also discuss the major reforms suggested at primary level in the recent draft education policy 2019.
Approach: Briefly write about Right to Education (RTE) Act 2009 and its current status. Discuss the challenges faced at primary level of Education in India. Discuss the major reforms suggested at primary level in the recent draft education policy 2019. Model Answer With 86th amendment, education was made fundamental rights of the citizen under Article 21(a). Right to education act 2009Read more
Q. The Government of India, through the Department of Science and Technology (DST), has released a draft of the new Scientific Social Responsibility (SSR) Policy. Discuss the objective of introducing SSR Policy and the benefits associated with it.
Model Answer India is going to be possibly the first country in the world to implement a SSR Policy on the lines of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Under the proposed policy, individual scientists or knowledge workers will be required to devote at least 10 person-days of SSR per year for exchanging scientific knowledge to society. Objectives The main objective ofRead more
Q. Describe briefly the features of bronze sculpture art that reached its zenith during the Chola era.
Approach: Introduce the Chola bronze art – why it is considered as the high stage of development Divide the answer into subparts – patronage, religious purpose, technology, and iconography Also mention various examples to substantiate the points Within the subparts, try to trace the chronological development. Model Answer The Chola period is well known for the aesthetic and technical finesseRead more
Q. What was the immediate trigger of the World War-I? What were the reasons for the breakout of the war? Comment
Model Answer World War-I has its roots in the assassination of a prince. On 28 June 1914, Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary was assassinated by a Serbian terrorist at Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia. Austria saw the hands of Serbia behind this and served Serbia an ultimatum. Serbia refused to accept one of the demandsRead more
Q. The Citizen’s Charter is an ideal instrument of organisational transparency and accountability. Identify the importance and components of Citizen’s Charter. Tracing out its limitations, suggest measures for its greater effectiveness.
Approach: Start introduction mentioning the challenges in public service delivery. Define Citizen’s Charter stating its importance and it components. Discuss the limitation in implementation of Citizen’s Charter. Discuss the measures to ensure its effective implementation. Model Answer The public service delivery of India faced a problem of bureaucratic corruption and delays. The government functioned in a very opaque and unaccountable manner. There existed aRead more
Q. The Britishers formed Indian National Congress (INC) to act as a safety valve. However, the Indians used the forum as a lightning conductor much to the whammy of Britishers. In this light the purpose behind formation of INC and the intention of Indians in respect of the same.
Structure of the answer: Introduction Safety valve theory/ Britisher’s intention on formation of INC Use of INC by Indians for propagating nationalist interest Conclusion Model Answer There is wide spread belief that reason behind the formation of INC was safety valve theory i.e. Britishers wanted to pacify the raising discontent among Indian masses through INC. The discontent among Indians was due to issues likeRead more
Approach: Briefly discuss about the code of ethics and the code of conduct. Differentiate between the given terms. Substantiate your answer with relevant examples. Model Answer Code of ethics and code of conduct specify the ethical standards that a group (e.g., staff or a professional group) should follow in order to continue as a member of the group. They areRead more
Q. What do you mean by climate forcing? Explain the factors that causes the Earth’s climate to change.
Approach: Explain the meaning of climate forcing and related phenomenon with relevant examples. Discuss various natural and anthropogenic causes of climate change. Conclude the answer, as per the context. Model Answer Any external factor that originates from outside the climate system and can become a cause of climate change is called Climate Forcing. These factors are specifically known as forcingsRead more
Q. The suburbanisation occurring at a relatively early stage of India’s urban development is creating new challenges for Indian cities. Enumerate the reasons and suggest remedies.
Approach: Brief introduction about suburbanisation phenomenon in most urbanising countries. Enumerating the reasons why it is occurring at a relatively early stage of India’s urban development. Highlight the challenges it is creating for Indian cities and suggest ways forward. Model Answer A 2013 World Bank report, “Urbanization beyond Municipal Boundaries”, found that suburban areas (or Suburbs) are generating higher economicRead more